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Mr. Jo. Greenhalgh to his friend Mr. Tho- 
mas Crompton. A Visit to the Jewish 
Synagogue established in London 3 

The Rev. Stephen Bing to Dr. Bancroft Dean 
of St. Pauls : upon the ravage of the Great 
Plague 22 

Mr. Bing to Dr. Bancroft. The Plague con- 
tinues. The Bishop of London endea- 
vours to recall the Pastors who had left 
their Churches 25 

Mr. Bing to Dr. Bancroft. The Sickness 
continues. One of the late King's Judges 
taken prisoner, but rescued. The disaf- 
fected take advantage of the confusion oc- 
casioned by the Plague 27 

J. TiUison to Dr. Bancroft. The Necessities 
of the Poor. The parish of St. Giles 
Cripplegate more severely visited by the 
Plague than any other in London 30 

Mr. TiUison to Dr. Bancroft. Further par- 
ticulars of the violence of the Plague .... 33 

J. TiUison to Dr. Bancroft. The great de- 
solation of the City 35 

King Charles the Second to the Duke of Or- 
mond, concerning the dismissal of Lord 
ChanceUor Hyde 38 



cccxvii. Dr. George Hickes to Dr. Patrick. The 

State of Affairs in Scotland 40 

cccxviii. Dr. Hickes to Dr. Patrick upon the same. . 45 
cccxix. Dr. Hickes to Dr. Patrick. Michell's Trial 47 
cccxx. Dr. Hickes to Dr. Patrick. Michell's Sen- 
tence and Execution 52 

cccxxi. Mr. Henry SaviU to his uncle Secretary 

Coventry 57 

cccxxii. The Duke of Monmouth to Sir Robert At- 

kyns, A. D. 1679 64 

cccxxiii. Dr. Zacheus Isham Dean of Christ Church 
Oxford, to Dr. Edmund Borlase. Ru- 
mours after the Dissolution of the Parlia- 
ment at Oxford 65 

c c cxxiv. Sir James Dick, Bart. Lord Provost of Edin- 
burgh, to Mr. EUies at London. The 
Duke of York shipwrecked on the Sand- 
bank called the Lemon and Ore 67 

cccxxv. Lady Rachel RusseU to 73 

cccxxvi to Mr. Ellis, Secretary of 

the Revenue in Ireland. Hampden said 
to be reprieved. Some of the Bishops 

falling out of favour 83 

c c cxxvii. The same to the same. Hampden reprieved. 
The Bishop of London in disgrace. A 
Pardon granted to Roman Catholic Officers 
for holding their commands without taking 

the Test 85 

cccxxviii. The same to the same. The Trial and Ac- 
quittal of Lord Delamere 86 

cccxxix. Samuel de Paz to John Ellis, Esq. Lord 
Delamere has an audience of the King. 
False Reports of Quo Warrantos issued 
against Cathedral Churches. Mrs. Sedley 
to be Countess of Dorchester. Sir Henry 
Waldegrave to be Baron Waldegrave ... 88 
cccxxx to Mr. EUis. Montague 













House burnt. Mr. Harbord ordered to 
surrender 89 

The same to the same. PubUc News. 
Countess of Dorchester. The Princess 

Anne. Pepys 90 

The same to the same. Judges and Ser- 
jeants changed. Disorders in London on 

account of Popery 93 

The same to the same. King James drinks 
the Church of England as estabhshed by 
Law. The Judgment in the Case of Sir 

Edward Hales ; . . 95 

The same to the same. The Appointment 
of Lords Commissioners for Ecclesiastical 

Jurisdiction 9g 

The same to the same. Bishop Compton 

called before the Lords Commissioners . . 98 
The same to the same. The Duke of Or- 

mond. Father Peters. Lord Tyrconnel 100 
The same to the same. The Affliction of 

the Princess of Denmark loi 

The same to the same. The Birth of the 

Prince 102 

The same to the same. D. of Monmouth's 

Chaplain pardoned 103 

The same to the same. King James at the 
Camp on Hounslow Heath. Pannel of 
the Jury at the Trial of the Seven Bishops. 

Various lesser News 104, 

The same to the same. Trial of the Bishops, 

who are brought in not guilty 106 

The same to the same. Disorders of the 

Populace upon the Acquittal of the Bishops 109 
Changes in the Privy Council, &c. The 
King dines at the Camp twice a week. 
The Prince declared Prince of ^Vales. 
Changes in Westminster Hall no 




cccxLiv. The same to the same. Joy at Rome upon 

the birth of the Prince of Wales ...,,.. 112 

cccxLv. The same to the same. The Departure of 
the Court. The Prince taught by the 
Marchioness of Powis his Governess to 
present a Petition to the King for in- 
creasing the Number of Hackney Coaches, • 
the revenue arising from which was to be 
appHed to the maintenance of Foundling 
Children. Circuits of the Judges. Ex- 
cesses of the Mob at Amsterdam upon the 
celebration at the English Consul's on the 
birth of the Prince of Wales 114 

cccxLVi. The same to the same. A Household esta- 
blished for the Prince of Wales. The ac- 
quitted Bishops hold Catechizings and 
Confirmations in their respective Bi- 
shopricks. Their example followed by 
the Roman Clergy ...* 116 

cccxLvii. The same to the same. Falsity of a Report 

concerning Father Peters 118 

cccxLviii. The same to the same. The Prince of Wales 

indisposed. The Judges and their Charges 119 

cccxLix. The same to the same. A Wet-nurse pro- 
vided for the Prince of Wales. Death of 

Henry Carre. Various News 120 

cccL. The same to the same.. The Prince of Wales 
recovered. His Wet-nurse has a Go- 
verness to look after her 122 

cccLi. The same to the same. The Queen Dowager 123 
cccLii. The same to the same. Writs to be issued 

for the Parliament ibid. 

cccLiii. The same to the same. Court News. Mr. 
Skelton the late Envoy at Paris committed 
to the Tower 124 

cccLiv. The same to the same. Mr. Skelton. The 

Mayor of Scarborough tossed in a Blanket 125 




cccLV. The same to the same. The Mayor and 
Aldermen of London address the King 
and Queen. The King's Address to them 

respecting the Dutch Fleet 126 

cccLvi. The same to the same. The Prince of Orange 

reported to be upon the point of embarking 127 

cccLvii. The same to the same. The King's Procla- 
mation concerning the intended Invasion 
of the Dutch. The Dukes of Ormond and 
Berwick have the Garter. Hearing before 
the CouncU concerning the tossing of the 
Mayor of Scarborough in a blanket ibid. 

cccLViii. The same to the same. The Charter of the 

City of London restored 129 

cccLix. The same to the same. Coffee Houses and 
other Houses which dealt in News sup- 
pressed 130 

cccLX. The same to the same. Description of the 

Dutch Fleet. Measures taken for defence ibid. 
cccLXi. The same to the same. The Society of Mag- 
dalen College Oxford restored. Imprison- 
ment of Hubert Bourke. Various news. . 132 

cccLXii. The same to the same. The General News 

of the day 135 

cccLXiii. The same to the same. The Prince of Orange 

driven back 137 

CCCLXI V. The same to the same. The Council ordered 
to wait upon the Prince and Princess of 
Denmark with the depositions concerning 
the Birth of the Prince of Wales. The 
Prince of Orange's Declaration dispersed 
about the Town. Reports of the Dutch 
Fleet 138 

CCCLX V. The same to the same. The Dutch arrive 

upon the Coast of Devonshire 141 

c c c LX V I . The same to the same. The Prince of Orange 

at Exeter 142 



cccLXvii. The same to the same. The Prince of Orange 
still at Exeter. The general state of 
AflPairs 143 

cccLxviii. The same to the same. Lord Lovelace taken 
in his way to join the Prince of Orange. 
Dr. Burnet reads the Prince's Declaration 
at Exeter. News from the West 146 

cccLXix. The same to the same 149 

cccLXX. The same to the same. General News. . . . 150 

cccLXXi. The same to the same. Reports and In- 
formation of the Day 152 

cccLXxii. The same to the same. Continuation of News 154 

cccLXXiii. The same to the same 157 

cccLXXiv to John EUis_, Esq. More 

News 159 

cccLxxv. . to Mr. EUis. Storms. 

The Prince of Orange's movements. The 
Rising in Cheshire 161 

cccLXXvi. The same to the same. The King returns. 
The Princess Anne withdraws herself. 
General News 164 

cccLxxvii. The Princess Anne to the Queen ; apologizes 

for absenting herself 166 

cccLXxviii to John EUis^ Esq. The 

Queen and Prince gone for France. The 
King follows. The Prince of Orange - 
generally declared for 167 

cccLxxix to John EUis, Esq. 

The Prince of Orange invited to Town. 
Tumults of the Mob. The Army dis- 
banded. The Prince of Orange's Pro- 
posals. Lord Chancellor JefFerys taken 
in disguise 170 

cccLXXx to John Ellis, Esq. King 

James returns from Feversham. Arrival 
of the Queen and Prince at Ostend. 
Princess Anne's entry into Oxford 175 










The same to the same. King James's final 
retirement from Whitehall. The Prince 
of Orange at St. James's 179 

The same to the same. King James ar- 
rives in France 185 

The Earl of Melfort to Mr. Innes from 
Rome. The Circulation of the Gun Money 
in Ireland 186 

The Earl of Melfort to Father Maxwell ... 189 

The Earl of Melfort to the Queen of James 
lid. Anxiety for the confirmation of the 
News that the Battle of the Boyne had 
been gained by James. His Advice as 
to the first steps to be taken upon EngUsh 
ground 190 

The Earl of Melfort to the Queen, from 
Rome ; still in suspense 198 

The Earl of Melfort to King James the 
Second from Rome , 200 

The Earl of Melfort to Mr. Innes; intro- 
duces an Irish priest of the name of Rich- 
ard Molony 207 

Mr. Theophilus Harrison to the Rev. John 
Strype 209 

King William the Third to 

His discontent with the ParUament. 
Changes proposed for Ireland 214 

Charles Lyttelton to his father Sir Charles 
Lyttelton upon the conduct of Louis the 
XlVth. after the death of King James 
the Second 217 

Sir George Rooke lo Prince George of Den- 
mark : after the taking of the Vigo Gal- 
leons by the EngUsh Fleet, Oct. 12th, 1702 223 
Lord Tarbat to Queen Anne. He tenders 

his Resignation as Secretary for Scotland 225 
The Duke of Queensberry to Queen Anne, 




upon the debating of the Act of Security 

in the Parliament of Scotland 227 

cccxcv. The Duke of Queensberry to Queen Anne ; 

again upon the Act of Security. A Plot 

to overturn the Government discovered. . 230 

cccxcvi. The Duke of Queensberry to the Queen, 

upon the Rising of the Parliament. Again 

upon the supposed Plot 236 

cccxcvii. Dr. D'Avenant to his Son, after the News 
of the Battle of Hochstet, otherwise called 
the Battle of Bleinheim, had arrived in 

London 241 

cccxcviji. Prince George of Hanover, afterwards King 
George II., to Queen Anne, upon his re- 
ceiving the Order of the Garter 246 

cccxcix. Prince George of Hanover to Queen Anne, 
upon receiving his Patent as Duke of 
Cambridge. Comphmentary upon the 

Union with Scotland 247 

cccc. Lord Sunderland to the Duke of Newcastle. 
Proposes to make a stand in ParUament, 
or the Prince of Wales wiU be brought in 249 
COCCI. Lord Sunderland to the Duke of Newcastle. 
The Resolution of certain Peers to declare 
against the Court. The Removal of 
Prince George of Denmark from his 
Office of Lord High Admiral projected . 251 

ccccii. Dr. White Kennett, afterwards Bishop of 

Peterborough, to 255 

cccciii. The Earl of Sunderland to the Duke of 
Newcastle. The Death of Prince George 
of Denmark. Official Changes 257 

COCCI V. The Duke of Marlborough to 

The dismal aspect of affairs 259 

ccccv. Robert Harley, Esq. to the Elector of Han- 
over. His devotion to the Elector's Per- 
son and Serene House 260 













The Elector's Answer to Mr. Harley 261 

Robert Harley, Esq. to the Elector of Han- 
over, in return to his Highness's Answer 262 

The Duke of Buckingham to the Elector of 
Hanover. Offers his humble and zeal- 
ous service 264 

Mr. Harley, now Earl of Oxford, to the 
Elector of Hanover. The Queen's care 
of the Elector's interest 266 

The Princess Carohne, afterwards Queen 
of England, to Queen Anne 267 

Secretary Bromley to the Princess Sophia. . 268 

The Earl of Oxford to Baron Wassenaar 
Duyvenworde. Against any branch of 
the Elector's Family coming over with- 
out the Queen's consent 269 

Archbishop Dawes to the Princess Sophia. 
The zeal of himself and the Clergy for the 
Protestant succession 271 

Lord Chancellor Harcourt to Baron Schutz. 
The Writ of Summons for the Duke of 
Cambridge 272 

The Earl of Oxford to the Elector of Han- 
over, after " the accident respecting the 
Writ". 273 

The Elector of Hanover to Queen Anne an- 
nouncing the loss of his Mother 275 

The Elector of Hanover to the Lord Trea- 
surer Oxford upon the same 276 

The Prince Elector to Queen Anne : to be 
restored to favour 277 

The Elector of Hanover to the Lord Trea- 
surer Oxford, upon the necessity for the 
presence of some Prince of his House in 
England, to secure the Queen and her 
Dominions against the designs of the 
Pretender , 278 












Dr. White Kennett, afterwards Bishop of 
Peterborough, to Dr. Samuel Blackwell. • 
King George the First expected from Han- 
over. The Queen's Interment ordered. 
Divisions of Interest upon, and Applica- 
tions for Church Preferment 285 

Archbishop King to Archbishop Wake. The 
Prince of Wales, afterwards King George 
lid. chosen Chancellor of the University of 

Dublin 289 

Archbishop King to Archbishop Wake, after 
the death of the Archbishop of Tuara. 
State of the Clergy in his Diocese. The 
" Quarta Pars Episcopalis" 291 

Bishop Kennett to Mr. Samuel Blackwell. 
The King's preparations to go to Hanover 298 

Dr. White Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. The 
Princess of Wales has a severe confine- 
ment 299 

Bishop Kennett to the Rev. Mr. Blackwell. 
King George the First's intention to make 
a Progress to Yorkshire. Trials of the 
Rebels 301 

The same to the same. The Princess re- 
covered 302 

Dr. Kennett to the Rev. Mr. Blackwell. The 
King returned from Hanover 303 

Dr. White Kennett to Dr. Blackwell. Pro- 
ject of Charles Xllth. of Sweden for the 
Invasion of England. The Court quiet 804 

The same to the same 306 

Dr. Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. The King 
of Sweden a less bugbear ib. 

Dr. Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. Bangorian 
Controversy. King George the First . . . 307 

Dr. Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. General 
News 308 















Dr. Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. The Princess 
near her confinement 309 

The same to the same ih. 

Dr. Thomas Tiidway to Mr. Humphry 
Wanley, Lord Oxford's Librarian. Dr. 
Bentley's behaviour when the King went 
to Cambridge 311 

The same to the same. Still upon Dr. Bent- 
ley 312 

Archbishop King to Archbishop Wake. The 
Differences at Court 315 

Archbishop King to Archbishop Wake. Still 
upon the Court differences 316 

Bishop Nicolson to Archbishop Wake : de- 
tails his Journey to take possession of the 
See of Derry 317 

Jos. Wilcocks to Bishop Kennett, from. Han- 
over. An Account of what was passing 
there during the King's Visit in 1720 . . . 320 

Dr. Nicolson, Bishop of Derry, to Arch- 
bishop Wake. The effects of the South 
Sea Scheme upon Ireland SS* 

Dr. King, Archbishop of Dublin, to Arch- 
bishop Wake. Still upon the Affair of the 

South Sea Company 325 

The Archbishop of Dublin to Archbishop 

Wake, upon the same 327 

Dr. King, Archbishop of Dublin, to Arch- 
bishop Wake. The effect of the South 
Sea Failure still continues in Ireland .... 329 

Dr. Nicolson, Bishop of Derry, to Arch- 
bishop Wake. The new Irish Half- 
pence . . . K ; 330 

Dr. Nicolson, Bishop of Derry, to Archbishop 
Wake. Apprehension of losing all the 
Gold and Silver in Ireland in exchange 








for Halfpence and Farthings. Debates 
upon it in the Commons of that King- 
dom 332 

The same to the same. The panic in Ire- 
land increases. Dean Swift prints his Let- 
ters on the subject 333 

The same to the same. Leagues and De- 
clarations among the Shopkeepers, &c. of 
Ireland, against Wood's Halfpence 334 

The same to the same. Further Associations 
against the Currency of Wood's Money 336 

The same to the same. The Address of the 
Irish Parliament upon his Majesty's fa- 
vour in the matter of Wood's Patent. . . . 338 

The Duke of Wharton to Lady Jane Holt 
his sister. Endeavours to extenuate his 
conduct 339 

Major General Moyle to the Duke of New- 
castle, upon the Seizure and Execution of 
Captain Porteous by the Mob at Edin- 
burgh 347 

Dr. Edward Chandler, Bishop of Durham, 
apparently to the Archdeacon of North- 
umberland. The Rebels approaching 
from the North. The spirit of the dif- 
ferent Counties 351 

Duncan Forbes Lord President of the Court 
of Session in Scotland, to Mr. Mitchell. 
The State of Edinburgh after the Suc- 
cesses of the Rebels there and at Preston 
Pans 353 

Duncan Forbes, Lord President, to Mr. Mit- 
chell. Mr. Gordon. The want of sup- 
plies wherewith to oppose the Rebels . . . 357 

Andrew Mitchell Esq. to the Earl of Hol- 
dernesse. Collins, the courier for England, 




robbed of his Despatches at the Gate of 
Berlin 367 

ccocLTii. Mr- Mitchell to the Earl of Holdernesse. 
His Interview with the King of Prussia 
respecting the lost Despatches 370 

ccccLviiL Mr. Mitchell to the Earl of Holdemesse- 

The discovery of the Thief 372 

cccTLix- Mr. Mitchell to the Earl of Holdernesse. 
The Stealer of CoUins's Portmantle 

brought to Berlin 376 

ccccLX. Robert Symmer, Esq. to Mr, Mitchell. The 

Toulon Squadron sailed for Port Mahon 373 
ccccLXi. Mn Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The unac- 
countable behaviour xrf the English Fleet 379 

ccccLxii. Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The 
arrival of Admiral Byng's Despatches, 
Hie neglect to relieve Pari Mahott after 
beating the French. Reinforcements sent 
out The Public despond 381 

ccccLxm. Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchdl. The con- 
tinuance of Public disappointment 386 

fCCCLXiv. Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. Port Mahon 
lost. The Indignation againpt Admiral 
Byng's conduct, general 387 

ccccLXV. The Earl of Holdernesse to Andrew Mit- 
chell, Esq. A Change taking place in the 
Administration 389 

ccecLKVi. The Earl of Holdernesse to Mr. Mitchell, 
His Lordship at the head of the Admini- 
stration 390 

ccccLKVii. Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. Admiral 

Byng capitally rom'icted 392 

ccccLxviii. Mr. Symmer to Mr. MitcheH. The rigor 

of Admiral Byng's Sentence 395 

jCCCCLXix, Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The Opinion 
of the Judges tajcen upon Admiral Byng'a 

Sentence 39? 

VJt)L. IV. SEB. 2. h 
















Mr, Symmer to Mr. Mitchell, A Motion 
made in the House of Commons for the 
mitigation of the rigor of Admiral Byng's 
Sentence. The Examination of the Mem- 
bers of his Court Martial by the Lords. . 398 

Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. Admiral 
Byng has but three days to live 40S 

The Right Hon. William Pitt, afterwards 
Earl of Chatham, to Mr. Mitchell. Ex- 
presses his attachment to, and admiration 
of the King of Prussia 404- 

Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The King 
and the Duke of Cumberland have the 
Gout for the first time 40^ 

Mr. Pitt to Mr. Mitchell, The King of 
Prussia intercedes for the Pardon of the 
Lord Marischal. Mr. Pitt's veneration 
for the King of Prussia 407 

Lord Holdernesse to Mr. Mitchell, upon the 
Pardon of the Lord Marischal 410 

Mr. Pitt to Mr. Mitchell. His respect and 
reverence for the King of Prussia 411 

Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The Ex- 
penses of the War. Lord George Sack- 
ville disgraced 413 

Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The death 
of General Wolf 414 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The 
Union between the Duke of Newcastle and 
Mr. Pitt 4U 

Mr. Mitchell to the Earl of Holdernesse. 
The Court of France uses the pen of 
Voltaire to draw Secrets from the King of 
Prussia. The King of Prussia's character 
of Voltaire 417 

The Right Hon. William Pitt to Mr. Mit- 












chelh Expresses his joy at the King of 
Prussia's Successes 420 

J. Wright, Under Secretary of State, to Sir 
Andrew Mitchell. The Reports upon 
King George the Second's Will 422 

General Yorke to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The 
opening of the Reign of George the Third 425 

Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. . . 430 

Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 
The Administration settled 432 

Colonel Grseme to Mr. Mitchell, upon Lord 
Harcourt's Journey to demand the hand 
of the Princess of Mechlenburg Strelitz . . 434 

•Colonel Grteme to Mr. Mitchell. Prepara- 
tions for the Princess's Journey 437 

The Earl of Harcourt from the Court of 
Strelitz, to Mr. Mitchell at Magdeburg. 
Preparations for bringing the Princess, 
afterwards Queen Charlotte, to England 438 

Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 
Mr. Pitt's Resignation of the Seals 441 

Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 
Lady Hester Pitt created a Peeress. Mr. 
Pitt receives a Pension. Ministerial 
changes 4 i4 

Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 
New Administration under Lord Bute. 
The Duke of Newcastle's Audience from 
the King upon his Resignation 445 

Mr. Symmers to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 
The Birth of the Prince of Walea 447 

The King of Prussia to Sir Andrew Mitchell, 
upon the taking of the Havannah 448 

Mr. Symmer to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The 
Preliminaries of the Peace of 1762 arrive 
ratified : . U9 













Mr. Symmer to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The 
state of Parties. The Duke of Newcastle's 
sacrifice of Emolument. A Victory gained 
by Admiral Keppel 452 

Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 
Still on the State of Parties in the Debate 
upon the Peace . . < 455 

Lord Barrington- to Mr. Mitchell. The 
subject of the Peace continued 458 

Frederick the Great of Prussia to Sir An- 
drew Mitchell, upon his receiving a Copy 
of the Treaty of Peace of 1763 460 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. Lord 
Bute's retirement from Office. He details 
the Changes of the Administration which 
were to take place the next day 461 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell; upon the 
further Changes of Administration 463 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The 
Affair of "a worthless man named Wilks' 464 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The 
Death of Lord Egremont 465 

Lord Barrington to Sir Andrew Mitchell. 
Mr. Pitt's unreasonable tertitis. His failure 
in negociation for Office 466 

Mr. Erskine to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. De- 
tails explanatory of the preceding Letter 467 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The 
King's Message on the subject of Wilks. 
Mr. Pitt's Speech upon the Address in 
consequence. The Duke of Newcastle . . 472 

Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 
General News 475 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. Wilks 
and the North Briton, No. 45 476 

Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. Michel, 
















the Prussian Minister in England, re- 
called 479 

Mr. Stuart Mackenzie to Sir Andrew 
Mitchell : upon his removal from the 
Privy Seal of Scotland 480 

The Rev. William Cole to Mr. Alban Butler, 
President of the English College at St. 
Omers. The State of Society in France. 
Rousseau in England 483 

Mr. Alban Butler to the Rev. William Cole, 
from St. Omers, in answer 488 

Lord Barrington to Sir Andrew Mitchell. 
A fresh Change in Administration. Mr. 
Stuart Mackenzie has the Privy Seal 
again 491 

General Conway to Sir Andrew Mitchell. 
His Majesty's Proposition to form a 
System in the North which may counter- 
balance the Family Compact 492 

The Earl of Chatham to Sir Andrew 
Mitchell; on the proposed Confederacy 
of the North 495 

Sir Andrew Mitchell to the Earl of Cha- 
tham. He details the substance of a 
Conference with the King of Prussia . . . 498 

General Conway to Sir Andrew Mitchell; 
upon the coldness with which the King 
of Prussia received the Proposal for a 
Northern Confederation 500 

Sir Andrew Mitchell to the Earl of Chatham. 
Relates a private Conversation with the 
King of Prussia « 503 

Mr. Wroughton to Mr. Mitchell from Po- 
land. A Mistake about a Cypher 506 

General Conway to Sir Andrew Mitchell. 
The King receives a Letter by the Post 





ETTEll 1AG£" 

from an English Sailor. His Majesty's 

Orders upon it .- 507 

i)xx. James Richardson, an English Sailor, forcibly 
detained in the King of Prussia's ser- 
vice, to his Majesty King George Hid.. . 509 
Bxxi. Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. The 
King of Prussia still insensible to the ad- 
vantages of the proposed Confederacy. . . 513 
axxii. Lord Rochford to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The 
Expulsion of Mr. Wilks from the House 

of Commons « 515 

Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Cathcart at 
St. Petersburgh. Baron Dimsdale's re- 
ception at Potsdam 516 

Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. 

Count Kamcke fond of Agriculture 518 

Lord Rochford to Sir Andrew Mitchell. A 
Contest at the Ball at Court for pre- 
cedence, between the French and Russian 

Ambassadors 519 

Dxxvi. Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. The 
King of Prussia's approbation of General 

Paoii's conduct 522 

Dxxvii. Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. 
His detail of a Conversation with the 

King of Prussia 523 

toxxviir. Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. 
The King of Prussia's " Dialogue de 
Morale." His Majesty takes Medicines 

of his own prescription 526 

Dxxix. Lord Barrington to Sir Andrew Mitchell. 
The Entry of Lord North into Admini- 
stration 529 

i)xxx. Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. 
The French advise the Pretender to go to 
the English Colonics 520 






pxxxvi . 



Lord Barrington to Sir Andrew Mitchell. 
The general state of Affairs. Wilks and 
the Bill of Rights forgotten 529 

The Rev. Dr. Lort to Mr. Cole. Lord Cha- 
tham has a Fit in the House of Lords . . 531 

Mrs. Bristow to General ^Vashington, re- 
specting a Memorial in favour of her Son, 
aa infant, whose hereditary estates in 
America had been confiscated ib. 

General ^Fashington to Mrs. Bristow in 
return 533 

General Washington to Mrs. Bristow. The 
final Answer upon the decision made by 
the Assembly of Virginia 535 

The Right Hon. Edmund Burke to John 
Wilmot, Esq. on the Subscriptions raised 
for the Relief of the French Emigrant 
Clergy 536 

The Right Hon. Edm. Burke to John Wil- 
mot; Esq. 540 

-Mr. Burke to John AVilmot, Esq 542 




VOL. IV. SER. 2. 

Few Letters are here given of the Reign of CHARLES the SECOND : 
but those few will be found important. They chiefly concern the re-ad- 
mission of the Jews amongst us as a People ; the Ravage of the Plague 
of 1065 ; and the Conduct of the Scotish Covenanters. 

In the former Series the King's Protestant death was recorded. In 
this, Father Hudleston's Relation is preserved of the administering the 
last rites to him of the Romish Church. 

Among the King's Pamphlets in the Museum, there is a Tract con- 
sisting of two Letters of King Charles the Second when Prince, one to 
his Sister, the other to his brother-in-law the Prince of Orange, printed 
in 1642. There can be no reason for doubting their authenticity. They 
were probably printed to set off the Prince, who was then not twelve years 
old. The Letter to his Sister is here given. 

" To the hands of the Lady Marie, Princesse of Aurania, these present. 
" Most Royal Sister, 

" Methinks, although I cannot enjoy that former happiness which I 
was wont in the fruition of your society, being barred those joys by the 
parting waves ; yet I cannot forget the kindness I owe unto so dear a 
sister as not to write, also expecting the like salutation from you, that 
thereby (although a while dissevered) we may reciprocally understand of 
each other's welfare. J could heartily, and with a fervent devotion, wish 
your return, were it not to lessen your delights in your loyal spouse the 
Prince of Orange, who as I conceived by his last Letter, was as joyful 
for your presence, as we sad and mourning for your absence. 

" My Father is very much disconsolate and troubled, partly for my 
Royal mother's and your absence, and partly for the disturbances of this 
Kingdom. I could wish and daily pray that there might be a conjunct 
and perfect uniting between my Father's Majesty and his Parliament, 
that there might be a perfect concordance with them in the subject, to the 
removal of the grievances of the Country, and the renewing of our de- 
cayed joys. For during the variance betwixt them, this Kingdom must 
of necessity lie under most palpable danger through fear of foreign or 
domestic enemies, they having now the lamps of the all discerning Par- 
liament darkened, through the inconvenience of the many combustions ' 
now on foot 

" As for the Militia of the Kingdom, it is not yet determined upon 
nor settled ; which of itself is one of the principal fortitudes wherewith 
this Kingdom is adorned. 

" Ireland was never in more danger than now of late, there being many 
Towns in the Province of Asper taken by the rebels ; others indangered. 
But the last intelligence presented us with better news, wherein we un- 
derstand of a fatal overthrow given the rebel's party, to their loss of ten 
thousand men; wherein O'Neal was supposed to be taken prisoner, 
Colonel Brunslow and divers other of their Officers likewise following 
him in his sad misfortune. 

" Dear Sister, we are, as much as we may, merry ; and, more than we 
would, sad, in respect we cannot alter the present distempers of these 
turbulent times. 

" JMy Father's resolution is now for York ; where he intends to reside 
to see the event or sequel to these bad inprospitious beginnings ; whither 
you may direct your Letter. Thus much desiring your comfortable 
answer to these my sad Lines, I rest 

Royston, March 9, Your loving Brother, 

J 642. Carol. Princcps.^^ 




Mr. Jo. Greenhalgh to his friend Mr. Thomas Cromp- 
ton. A Visit to ike Jewish Synagogue established 
in London. 

[MS. LANSD. 988. fol. 184b.] 

*^* The exact time when the Jews were suffered to return to England, 
as a People, has been disputed. 

Burnet expressly says, that a company of Jews was brought over into 
England by Oliver Cromwell, and that he gave them leave to build a Syna- 
gogue. * Tovey, in his Anglia Judaica, denies this, and states upon the 
authority of the Rabbi Netto, who, in his time, was the Governor of the 
S}mag(^ue, that even so late as 1663 the whole number of the Jews in 
London did not exceed twelve. He expressly adds that King Charles 
the Second was their Introducer. 

The Letter here given to the reader lends its assistance to clear this 

It certainly shows that in 1 662 the Jews were existing in liondon, 
with a Synagogue built after the fashion of their own worship ; that the 
congregation which the writer saw assembled, consisted of a hundred 
Jews besides women ; that they were not people who appeared as strag- 

> Hist, of his own Time, vol. i. p. Tl. 



alms sojourners, but gentlemen and merchants, rich in apparel even to 
The wearing of jewels, and that they had not one mechanicperson amongst 
them. It expressly states that in Oliver's time the Jews had celebrated 
the Feast of Tabernacles in booths, upon the southern side ot the 
Thames; and has a direct reference to their withdrawing themselves as 
much as possible from pubUc notice upon the Restoration of King Charles 
the Second, evidently from the circumstance that the Act for their exile 
had never been formally repealed. 

The evidence of this Letter too is to a certain extent corroborated by 
two entries upon the Journals of the House of Commons ; one, m 1660, 
representing the Jews as a people existing amongst us without protection ; 
the other, in 1670, ordering an Inquiry to be made upon what terms they 
were permitted to reside in England. 

It is evident then that Cromwell brought them back. 
" Monday, 17'" Dec. 1660. M'. HoUis represents to this House an 
Order made by the Lords of H. Majesty's Privy Council, and specially 
recommended to this House for their Advice therein, touching Protection 
for the Jews : which was read. 

" Ordered, that this business be taken into consideration tomorrow 
morning." Joum. H. Com. vol. viii. p. 209. 

« Lunse 6 die Feb. 1670. Ordered, that a Committee be appomted, 
to inquire into the Causes of the Growth of Popery ; to prepare and brmg 
in a Bill to prevent; and also to inquire touching the Number of the 
Jews and their Synagogues, and upon what terms they are permitted to 
have their residence here; and report it, with their opmions, to the 
House." Ibid. vol. ix. p. 198. 

But we have evidence which is still closer to the point. 
Thomas Violet, a goldsmith of London, in a Petition to the Kmg and 
Parliament dated December the 18'\ 1660, which was printed m 1661, 

settles the question. . , » ,r i, u „ 

Cromwell, it will be remembered, after the arrival of Menasseh Ben 
Israel in England, summoned by his Letters the two Lords Chief Jus- 
tices and the Lord Chief Baron, seven Citizens of London (mcludmg the 
Lord Mayor and Sheriffs) and fourteen of the most noted Preachers, to 
attend him at WhitehaU Dec. 4'\ 1655, there to debate two questions 
before him and his Council; first whether it were lawful, at aU, to re- 
admit the Jews; secondly (if it should be thought lawful) upon what 
terms to admit them. Hugh Peters, with some other divines, were after- 
wards added to the number of the debaters. 

The Lawyers were not against their return ; and the citizens were some- 
what indifferent, but the preachers assailed each other furiously with texts 
of Scripture, and spent so much time in turning over then: bibles for 
proofs that they passed four days in the discussion; till one of them 


having concluded a senseless Argument with a Prayer, whicii he said 
was conceived by the godly Beza, dromwell grew tired, and told them 
with some warmth, that they did not answer his expectations. " He 
hoped, he said, to have had some clearing of the Case, as to his Con- 
science ; but instead of that, they had made the matter more doubtful 
to him and his Council than it was before : wherefore that he might do 
nothing rashly, he desired no more from them than the assistance of their 
prayers that the Lord would be pleased so to direct him as he might do 
every thing for His Glory, and the good of the Nation ; and thereupon 
dismissed the Assembly." • 

• The following official notice of this Conference In the Mercurius Politicus from 
Dec. aott". to Dec. 2T">. 1655, is worth perusal. 

Whitehall, Deccmb. 18. The Conference concerning the Proposals about the ad- 
mission of the Jewes ended without any further adjournment. The Proposals are 
as followeth ; 

A Translate of the Proposals of Manasseth Ben Israel, &c. These are the Graces 
and Favours which in the name of my Hebrew Nation, I Manasseth Ben Israel do 
request of your most serene Highness, whom God make prosjierous, and give happy 
success to in all your Enterprises, as your humble Servant cloth wish and desire. 

1. The first thing which I desire of your Highness, is, that our Hebrew Nation 
may Ix: received and admitted into this puissant Commonwealth, under the protec- 
tion and safeguard of your Highness, even as the natives themselves. And for 
greater security in time to come, I doe supplicate your Highness to cause an Oath to 
be given (if you shall think it fit) to all the heads and generals of Arms to defend us 
upon all occasions. 

2. That it will please your Highness to allow us publicke Synagogues, not only in 
England, but also in all other places under the power of your Highness; and to ob- 
serve in all things our Religion as we ought. 

3. That we may have a place or Cemiteric, out of the Town to interr our dead, 
without being troubled by any. 

4. That we may bee permitted to trafflck freely in all sorts of merchandise, as 

6. That (to the end those who shall come may be for the utility of the people of 
this Nation, and may live without bringing prejudice to any, and not give offence) 
your most serene Highness will make choice of a person of quality, to Inform him- 
self of, and receive the Passports of those who shall come in, who upon their arrivall 
shall certifie him thereof, and oblige themselves by oath to maintain fealty to your 
Highness in this Land. 

6. And (to the intent they may not be troublesome to the Judges of the Land, 
touching the contests and differences that may arise betwixt those of our Nation) that 
your most serene Highness will give license to the head of the Synagogue to take 
with him two Almoners of his Nation, to accord and determine all thediflTerenccsand 
process, conformable to the Mosaick Law, with liberty nevertheless to appeal from 
their sentence to the civil Judges; the sum wherein the patties shall be condemned 
being first deposited. 

T. That in case there have been any Laws against our Jewish Nation, they may in 
the first place and before all things be revoked, to the end that by this means we 
may remain with the greater security under the safeguard and protection of your 
most serene Highness. 

Which things your most serene Highness grantmg to us, we shall always remain 
most afTectionately obliged to pray to God for the pra-ipeiity of your Highness, and 


Violet expressly states in his Petition that, after this Debate, Crom- 
well and his Council gave a Dispensation to a number of Jews to 
settle in London, that they were suffered to exercise their religion, that 
they were in reality invited in by Thurloe and protected by Cromwell, 
and that the greater part (answering to the description of the persons 
mentioned in the present Letter) were " Portugals or Spaniards" by 

This fixes the time of the Re-admission of the Jews to the opening of 
the year 1656. 

Violet further states that it was Cromwell's intention to have made 
them farmers of the Customs and Excise, and to have given them 

At the very moment when Cromwell's Conference was held, the war 
between the Swedes and the Poles had driven a large number of the Jews 
who were resident at Cracow, to Hamburgh : and the circumstance of a 
temporal Prince arising who was inclined to encourage their settlement 
in his country, appears to have attracted their most serious attention. 

Raguenet, in his History of Cromwell's life, details the particulars of 
a very extraordinary fact ; that, much about the time of Menasseh's coming 
into England, the Asiatic Jews sent hither also the Rabbi Jacob Ben 
Azahel with several others of his nation to make private inquiry whether 
Cromwell was not that Messiah whom they had long expected ; and that 
under pretence of viewing the Hebrew Books and Manuscripts belonging 
to the University of Cambridge, they took the opportunity to ascertain 
amongst Cromwell's relations at Huntingdon whether any of his ances- 
tors were of Jewish origin. The real object of their errand becoming 
known, and being unlikely to suit the Saints of the day, Cromwell is 
said to have dismissed them hastily. The whole passage from Raguenet's 
History will be found in the Note below.* 

of your illustrious and most sage Council, that it will please him to give happy suc- 
cess to all the Undertaking of your most serene Highness. Amen. 

" An Advbrtisement. 

The Reader is to take notice. That his Highness at severall Meetings, fully heard 
the Opinions of the Ministers touching the said Proposals, expressing himself there- 
upon with indifferency and moderation, as one that desired only to obtain satisfaction 
in a matter of so high and religious a concernment, there being many glorious pro- 
mises recorded in the holy Scripture concerning the calling and conversion of the 
Jews to the Faith of Christ. But nothing at all hath been concluded as to their 
admission ; his Highness proceeding in this, as in all other Affairs, with good advice, 
and mature deliberation." Merc. Polit. Dec. 20 to Dec. 27. 1655. 

• " Enfin sa reputation s'accrut de telle sorte, que les Juifs qui ^toient en Asie ayant 
appris toutes les grandes choses qu'on disoit de lui, par la voix de la Renomm^ qui 
les grossissoit totijours de plus en plus k proportion qu'elle les portoit plus loin, r^so- 
lurent d'cnvoyer quelqu'uns des leurs en Angleterre, pour s'informer si il n'^toit point 


Whatever Cromwell's ultimate intentions may liave been in favor of 
the Jews, they were frustrated by his death. To say nothing of ancient 
prejudice, he had mercantile jealousy to contend with ; and the sort of 
Return to which the Jews had submitted, having made them available for 
the purposes of his policy, it is not unlikely that Cromwell would have 
done nothing more to serve them. 

le Lib^rateur qu'ils attendoient, et qu'ils ont to&jourg cru trouver dans tous les Capi- 
taines extraordinaires qui ont paru au Monde depuis leur dixpersion. 

" lis choisircnt, pour cette Commission, le c616bre Jacob Ben-Azahel qui eut ordre 
de prendre avec lui, en passant par la Boh^me, David Ben El(^azar Rabin deleur 
Synagogue de Prague qui savoit toutes les langues de I'Europe en perfection, et le 
Rabi ManassiBen Israel d'Amsterdam qui leur devoit servir de eonducteur. 

" Lors qu'ils furent arrivez k Londres, pour cacher le veritable sujet de leur voy- 
age, ils ue moutr^rent d'abord qu'une Lettre de Cr6ance touchant I'^tablissement d'un 
Bureau pour le Commerce' du Levant dont ils faiaoient esp^rer de grands avantages 
aux Anglois ; la Chambre des Directeurs du N^goce les re^eut avec joye, et leurs 
propositions y furent tr£s-fav6rablement 6cout6es ; mais comme on ne pouvoit les 
recevoir sans introduire una nouvelle sorte de Religion dans la R^publique, on Ics 
renvoya i Ctomwel qui avoit seul I'autorit^ de le falre en quality de Protecteur. 

" Cromwel leur fit, de m6nie, un tr^s-bon accu^il en consideration du Commerce 
qui pouvoit devcnir plus florissant en Angleterre par leur moyen. II leur accorda 
mSme une Audience seciette qu'ils lui demand^rent, dans laquelle ces deux Juifs lui 
ayant t6moign6 combien ils estimoient la fameusc Bib!iotli6que du Collie de Cam- 
bridge, Cromwel qui tie pouvoit pardonner ji celte University le zdle qu'elle avoit fait 
parottre jwur le feu Roy, promit* i ces Strangers de leur en vendre tous les Manu- 
scrits avec les autres volumes qu'ils trouveroient les plus rares. 

"Ils all^rent done, encore une fois, pour revoir les Livres et prendre un mdmoirc de 
leur nombre, et de leur quality, ce qu'ils firent en pi^sence des Bibliothtoiires qui les 
leur montroient, et qui crurent qu'ils n'avoient point d'autre dessein en cela que de 
satisfaire leur curiosity, comme ils le t^moignoient. Mais au lieu de revenir droit i 
Londres, ils prirent occasion de ce petit voyage pour se trans)>orteT, suivant le prin- 
cipal dessein de leur commission, dans la Province de Huntington d'oil les parens de 
('romwel ^toient originaires, afin de s'informer de sa Naissance, et apprendrc de ccux 
qui pouvoient le mieux connoUre sa G^n^logie, s'll ne se trouvolt point quelc)u'un 
parmi ses Ancestres qui tiit sorti du sang des H^breux. 

" Quelques pr^autions qu'ils prissent pour rendre secrette cette recherche in- 
sens^e, ils ne parent si-bien faire qu'elle ne fCit dtcouverte ; la nouvelle s'en publia 
aussi-tdt dans Londres oil Ton en fit des railleries piquantes contre le Protecteur t|ui 
en conceut un ressentiment si vif, que non seulement il refusa i ces malheureux Juifli 
la liberty du Trafic, et le traits de la Bibliothcque <Ui ColJdge de Cambridge qu'il 
leur avoit fait esp^rer, mais de plus il leur d<5elara avec beaucoup de chaleur, dans 
une Audience qu'il rendit expr^s tr^s-solennellc, (|ue la Rdpubli<|ue et lui faisoient 
profession d'adorer un Dieu crucifix ; et qu'ils ne vouloient avoir aucun commerce 
avec cux qu'ils regardoicnt comme ses plus irr^conciliables ennemis ; et en m£mc 
terns il les congddia, sans leur vouloir permettre de ripondre le moindre mot. 

" Mais de quelque artifice que Cromwel se servit, pour pcr!>uadcr au peuple que le 
z^le qu'il avoit pour la Religion Chrctienne avoit 6.i le motif de sa rupture avec le* 
Juifs; cela n'empecha pas que tout le monde n'apprlt que son seul ressentiment en 
avoit 6'.i la cause, par le moyen d'un libcUc qui courut alors, intitule, ' Cromtoel 
Lion de la Tribu de Juda,' dans lequel ce que je viens de dire de la deputation des 
Synagogues d'Asie et d'Ailcma;!nc (5toit rapports avec toutes les reflexions fines, et 
toutes les railleries deiicates qui se pouvoient faire, sur celte matiere, contre le Pro- 
tecteur." Hiatoire d'Olivicr Cromwel, par Ragucnct. lU". Par. ig9 I. p. 200—293. 

o original letters. 

Mr. Crompton, 
When any thing ever occurred in my reading any 
where concerning the manner of the Jews divine wor- 
ship (though since the Destruction of their City and 
Temple) I have always thought it worth the seeing of a 
Christian ; at least for once where it could be obtained. 
And amidst other fashions of Religions which my cu- 
riosity hath prompted me with a desire to see in this 
City, having been at the meetings and worship of Pa- 
pists, of Anabaptists, of Quakers, of Fifth Monarchic 
men, and I considered and concluded with myself, that 
there must in reason need be some number of Jews in 
this City, though those only merchants, and that conse- 
quently they must have some place of meeting together 
for their divine worship. Whereupon, as occasion of- 
fered me to converse with any that were likely to in- 
form me, I inquired hereof, but could not of a long 
time hear or learn whether or where any such thing 
was. But lately having a desire to spend some of my 
time here in learning the Hebrew tongue, and inquiring 
of some one that professed to teach it, I lighted upon 
a learned Jew with a mighty bush beard, a great Rabbi 
as I found him afterward to be, with whom after once 
or twice being together, I fell into conference and ac- 
quaintance ; for he could speak Latin, and some little 
broken English, having as he told me been two years 
in London, He said he was an Hebrew of the He- 


brews of the Tribe of Levi, and his name (I had liked 
to have said his Christian name) Samuel Levi. He 
told me his own mother is yet living, and dwelleth at 
this present in the City of Jerusalem, from whence he 
had received ten several Letters within these two years. 
For it is a custom amongst them, that those who are 
of able estate, though born and have lived in other 
countries, yet when they grow old they transport them- 
selves thither to end their days, and lay their bones 
there in the Holy place as he called it. He said he 
was brought up, and was a student eleven years, in 
the Jews College in Cracovia the chief City of Poland, 
where the Jews have an University, and that he had 
newly written over the Five Books of Moses with his 
own hand in Hebrew, without points, in rolls of parch- 
ment, for the use of a Synagogue : and that himself had 
formerly been Priest to a Synagogue of his own nation 
in Poland. A very modest man, and once with much 
ado I got him to accept of an invitation to take part 
of a dinner with me : at which time he told me that 
he had special relation as Scribe and Rabbi to a pri- 
vate Synagogue of his nation in London, and that if I 
had a desire to see their manner of worship, though 
they did scarce admit of any, their Synagogue being 
strictly kept with three doors one beyond another, 
yet he would give me such a ticket, as, upon sight 
thereof, their porter would let me in upon their next 
Sabbath Day in the morning being Saturday. I made 


show as though I were indifferent, but inwardly hugged 
the good hap. 

When Saturday came, I rose very early, the place 
being far from my lodging ; and in a private corner of 
the City, with much ado, following my directions, I 
found it at the point of nine o^'clocky and was let come 
in at the first door, but there being no Englishman but 
myself, and my llabbi not being there then (for they 
were but just beginning service) I was at first a little 
abashed to venture alone amongst all them Jews ; but 
my innate curiosity to see things strange spurring me 
on, made me confident even to impudence. I rubbed 
my forehead, opened the inmost door, and taking off 
my hat (as instructed) I went in and sate me down 
amongst them ; but Lord (Thoma frater) what a 
strange, uncouth, foreign, and to me barbarous sight 
was there, I could have wished Thoma that you had 
then sate next me, for I saw no living soul, but all 
covered, hooded, guized, veiled Jews, and ray own 
plain bare self amongst them. The sight would 
have frighted a novice, and made him to have run out 

Every man had a large white vest, covering, or veil 
cast over the high crown of his hat, which from thence 
hung down on all sides, covering the whole hat, the 
shoulders, arms, sides, and back to the girdle place, 
nothing to be seen but a little of the face ; this, my 
Rabbi told me, was their ancient garb, used in divine 


worship in their Synagogues in Jerusalem and in all 
the Holy Land before the destruction of their City : 
and though to me at first, it made altogether a strange 
and barbarous show, yet me thought it had in its 
kind, I know not how, a face and aspect of venerable 
antiquity. Their veils were all pure white, made of 
taffata or silk, though some few were of a stuff* coarser 
than silk ; the veil at each of its four comers had a 
broad badge ; some had red badges, some green, some 
blue, some wrought with gold or silver, which my 
Rabbi told me were to distinguish the tribes of which 
each was common. 

I was a curious and critical spectator of all things 
there, and when I came to my Chamber in the after- 
noon I wrote down the particulars in my note book, 
while fresh in memory. 

Their Synagogue is like a Chapel, high built ; for 
after the first door they go up stairs into it, and the 
floor is boarded; the seats are not as ours, but two 
long running seats on either side, as in a school : at the 
west end of it there is a seat as high as a pulpit, but 
made desk wise, wherein the two members of the Sy- 
nagogue did sit veiled, as were all both priest and 
people. The chief Ruler was a very rich merchant, 
a big, black, fierce, and stern man, to whom I perceive 
they stand in as reverential an awe as boys to a master : 
for when any left singing upon their books and talked, 
or that some were out of tune, he did call aloud with 


a barbarous thundering voice, and knocked upon the 
high desk with his fist, that all sounded again. Straight 
before them, at some distance but on a seat much lower, 
sate the Priest. Two yards before him, on midst of 
the floor, stood that whereon the Service and Law 
were read, being like to an high short table, with steps 
to it on one side as an altar, covered with a green 
carpet, and upon that another shorter one of blue 
silk ; two brass candlesticks standing at either end of 
it ; before that on the floor were three low seats 
whereon some boys sat, their sons, richly veiled, as 
gentle comely youths as one should see ; who had each 
his Service Book in hand, in Hebrew without points, 
and were as ready and nimble in it, and all their pos- 
tures, as the men. 

There was brought in a pretty Boy at four years 
old, a child of some chief Jew, in rich coats, with black 
feathers in his hat, the priest himself arose and put 
a veil over the child's hat of pure white silk, fastening 
it under the hatband that he should not shake it off", 
and set him upon a seat among the boys ; but he soon 
leaped off, and ran with his veil dangling up and down ; 
once he came and looked at me, wondering perhaps 
that I had no veil; at length he got the inner door 
open and went to his mother ; for they do not suffer 
the Women to come into the same room or into the 
sight of the men : but on the one side of the Synagogue 
there is a low, long, and narrow latticed window. 


through which the women, sitting in the next room, do 
hear ; as the boy opened it, I saw some of their wives 
in their rich silks bedaubed with broad gold lace, with 
muffs in one hand and books in the other. 

At the east end of the Synagogue standeth a closet 
like a very high cupboard, which they call the Ark, 
covered below with one large hanging of blue silk ; its 
upper half covered with several drawingcurtains of blue 
silk ; in it are the Books of the Law kept. Before it, 
upon the floor, stand two mighty brass candlesticks with 
lighted tapers in them ; from the roof, above the hang- 
ings, two great lamps of christal glass, holding each 
about a pottle filled up to the brim with purest oil, set 
within a case of four little brass pillars guilded. In 
the wall at either end of the Synagogue, are very 
many draw boxes, with rings at them like those in 
a Grocer's Shop ; and in it (as I came sooner in the 
morning than many or most of them) I saw that each 
Jew at his first entrance into the place did first bow 
down towards the Ark wherein the Law was kept, 
but with his hat on, which they never do put off in 
this place ; but a stranger must ; for after a good while 
two Englishmen were brought in, at which I was glad, 
being alone before, and they were bareheaded until they 
were set down amongst them, which then put on their 
hats. The one I knew to be a citizen and shopkeeper. 
At last I saw my Rabbi come in. Each Jew after he had 
bowed went straight to his box, took a little key out 



of his pocket, unlocked it, took out his veil and books, 
then threw his veil over his hat and fitted it on all 
sides, and so went to his place, and fell a tuning it 
upon his Hebrew Service Book as hard and loud as he 
could ; for all is sung with a mighty noise from first 
to last, both of priest and people ; saying some prayers; 
and all was done in the right true Hebrew tongue, as 
my Rabbi affirmed to me afterwards; which, to this 
end, they do industriously teach all their children from 
their infancy, having their schoolmistress on purpose, 
especially their Service books, which they have at their 
fingers' end. There was none but had a book open 
in his hand, about the bigness of our hand Bibles. I 
looked upon several of their books as they sate by me 
and before me, yea I could plainly see both lines and 
letters in the Priest's book wherein he read, I sate so 
nigh him, and all were the true Hebrew letters, but in 
all the books without any points. The Priest's son, a 
comely youth, standing at the Table or Altar alone, 
sung all the former part of the Service which was a 
full hour long, all the rest singing with him, with a 
great and barbarous noise ; this consisted mostly of the 
Psalms of David, with some prayers intermixed, which 
they sung standing up looking East, and with a lower 
noise and in tune not unlike to that when the reading 
Psalms are sung in our quires; but their reading 
Psalms they sung much what like as we do sing bal- 
lads ; and I observed that when mention was made of 


the Edomites, Philistines, or any enemies of David, or 
Israel's, they stamped strongly with their feet, that all 
the Synagogue sounded again. There were two or 
three composed Hymns, which they, all standing up 
and looking toward Jerusalem, sang very melodiously. 
After this former part of the Service finished, the 
Priest's son officiating hitherto, which was about an 
hour, there was deep silence for a pretty while ; then 
the Priest arose and some of the chief Jews with him, 
and they went with a grave, slow pace, up the Syna- 
gogue, to fetch the Law of Moses, and when they 
came to the Ark wherein it was kept, the priest drew 
the curtain, and opening the double door of it, the 
Law appeared, then the whole assembly stood up and 
bowed down just toward it, and the priest and those 
chief ones with him, stood singing a song to it a little 
while. The Law was written in two great rolls of 
very broad parchment (as my Rabbi told me after- 
wards, and he told me the meaning of each thing that 
I desired, to which you must impute all that I here 
interpret). The roll contained the Book of Genesis 
and was much lesser ; the other being three times as 
big, contained the other four Books of Moses. This 
roll was as thick as a pretty round pillar. Either roll 
had two fine thrown Staves of black wood, one fastened 
to either end of it, whereon it was rolled up, the staves 
meeting in the middle ; and the roll was swaddled 
about with a fine blue scarf, and over it was put a 



covering or case of blue silk fringed at the bottom ; 
and in the top of the over roll was stuck like a fine 
tree of silver, hung full of silver bells, which my Rabbi 
told rae they called the Bells of Aaron, and in the top 
of the other roll was stuck a rod, having artificial 
flowers upon it, in remembrance of Aaron's Rod that 
budded. The priest took forth the two rolls of the 
Ark and delivered them to two of those with him, 
who taking the bottom of the staves in their hand, 
carried them straight upon high, rearing them to their 
shoulder ; so they came back in a solemn procession, 
bringing the Law with singing (those only sang who 
brought it) melodiously one of the Songs of Sion. 
' The Law shall forth out of Sion come,' &c. And as 
the Law thus passed along by them the people bowed 
towards it, and such as could reach took up the fringe 
of its costly covering in their hands and kissed it. 
When they had brought it to the altar, four or five 
were busied in uncovering and unswaddling the roll. 
The priest's son took in his hand the Silver Bells of 
Aaron and the budded Rod, and came and sate down 
next of all to me, thrusting his side so close to mine 
that part of his veil lay upon mine arm, he holding 
the Bells and Rod all the while close by my nose : then 
the priest opened and spread the Law about a yard 
wide, and lifted it up a full yard above his head, turn- 
ing himself, and showing it East, West, North, and 
South. The Jews meanwhile bowing down towards it 


with great reverence. The parchment of it was full 
yard broad, the ground yellow, the letters pure black, 
and all without points. I sate within two yards of the 
Altar. Then the priest laid the Law upon the altar 
and took in his hand a small silver cane or quill, with 
the sharp end thereof pointing at the lines of the Law 
as he read, for the greater reverence ; it was half a yard 
long. Then there arose one out of the assembly and 
came unto the priest, making low reverence; when 
the priest asked aloud whether he desired to hear the 
Law read, who saying ' yes,' the priest bade him pray 
then, and he looked upon his Hebrew Service Book 
which he had in his hand, and read over a short prayer 
very fast ; then the priest read a few lines of the Law 
with a loud voice, in a thundering barbarous tone, as 
fast as his tongue could run, for a form only ; then 
asked the man whether he had heard the Law, who 
saying ' yes,"' he bad him give thanks then, and he 
read a short prayer out of his book as before : so, 
bowing himself to the Law and the Priest, he went to 
his place, and another came, and did in like manner 
until five or six had thus heard the Law read to them ; 
which they coimt a special piece of honour to them. 
After that, five or six were busied in wrapping up 
swaddling and veiling the two rolls of the Law again, 
whereon they put their Bells and budded Rod again, 
and carried back with solemn procession as before, and 
the priest placed it in tiie Ark ; and they stood singing 
VOL. IV. SER. 2. c 


to it awhile. Afterwards the priest alone, at the Altar, 
read very many short prayers, to which they all stand- 
ing up said ' Amen,' using this same word- 
Then a comely youth standing in the midst of the 
Synagogue, and looking towards the Law, sung alone a 
long Anthem, and after this was there long Supplication, 
which was the most solemn part of all their service ; 
which they all spake together standing (for they never 
kneel), with their faces East, often bowing down alto- 
gether; it being partly a complaint of the long de- 
solation of their City and Temple, partly a prayer for 
the coming of Messiah and their Restoration (thank 
my Rabbi for the interpretation) ; * Sion is become a 
ploughed field, and Jerusalem made an heap of stones, 
thy servants think upon her stones and it grieveth 
them to see her in the dust ; our ancient and our 
beautiful House, where our fathers served thee, lieth 
waste ; then gather us o Lord from amongst the 
Heathen ; remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; 
remember thy promises made unto our fathers, in our 
time, in our time, O Lord,' &c. 

I confess that looking earnestly upon them in this, 
and thoughts coming into my mind of the Wonders 
which God wrought for their fathers in Egypt, and 
who heard the Voice of God speak to them out of the 
midst of the fire on Sinai, and seed of Abraham the 
friend of God, I was strangely, uncouthly, unaccus- 
tomedly moved, and deeply affected ; tears stood in 


my eyes the while, to see those banished Sons of Israel 
standing in their ancient garb (veiled) but in a strange 
land, solemnly and carefully looking East toward their 
own Country, confessing their sins and the sins of their 
forefathers, humbling themselves and bowing down 
together (as often they did in their Supplication) be- 
fore the God of their Fathers, who doubtless will hear 
them or their posterity better than they desire, will 
open their eyes and let them see that the true Messiah 
came long since, even he whom their fathers pierced, 
and they shall mourn over him and be brought unto 
him, and to their own land. After this, for a con- 
clusion of all, the Priest read certain select promises of 
their restoration, at which they showed great rejoicing, 
by strutting up, so that some of their veils flew about 
like morris dancers, only they wanted bells. This 
forenoon service continued about three hours, from 
nine to twelve, which being ended, they all put off 
their veils, and each man wrapping his veil up, went 
and put it and his Hebrew Service Book into his box, 
and locking it departed. 

My Rabbi invited me afterwards to come and see 
the feast of Purim, which they kept he said for the 
deliverance from Haman^s Conspiracy, mentioned in 
the Book of Esther; in which they use great knocking 
and stamping when Haman is named. Also he desired 
me to come and see them eat the Passover, which they 
did ten days before our Easter, and he had got me to 

c 2 


the door of the place, but I felt such a reluctancy iri 
me, as that having in part satisfied my Curiosity by 
seeing their manner of Service once, my heart would 
in no wise give me to go again amongst those Unbe- 
lievers, in that place where my Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, in whom is all my hope and trust for 
ever, was not owned. So I came away back again 
without seeing it ; though afterwards I understood that 
several had been there to see them eat it, who brought 
away some of their unleavened bread with them, and 
showed to some who told me, one year in 01iver"'s time, 
they did build booths on the other side of Thames, 
and kept the Feast of Tabernacles in them, as some 
told me who saw them ; but since the King's coming 
in, they are very close, nor do admit any to see them 
but very privately. <^ 

When I was in the Synagogue I counted about or 
above a hundred right Jews, one proselite amongst 
them, they were all gentlemen (merchants) I saw not 
one mechanic person of them ; most of them rich in 
apparel, divers with jewels glittering (for they are the 
richest jewellers of any) they are all generally black 
so as they may be distinguished from Spaniards or na- 
tive Greeks, for the Jews hair hath a deeper tincture 
of a more perfect raven black, they have a quick 
piercing eye, and look as if of strong intellectuals ; 
several of them are comely, gallant, proper gentlemen. 
I Igiew many of them when I saw them daily upon the 



Exchange, and the Priest there too, who also is a mer- 
chant. It were tedious to relate the several disputes 
I had with my Rabbi at our being together, and his 
strange rabbinical and indeed irrational reasonings 
against Christ. In a word the curse is upon them to 
the uttermost ; and they have a grosser veil over the 
eye of the soul, than that which covers their heads ; 
they are so firmly possessed with an invincible preju- 
dice against the Cross of Christ, and so doat upon 
their imaginary Messiah to come a temporal King 
that shall conquer all the princes of the earth, and make 
their nation Lords of all the World, that an argument 
from the strongest, clearest, and most convincing rea- 
sons that can be brought for Christ, is but an arrow 
shot against a wall of brass. Bene vale mi Thorn^ et 
ora tu pro Judaeis, et pro miserrimo peccatore omnium 
Christianorum. Ille tuus olim fraterrimus et in per- 
petuum frater ubicunque terrarum, 


London, April 22'. 

Quod ad Judaeos. 
Coepit ab his, delata ad nos, referetur ad illos 
Nostra fides, et erunt sub Mundi fine fidelesu. 

For my worthy friend Mr. Thomas 
Crompton, Minister of Astley Chappel, 




The Rev. Stephen Bing to Dr. Sancrqft Dean of St 
Pauls : upon the ravage of the Great Plague. 

[MS. HARL. 3783. fol. 41. Orig.] 

*^* In this and some succeeding Letters the reader will find a few par- 
ticulars of what occurred in the Great Plague of 1665; to the full de- 
scription of wliich neither the pencil nor the pen have yet been adequate. 
The desolation was too wide and too fearful for any one to seek ma- 
terials for a picture of it while it raged : to the contemporary Letters of 
survivors therefore, and their Diaries where such exist,* can we alone 
look now for its minute details. These should be sought for and formed 
into a Volume. Such a publication might be useful, not only to those 
who read and reflect, but to all who in the pride of science or the greedi- 
ness of trade would speculate upon the chances of contagion. ^ De Foe's 
Journal of the Plague of 1665, was an entire fiction ; though it deceived 
Dr. Mead. 

' There is ati entry in Pepys's Diary, vol. i. pp. 363, 364, one part of which is 
affecting. Pepys was then at Woolwich. He says, " My Lord Brouncker, Sir J. 
Mimies and I up to the Vestry at the desire of the Justices of the Peace, in order to 
the doing something for the keeping of the plague from growing ; but Lord ! to con- 
sider the madness of people of the town, who will (because they are forbid) come in 
crowds along with the dead corpses to see them buried ; but we agreed on some 
orders for the prevention thereof. Among other stories, one was very passionate 
methought, of a complaint brought against a man in the town, for taking a child 
from London from an infected house. Alderman Hooker told us it was the child of 
a very able citizen in Gracechurch Street, a saddler, who had buried all the rest of 
his children of the plague, and himself and wife now being shut up and in despair of 
escaping, did desire only to save the life of this little child, and so prevailed to have 
it received stark-naked into the arms of a friend, who brought it (having put it into 
new fresh clothes) to Greenwich ; where upon hearing the story, we did agree it 
should be permitted to be received and kept in the town." 

•> The following passage in the Additions to the Account of Cheshire by the Messrs. 
Lysons in their Magna Britannia, p. 845. although it relates to the former Plague 
of 1625, will not be thought impertinently called to notice here. 

" Since the Account of Malpas has been printed we have been favoured with the 
communication of the following very remarkable entries in the parish Register at 
that place, relating to the ravages of that dreadful disorder the plague, which swept 


27* July, 1665. 
I HAVE sent by this opportunity " The Weekly 
News" and " The Bill of Mortality.'' The prayers of the 
Church are continued, and persons attending as yet. 
* # * # * 

It is said the Sacrist is out of town, and there will 
be no Communion as customarily, of the which I have 
been inquired, and to which I could not make answer 
fully. People frequent the Church as before, except- 

away a whole family in the township of Bradley. The circumstance of a man beinf; 
imiuced to dig his own grave, from the conviction that the slender and sickly rem- 
nant of his household were unable to provide him with the rites of sepulture, presents 
that dreadful calamity to our imagination, in a more awful and horrific view than 
any of the many distressing particulars we remember to have met concerning it. 
" 162S. 

" Thomas Jefferie, servant to M'. Dawson of Bradley, buryed the x*K daye of 
August, in the night, he dyed of the Plague ; before this was buryed a daughter of 
the sayd Dawson's, but not of the sickness, as it is thought. 

" Rlcharde the sonne of Thomas Dawson of Bradley (that died of the plague,) 
buryed the xiij«''. of August in the night, 1625. 

" Raffe Dawson, sonneof theaflforesayd Thomas, came from London about xxv*. 
of July last past, and b^ing sicke of the plague, died in his fathers bowse, and soe 
infected the sayd howse, and was buryed, as it was reported, neare unto his fathers 

" Thomas Dawson of Bradley, died of the plague, and was buryed the xvi*. day 
of August 1628, about lii'''. of the clocke, after midnight 

" Elyzabeth, the daughter of the afforesayde Thomas Dawson, died of the plague 
of pestilence, and was buried the xx. of August, 162S. 

" Anne the wyffe of John Dawson, sonne of the afforesed Thomas Dawson, died 
of the plague of pestilence, and was buryed the xx*. of August. 

" Richarde Dawson, (brother to the abovenamed Thomas Dawson of Bradley) 
being sicke of the plague, and perceyving he must die at that tyme, arose out of his 
bed, and made his grave, and caused his ncfew, John Dawson, to cast strawe into the 
grave which was not farre from the howse, and went and laid him down in the sayd 
grave and caused clothes to be layd uppon and soe departed out of this world ; this 
he did because he was a stronge man and heavier than his sayd nefew, and an other 
a wench were able to burye. He died about the xxiiij'''. of August. Thus much I 
was credibly tould he dM, 1625. 

" John Dawson, sonne of the above-named Thomas, came unto his father, when 
his father sent for him, being sicke, and having laid him downe in a ditch, died In it 
the xxix'i'. daye of August 1625, in the night. 

" Rose Smyth servant of the abovenamed Thomas Dawson, and the last of that 
howsehold, died of plague, and was buryed by William Cooke, the y^K daye of Sep- 
tember, 1625, near unto the sayd howse.' 


ing on Sundays, and the last Holyday, on which we 
had a Sermon, and shall have another on the Fast- 

The increase of God's Judgment deads people's hearts, 
that trading strangely ceaseth, and bills of Exchange 
are not accepted, so that they shut up their shops ; and 
such a fear possesseth them, as it is wonderful to see 
how they hurry into the country as though the same 
God was not there that is in the city : so that those 
that are living, and lived in the great sickness time,a 
saw nor knew not the like, when there died four thou- 
sand a week. I pray God to prevent a sad sequel. 

Great complaint there is of necessity ; and needs must 
it be the more when the rich haste away that should 
supply the poor's want. I have been since the writing 
of my last letter in several places, being informed of 
some, that are shut up, to be in a very necessitous 
condition, to see if it were so or no ; and so finding 
them, I have been bold to extend your charity to the 
outrunning the bank you honoured me with. The 
Lord extend the yearnings of his bowels of compassion 
towards us, that we be not consumed by the means of 
his heavy hand ; and give us grace to depart from the 
plague of our hearts, that this Plague and grievous 
Sickness may be withdrawn from us for Christ Jesus 
his sake: that so we may have the blessed happi- 
ness again of meeting together in his Howse with one 



accord to record his name. Thus prays he always, 
who shall be much honoured to be esteemed the 
lowest of 

Your worship's most humble 

and faithful servants, 


These to the reverend and right 
worshipful Dr. Bancroft, Dean of 
St. Pauls, London, at the Rose and 
Crown in Tunbridge, 



Mr. Bing to Dr. Sancrqft. The Plague continues. 
The Bhhop of London endeavours to recall the 
Pastors who had left their Churches. 

[us. HARL. 3783. fol. 42. Orig.\ 

3 August, 1665. 
Reverend and right Worshipful, 
I HAVE sent the " Weekly Bill"" and " News,"" as I 
did the last week (and so God willing shall continue 
your command) which I hope was received, and like- 
wise a Letter with four letters enclosed by a special 
friend the week before. The Cross Sermons ' are con- 

• Thoic preached at St. Paul's Cross, isdit. 


tinued, and we had on the Fast Day a laudable Ser- 
mon by Mr. Risden minister in Bread-street, my Lord 
Mayor being present, Sir Richard Brown and Sir 
John Robinson and other Aldermen, with a great 

Our Prayers are continued three times a day, but we 
do not our attendance, for now there are but three Petty 
Canons left ; viz. myself, Mr. Clifford, and Masters, 
with two Vicars, Mr. Simpson and Morrice ; the rest 
are out of town. Mr. Portington lies at the point of 
death, whose turn being to officiate this week, I supply ; 
for none else would do it except they are paid for it. 
Little mercy ; the Lord be merciful to us. I wish it 
were as formerly, which was not so in such case of ne- 
cessity. Dr. Barwick remembers his service, and asked 
me, as also others, if I heard any thing concerning the 
monthly Communion, the which I could say little to. 
So waiting God's good will and pleasure in and for his 
gracious presence again, and the grace of yours in his 
Holy Place where it hath pleased the King of Kings 
to place you governor, he heartily prays for, who 
humbly remains 

Your worship''s most humble 

and affectionate servant, 


It is said that my Lord Bishop of London hath sent 
to those Pastors that have quitted their flocks by 


reason of these times, that, if they return not speedily, 
others shall be put into their places. 

To the reverend and right wor- 
shipful William Sancroft, Doctor 
of Divinity, Dean of the Cathedral 
Church of St. Paul, London, these 


Mr. Bing to Dr. Sancroft. The Sickness continues. 
One of the late King's Judges taken prisoner^ but 
rescued. The disaffected take advantage of the con- 
fusion occasioned hy the Plague. 

[MS. HAat. 3783. fol. 4a. Orig.\ 

10th. August, 1665. 
Reverend and right worshipful, 
I HAVE sent you the Thursday's intelligence, half of 
which was in the other sent on Monday, which I hope 
is received with the answer to the letter that came to 
my hand on Saturday last ; and likewise the " Weekly 
Bill,*" which is very sad, and the more sad are our times 
that neither calm nor storm will abate the fury of our 


monstrous spirits, who in the face of a congregation, 
as at Paul's the other day, will say these Calamities 
are caused by the Government in Church and State. 

The Sickness is broke out in two places since Mon- 
day in St. Gregories ; one Dwelling opening into your 
yard, and the other at the left corner of the entry of 
our going into the Church. It is in Cambridge also, 
of which I forgot to tell you. And whereas I told 
you of two sick in the Petty Canons ; it is said the 
husband died of a consumption, but the wife lies sick 
of a plague sore. For other places infected in the 
parish I informed in my last, with that of their Lord- 
ships being present at the prorogation of the Parlia- 
ment until the 3 '. October, and that of the Convocation 
by virtue of King's writ until 26\ Jan. following. 

At the end of the last week one of the late King's 
judges being taken, he was sent to the Tower, but 
by the way, at the lower end of Cheapside, by a con- 
course of people he was rescued.^ This morning it was 
told me that some confederacy is found out ; and may 
all their devices be frustrated, and the devisers caught 
in their own traps that seek ill to Sion and the King. 
The Lord be gracious to this Church and Nation, and 
down with them that would down with governors and 

• This same circumstance is mentioned in Pepys's Diary, vol. i. p. 359. " Aug. S"-. 
1665. I am told of a great riot upon Thursday last in Cheapside ; Colonel Danvers, 
a delinquent, liaving been taken, and in his way to the Tower was rescued from the 
captain of the guard, and carried away ; one only of the rescuers being taken." 


Government. They hope that this his hand of dis- 
pleasure will work much for them, but we trust he 
will correct us in his fatherly judgment, and not in his 
fury, that we may be the better fitted to meet him 
once more in the beauty of Holiness to praise his 
name, which God grant for his mercy's sake in Christ 
Jesus. So are the hearty prayers of him who is and 
shall be always. 

Your most humble and faithful servant, 


Dr. Barwick the constant frequenter of our church, 
sometimes three times in a day, remembers his service 
to your Worship. 

These for the reverend and right 
wor". Will"'. Sancroft, Dr. of Di- 
vinity, Dean of the Cathedral 
Church of St. Paul, London, 

To be left at the Rose and Crown 
in Tunbridge. 



J. TilUscm to Dr. Sancrqft. The Necessities of the 
Poor. The parish of St. Giles Cripplegate more 
severely visited hy the Plague than any other in 

[MS. HAHL. 3785. fol. 48. Orig.\ 

August the 15ti'. 1665. 
Reverend Sir, 
I RECEIVED yours of the 1 1^^. instant, and in obedi- 
ence to your commands carried the enclosed to Mr. 
Welsted and received £\\, who just then was ready 
with all his family to be gone into the country ; but 
your bill coming to him in so seasonable an hour he 
has left order at Sir Robert BarkwelPs to discharge 
your bills if any come upon him from you. I have 
likewise acquainted Mr. Ring with your intentions of 
charity towards the poor, and shall take Dr. Barwick's 
advice before it be disposed of, and (if it might be) 
have your directions a little too. I hope you will not 
take my simple well meaning amiss, nor take it ill if I 
put you in mind of our own parish, where there is all 
this time sixteen or seventeen houses visited, a great 
many of them poor and in want, and that some of the 
parishioners, as I am informed (I beg your pardon for 


my good will) do a little grumble that you left nothing 
for the poor when you went away. I perceive since 
this that Mr. Bing had the disposing of some of your 
charity, and I do not doubt but that he will give you 
an account of it ; nor do I think it is your will that 
any partiality should be used in this case. It is very 
probable that some neighbouring parishes may stand 
in need, but I am sure that the miserable condition of 
St. Gileses Cripplegate, which is one of your peculiars, 
is more to be pitied than any parish in or about Lon- 
don, where all have liberty least their sick and poor 
should be famished within doors ; the parish not being 
able to relieve their necessities. I had, not long since, 
such a sum as yours to distribute, and where I knew 
not the necessity of the poor I paid a sum to the 
churchwardens, and they to the overseers of the poor, 
so that I had an account brought to how many persons 
in each parish it was distributed, but this is no rule 
for You. 

Your neighbour and tenant Fleetham has his health, 
God be thanked, very well, and though his maid was 
reported to be dead with his child, she is recovered, 
and all the family well. ^ Dr. Barwick is very careful 
of him and his family, and of keeping the gates duly 
locked up. I was lately at Fulham, and my lord 
commanded me to let you know that himself and fa- 
mily are all in good health, and to send his commenda- 

» AH the fjimily, excepting the maid, were afterwards swc>))t away. Sec p. 3T. 


tions to you, and that he desired very much to hear 
where you were resident, and how you did enjoy your 
health. I had one from my master this day, wherein 
he and my mistress commend them to you, and would 
be glad to see you at Canterbury when you remove 
from Tunbridge ; though you may be better accom- 
modated elsewhere, not better welcome. I am not 
cei'tain whether I shall remove from this place or no, 
nor do I know how long it will please God to give me 
my life : ^ however I think no fitter person that is likely 
to stay here, with whom to leave the trust of your 
house, than Mr. Almond ; I am persuaded you need 
not question his fidelity. If I do remove I shall give 
you timely notice. Dr. Barwick and Mr. Bing pre- 
sent their services to you. The prayers of the church 
are continued by Mr. Bing, Mr. Clifford, and Mr. 
Masters, and Simpson attending. I smoke your house 
twice a week, Tuesdays and Fridays. I beg the con- 
tinuance of your prayers, and rest 

Your obedient humble servant, 


It is reported that above eight hundred are already 
buried in Cripplegate parish this week. ^ 

» Pepys in his Diary, vol. i. p. 359 says, " Aug. 10*. the Town (jrowiug so un- 
healthy, that a man cannot depend upon living two days." In another place, " Sad 
news of the death of so many in the parish of the plague, forty last night. The 
Bell always going." 

ii The Bill of Mortality for a subsequent weekjiO'i". Aug. to 5"". Sept. returned 56T 
dead of the plague in this Parish. Tlie total returned buried in that week from 
Cripplegate, was C90. The poor of this having liberty to go about, the con- 
tagion became more extended in it. 



Mr. TilUson to Dr. Sancrqft. Further particulars 
of the violence of the Plague, 

[MS. HAHL. 3785. fol. 49. Orig.^ 

London, August the 23^. 1665. 

Reverend Sir, 
Yours of Saturday last from Ewell, I have received, 
and as far as in me lies have observed and done your 
commands. I have paid .£'40 to Mr. Daniel Keilway, 
and £5 to those of the choir to whom you directed me, 
who return their humble service and thanks, and pro- 
mise to continue their constant attendance in the ser- 
vice of the Church. I likewise paid £5 to the church- 
wardens of St. Giles's Cripplegate since your last to 
me; the rest of your charity I hope Mr. Ring will 
give a good account of. He had £5 of your last 
money from me. Though your care could not havp 
been more than it was for furnishing me with money 
to discharge those payments which you ordered in 
your last, yet all those ways failed every one. Dr. 
Rarwick pretended yesterday that he had not so much 
money of his own to disburse presently, but at the last 

VOL. IV. SFR. 2. D 



(though a little scrupled at first) he was wiUing to let 
me take £4:0 out of the common stock, and that we 
intended to do this morning, but God Almighty has 
ordered it otherwise, by striking Dr. Barwick with so 
desperate sickness that it was not fit for me- to go to 
him, nor he in a condition to be reminded of any such 
thing ; it seems not one member but all the parts of 
his body bears a part in his sufferings ; neither rising 
nor botch does yet appear; a slow weak pulse and faint- 
ness possesses him ; his sweating is not much ; seeing 
this to happen it made me void of hope to effect my 
business, yea and daunted me very much too. But 
after a little pause I went to Sir Robert Viners (there 
Mr. Welsted's money lies) but could not receive one 
penny unless I brought Mr. Welsted's note. I am 
sorry Mr. Welsted should forget his promise, he is 
some where towards Uxbridge. 

Your tenant Fleetham died this afternoon. Ken- 
drick the beliringer has languished since last Sunday, 
we have some hopes this evening that he may recover. 
Johnson your bailiff was buried last night. I am very 
sorry Mr. Sisson has caught so troublesome a compa- 
nion as an ague. I wish he may shake it off" before 
winter. Mr. Bing presents his humble service to you. 
I am a little doubtful whether this will come to your 
hands. I have no other directions to send to you but 
by inquiring from one inn to another in South wark 
this afternoon. If I do but once find a conveyance I 


shall he ready to observe your commands upon all 
occasions so long as I live, for so long shall I be 
your faithful servant, 



J. Tillison to Dr. Sancroft. The great desolation of 
the City. 

[m8. harl. 3785. fol. 50. Orig.} 

Sept. 14ti'. 1665. 
Reverend Sir, 

We are in good hopes that God in his mercy will 
put a stop to this sad calamity of Sickness ; but the 
desolation of the City is very great. That heart is 
either steel or stone that will not lament this sad Visita- 
tion, and will not bleed for those unutterable sorrows. 

It is a time, God knows, that one woe courts another; 
those that are sick are in extreme sorrow ; the poor are 
in need; those that are in health are in fear of in- 
fection on the one side, and the wicked inventions of 
hellish rebellious spirits to put us in an uproar on the 
other side. 



What eye would not weep to see so many habitations 
uninhabited ; the poor sick not visited ; the hungry 
not fed ; the Grave not satisfied ! Death stares us 
continually in the face in every infected person that 
passeth by us ; in every coffin which is daily and hourly 
carried along the streets. The bells never cease to 
put us in mind of our mortality. 

The custom was, in the beginning, to bury the dead 
in the night only ; now, both night and day will hardly 
be time enough to do it. 

For the last week, mortality did too apparently 
evidence that, that the dead was piled in heaps above 
ground for some hours together, before either time 
could be gained or place to bury them in. 

The Quakers (as we are informed) have buried in 
their piece of ground a thousand for some weeks to- 
gether last past. 

Many are dead in Ludgate, Newgate, and Christ 
Church Hospital, and many other places about the 
town which are not included in the bill of mortality. 

The disease itself (as is acknowledged by our prac- 
titioners in physic) was more favourable in the begin- 
ning of the contagion ; now more fierce and violent ; 
and they themselves do likewise confess to stand 
amazed to meet with so many various symptoms which 
they find amongst their patients. One week the 
general distempers are botches and boils; the next 
week as clear-skinned as may be ; but death spares 


neither. One week, full of spots and tokens; and 
perhaps the succeeding, none at all. Now taken with 
a vomiting and looseness, and within two or three 
days almost a general raging madness. One while 
patients used to linger four or five days, at other times 
not forty-eight hours ; and at this very time we find it 
more quick than ever it was. Many are sick, and few 
escape. Where it has had its fling, there it decreases ; 
where it has not been long, there it increases. It 
reigned most heretofore in alleys, &c. now it domineers 
in the open streets. The poorer sort was most afflicted ; 
now the richer bear a share. 

Captain Colchester is dead. Fleetham and all his 
family are clearly swept away, except one maid. Dr. 
Burnett, Dr. Glover, and one or two more of the 
College of Physicians, with Dr. O' Dowd, which was 
licensed by my Lord's Grace of Canterbury, some sur- 
geons, apothecaries, and Johnson the chemist, died all 
very suddenly. Some say (but God forbid that I 
should report it for truth) that these, in a consultation 
together, if not all, yet the greatest part of them, 
attempted to open a dead corpse which was full of the 
tokens; and being in hand with the dissected body, 
some fell down dead immediately, and others did not 
outlive the next day at noon. 

All is well and in safety at your house, God be 
thanked. Upon Tuesday last I made it my day's work 
to kindle fires in every room of tiie house where I could 


do it, and aired all the bedclothes and bedding at the 
fires, and so let them all lie abroad until this morning; 
the feather bed in the back chamber was almost spoiled 
with the heavy weight of carpets and other things upon 
it. I am afraid I have been too tedious, and therefore 
beg your pardon and take my leave, who am. 
Reverend Sir, 
your most faithful humble servant, 


Brimstone, hops, pepper, and frankincense, &c. I use 
to fume the rooms with. 
For yourself. 


King Charles the Second to the Duke of Ormond, con- 
cerning the dismissal of Lord Chancellor Hyde. 


*^* Eachard alludes to this Letter in his History. He says, "As to 
tlie private reasons of the King's abandoning the Chancellor, His Majesty 
wrote an obliging Letter to the Duke of Ormond, then in Ireland, to give 
him satisfaction in that matter ; as knowing him to be his intimate friend. 
The Letter was never yet published, nor would a Copy of it be granted ; 
but I have more than once been told the substance of it by those who 
have read it ; and the principal reason there given by the King was, the 
Chancellor'' s insupportable temper.'''' " 

That the Chancellor had grown a little peevish, we have an instance in 
Pepys's Memoirs. Nevertheless the true reason of the King's discarding 

• Kat-h. Hist. Kngl. vol. ii. |i. 19«. 



him was, that his integrity had become hateful to the bufibons of a licen. 
tious Court, who feared him as a monitor. Their banter and mimicry, 
aided by female solicitation, at last induced the King to part both from 
his person and his services. Granger justly observes that the virtue of 
the Earl of Clarendon was of too stubborn a nature for the Age of Charles 
the Second. 

When he was going firom Court, upon his resignation of the Great 
Seal, the Dutchess of Cleveland insulted him from a window of the Palace. 
He turned roUnd and said calmly, ' Madam, if you live you will grow 

Whitehall, 15*. Sept. 
I SHOULD have thanked you sooner for your melan- 
choly letter of 26 *'. Aug. and the good counsel you 
gave me in it, as my purpose was also to say something 
to you concerning my taking the Seals from the Chan- 
cellor; of which you must needs have heard all the 
passages, since he would not suffer it to be done so 
privately as I intended it ; the truth is, his behaviour 
and humour was grown so unsupportable to myself, 
and to all the world else, that I could not longer en- 
dure it, and it was impossible for me to live with it 
and do those things with the Parliament that must be 
done, or the Government will be lost. When I have 
a better opportunity for it, you shall know many par- 
ticulars that have inclined me to this resolution, which 
already seems to be well liked in the world, and to 
have given a real and visible amendment to my affairs. 
This is an Argument too big for a Letter ; so I will 
add but this word to it, to assure you that your former 
friendship to the Chancellor shall not do you any pre- 
judice with me, and that I have not in the least degree 


diminished that value and kindness I ever had for you, 
which I thought fit to say to you upon this occasion, 
because it is very possible malicious people may sug- 
gest the contrary to you. 


To my Lord Lieutenant. 


" The Kings. 

at Kilkenny 

Answered 2 Oct. 67. 


Dr. George Hickes to Dr. Patrick. The State of 
Affairs in Scotland. 

[MS. LANSD. 988. fol. 156.] 

Edinburgh, December 8 1'. 77. 

The inclosed is an account of the present state of 

Affairs in this Kingdom, and of that effectual course 

my Lord Duke'* hath taken to reduce the insolent 

fanatics. It is sent to my Lord Bishop of Rochester 

from my Lord Bishop of Galloway, who is a great 

support to this Church, and a very faithful friend and 

counsellor to my Lord. I have formerly told you how 

• The Duke of Lauderdale. 


the fanatics have been under-hand encouraged to this 
height of insolence by some mal-content Lords, and 
therefore to particularise the general information of 
the inclosed, I have sent you the names of the most 
considerable and mischievous of them in the several 
divisions, where the fanatics of late have made so 
much stir. In the country of Fife the Earl of Rothes, 
(the present Lord Chancellor) and the Earl of Kin- 
cardine are chief, whereof the former hath been the 
most false and the latter the most ungrateful man to 
my Lord that ever was born. In Clydesdale the Duke 
of Hamilton, Sheriff of the Shire. In Carriet the Earl 
of Cassils, Sheriff of the Shire. In Tiviotdale the Earl 
of Roxborough ; and in Tweedale his father-in-law the 
Earl of Tweedale, Sheriff. In the Stewartry of Kir- 
kubright, which containeth the east part of Galloway, 
the Earl of Queensbury and the Earl of Galloway ; and 
in Stirlingshire and about Lithgow the Earl of Cal- 
lender and Major-general Drummond. 

These are the chief of the party, and though all of 
them be not fanatics professed, yet those that are 
not, forgetting their duty to their Prince and the esta- 
blished government of the Church, take this wicked 
course of fomenting the fanatic faction (if it could 
be to rebel) because (forsooth) they have not the chief 
administration of affairs. They are now most of theui 
with their adherents in the town, and daily club to- 
l^ether to raise lies and disperse them about both 


Kingdoms, and all the ways imaginable to debauch 
the military and gentry (though God be thanked with 
little success) from their duty to his Majesty, and make 
them have an ill opinion of my Lord. 

From this account you may see what great reason 
my Lord D. had not to undertake the reduction of 
the forementioned Countries till he had procured the 
English and Irish Forces to be in readiness, in case 
there should be occasion. For had he sent the small 
forces we have here among them before, they would 
have been encouraged to rise by their foresaid patriots, 
whereof some wish the ruin of the Church, and all of 
them the ruin of my Lord Duke. And notwithstand- 
ing the preparations that my Lord hath made against 
them, yet the mad rabble think themselves secure, 
having received private information from their patriots 
that they will undertake their protection till Spring, 
which whether they can do or no must be proved by 
the event. My Lord, you may assure all the world, 
will not let slip this opportunity of doing God and the 
Church, the King and his Country, all that Service 
which a most loyal subject, faithful minister, and 
zealous Churchman can be imagined to do. And yet 
the Lords of the party had so far insinuated them- 
selves into the clergy as to make some of them suspect 
his sincerity to the Church ; this I found every where 
in the late tours I made about the country, and I 
think I was more capable then any other single man 


to cure their jealousies, wherewith some Bishops were 
but too much possessed, till I conjured them to believe 
that if my Lord were not true to the Church, I would 
not tarry with him three days. 

My Lord hath taken care to hinder the French 
Officers from levying recruits in this Kingdom, which 
I hope will be acceptable news in England to all but 
those that would have him reputed of the French 
faction ; because it is so odious a character in our 
country. You cannot well imagine what daily pains 
and troubles he undergoes here, what knotty businesses 
he is to go through, and yet how cheerful, serene, and 
undisturbed he is, as if he had neither enemies, nor 
any thing to do. 

In your last you desired me td give you an account 
of the breaking of the contract between my Lady 
Catherine and the Marquis of AthoFs eldest son. The 
pretended reason of the Marquis and Marchioness 
was this, that upon taking a more particular account 
of the lands and debts, they could not make gtxxl the 
conditions in the contract, and so desired it might be 
nulled. This was the pretended, but what were the 
real reasons time will discover, and hereafter I shall be 
able to give you better information. But the young 
Lady lost nothing by it, for the news of the broken 
contract was no sooner gone abroad but my Lady had 
match upon match proffered from the best of the No- 
bility, who knew the worth and virtues of the young 


Lady, in particular from a very great Peer of this 
Kingdom, the Earl of Murray, for his eldest son my 
Lord Downes, who is a person far preferable to the 
Marquis's son, and with whom she is to have far 
more honourable conditions. Pray when you deliver 
the inclosed, present my most humble duty to my Lord 
Bishop and read mine to him. This is all from 
Your most affectionate friend 
and humble servant, 


I forgot to tell you that the Marquis of Athol bears 
the blame of the breach of the contract even among 
his own relations ; and that my Lady and her daughter 
received the news of it with incomparable temper. The 
Earl of Murray is a good churchman. 

To the Reverend Dr. Patrick, in the 
Cloister of Westminster Abbey. 



Dr. Hickes to Dr. Patrick upon the same. 

[ms. lansd. 988. fol. 161 b. Orig.] 

Edinburgh, Jan. 24^»'. 7|. 

Your last I received and showed it to my Lord 

Duke and Lord Bishop, that they might see how much 

they were beholden to you, and I assure you they 

were very sensible of your kindness, as you will find 

if ever you and they meet. 

Last Monday his Majesty'^s forces marched from 
hence into the west, and to-morrow the auxiliary forces 
follow them. There is with them a Committee of the 
Privy Council, which have as much power as the 
Privy Council itself, as you have, I hope, seen in that 
Act of Council which I sent Mr. Smith, and which I 
desired him to communicate to you. I hope by the 
next to send you their Instructions at large, that you 
may see with what wisdom our proceedings have been 

I have something yet left to say of Michell, to 
whom five hundred dollars were presented from several 
hands, between his sentence and execution, to fulfil 
that promise, " yet never saw I the righteous forsaken, 
nor his seed begging their bread." 



Within tliis week several ladies of great quality 
kept a private fast and a Conventicle in this Town, to 
seek God to bring to nought the councils of men against 
his people; and before they parted, all subscribed a 
paper wherein they covenanted to the utmost of their 
power to engage their Lords to assist and protect 
God's people against the devices (as they call all ex- 
pedients) that are taken to reduce them to order and 
obedience. Hereafter I will send you their names, 
but as yet I have given my word not to discover them. 

Last night we received information that Sunday 
was se"'nnight, or some day last week, Welsh told a 
vast congregation of his Western disciples, that they 
should certainly be hanged, when the forces came 
amongst them ; and that therefore it was far better to 
resist and fight the Lord's battles with their swords 
in their hands, and that thereupon they resolved to 
rebel, and in order thereto rendezvous this day in the 
Stewartry of Galloway. We all wish it may be true, 
but I am afraid it is not, although nothing but despair 
of success can make them forbear ; I wish they would 
try, as they did in 1666, whether God would work 
miracles for them or no. 

You shall hear as soon as any what the event of this 
expedition will be. Many of the fanatical party and 
their patrons hope that the Commons of England (who 
they think are ready to dance to any tune they will 
play) will grow jealous of these military proceedings, 


and engage his Majesty to dislike them, and substitute 
another in the Duke's stead ; and therefore you must 
expect to hear a thousand lying stories and misrepre- 
sentations of what is done here. 

If you have not yet received the Act of Council from 

Mr. Smith, pray send for it (for it is necessary to make 

you rightly understand all the future news that will 

depend thereupon). Let this suffice at present from 

Your most faithful friend and servant, 


For Dr. Patrick, 
in the Cloister of Westminster Abbey. 

Dr. Hickes to Dr. Patrick. MicheWs Tr'ml. 

[MS. LANSD. 988. fol. 162 b. Orig.] 

Edinburgh, Jan. 10^<'. 7f 

I RECEIVED two Letters from you since the entrance 

of the New Year, and am very sensible how much you 

press yourself to keep correspondence with me ; but I 

am the most inconsiderable person you oblige by so 

doing, and therefore you must not grow weary, but 

hold out now to the end. 



I promised you in one of my late letters to give you 
an account of Mr. MichelFs trial, who was arraigned 
for an attempt he made on the person of the Archbishop 
of St. Andrews by shooting at him in his coach with a 
great pistol charged with three bullets, which hit the 
Bishop of Orkney on the arm, as he was getting into 
the archbishop*'s coach. This barbarous fact was done 
^bout nine years ago, about two years after the Rebel- 
lion of Pentland Hills in the year 1666. Immediately 
after the fact he escaped, and was in Holland, Eng- 
land, and Ireland, for five years, and at last came into 
Scotland again, where he married, and after marriage 
took a shop (where his wife pretended to sell brandy, 
&c.) under the Archbishop's lodgings in Edinburgh, 
with a design to assassinate him again. But being 
known he was seized. There were two charged pis- 
tols found upon him, and when the Archbishop saw 
him first, among many others, he knew him perfectly 
after five years, although he had never seen him but 
when he shot at him. After he was seized he was 
brought before the Council, where my Lord sat as 
Commissioner, when he was last in Scotland four years 
since. The Council appointed a Committee to exa- 
mine him, before which he confessed the fact, and 
afterwards owned the confession before the Lord Com- 
missioner and the Council, which was registered, and 
witnessed by his own hand, and the hands of several 


counsellors ; which confession was now brought against 
him at the bar. He was not prosecuted then, because 
the Archbishop would not pursue him in Causa San- 
guinis, and the King's Advocate being a fanatic would 
not, but the Council sent him prisoner to the Basse (an 
island in the Forth), where he hath been kept ever 
since. Since my Lord came hither he got his Majesty 

to remove this advocate (whose name is Sir 

Nisbet) and Sir George Mackenzie (almost the only 
great man of this country) was made his Majesty's 
advocate in his stead, who upon my Lord's moving, 
and the Council's, pursued him like a gallant man and 
a good Christian, and not without much difficulty, and 
great pains, (so hard it is, and dangerous too, to pur- 
sue a bloody Saint to the last justice here) hath got 
justice done on him ; for this afternoon at two o'clock 
he was condemned to be hanged the 13th of this instant, 
in the Grass Market of Edinburgh. 

His trial lasted three days ; I was always present ; 
and many preliminary debates there were which I can- 
not make a stranger understand. At last all the dila- 
tory exceptions being answered, the Jury was impan- 
nelled and the witnesses sworn ; the depositions of some 
of which I shall here relate. 

The keeper of the Tolbooth's son (for so they call 

the Prison here) deposed, that having asked him how 

he could do such a barbarous action in cold blood 

against a man that had done him no wrong, he an- 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. E 


swered, it was not done in cold blood, for the blood 
of the Saints is still reeking at the Cross in Edin- 
burgh ; by the Saints he meant the Rebels that were 
hanged and beheaded in that place for the Rebellion 
in 66. 

The Bishop of Galloway deposed, that he confessed 
to him when he asked him the reason why he did it, 
that it was because the Archbishop was an enemy to 
the people of God. 

My Lord Hatton, my Lord Duke'^s brother, deposed 
that having asked him upon his confession why he did 
it, that he answered, because the Archbishop was an 
enemy to the godly people in the West, who rebelled 
in 66, and were the beginners of all the late disorders 

These and all the other depositions I heard. This 
barbarous assassinate is commended as heroic, and 
compared to the act of Phineas in Naphtali ; and in 
Jus Populi vindicatum, which is an answer to Naphtali 
written by the Bishop of Orkney that was wounded in 
the Rebellion in 66, and this fact against St, Andrews 
as a covenant breaker are both defended ; but I sup- 
pose you have read the books. 

Since this presbyterian Ravaillac was brought to 
town, notice was sent to the Archbishop from the west, 
that if he were condemned, many others were resolved 
to do the same, so that the poor man is not without 
just fear. 


You cannot imagine how the presbyterian party, 
especially the women, were concerned for him ; the 
court was full of disaffected villains, and because of my 
habit and profession I had many affronts done me ; for 
sitting on high with my back towards that side of the 
court where the zealous rabble were gathered together, 
near the bar at which the prisoner stood, they railed 
at my black coat, for so they called my gown, and be- 
spit it all over, and pelted me now and then with such 
things as bits of apple and crusts of bread. 

Upon the preparation of the forces, Fife hath 
already submitted ; for all the heritors and life-renters 
have agreed together to give in bonds to the Coun- 
cil for their own and tenants'" peaceable demeanour ; 
and on the 15''> instant they will be all given in 
to the Lord Chancellor, and by him to the Council. 
But the Saints of the West are as impudent as ever, 
believing, and declaring to believe, that God will find 
a way to defeat the counsel of his and their enemies ; 
and since Christmas they seized on six Parish Churches, 
and have appointed clerks and other officers of their 
own ; but within fourteen days they will find what they 
will not believe. 

I now long to be in England to finish that discourse 
I formerly told you of, of which I see by the people in 
this country there is so much need : I mean that of 
which you heard an abstract at the Abbey, founded on 
the notion of the theocracy. I study here not as I 

E 2 


would but as I can, and my study doth me not half so 
much good, as if I had my own books and methods. 
Pray present my service to Dr. Oughtram and Mrs. 
Oughtram, and your own lady. I wish myself often 
among you, and I wish myself no greater happiness in 
this world than always to be in your neighbourhood. 
My Lord Duke often remembers you and your bro- 
ther : pray send me a particular account of your de- 
livering the Bishop of Gloucester''s letter to the Bishop 
of Rochester. God send us a happy meeting. I am 
Your most affectionate friend and 
humble servant, 

For the Rev. Dr. Patrick, 
or Dr. Oughtram, 
in the Cloister of Westminster Abbey. 


Dr. Hickes to Dr. Patrick. MicheWs Sentence and 

[MS. LANSD. 988. foL 166.] 

Edinburgh, Jan. 19, 7|^. 

I SEND this letter as a Supplement to the story of 

Michell which I sent you before. When the sentence 


of death was pronounced against him, he told the 
Judges he received it as from God, but not from them. 
The next day after, he said he would do it if it were 
to do again, and sent to the Archbishop to desire that 
one or more of the imprisoned ministers might be per- 
mitted to come and give him comfort. Upon which a 
minister of the town was sent to him, but he refused 
to discourse with him otherwise than by reproaching 
of him ; calling of him a murderer of souls, and bid- 
ding him repent of the blood of souls, when he went to 
press upon his conscience the horridness of the bloody 
fact for which he was condemned by men, and of 
which without repentance he would stand guilty before 
the tribunal of God. 

The Dean of Edinburgh, Mr. Annand, also wrote 
a letter exhortatory to him, wherein from many texts 
of the Gospel he endeavoured to convince him how 
contradictory his principles and practices were to the 
doctrine of Christianity; to which he returned this 
answer : 

« Sir, 

I received yours, and since my time is so very short 
and so very precious, I can only thank you for your 
civility and affection, whether real or pretended ; and 
tell you that I fully close with all the precepts of the 
Gospel to love and peace, and therefore pray I Ixjth 
for Mr. Sharp and you ; but knowing both Mr. Sharp's 
wickedness, my own sincerity, and the Lord's holy 


sovereignty to use his creatures as he pleases, I can 
only refer the manifestation of my fact to the day 
of God's righteous and universal judgment ; praying 
heartily that God may have mercy on you, and open 
your eyes to see both the wickedness of all your ways, 
and of your godless insulting over an unjustly con- 
demned dying man, and grant unto you repentance 
and remission of your sin. I am in this 

Your well-wisher, 

JAMES M.'"* 

Having heard that he would not be permitted to 
speak to the people at his Execution (which was yester- 
day between two and four in the afternoon) he prepared 
several copies of a written speech, one whereof being 
found in his pocket was brought to my Lord. It is 
long, and the first part containing nothing but calumny 
and railing against the Privy Council and his Judges. 
I shall transcribe only the latter end. 

" I acknowledge my particular and private sins have 
been such as have merited a worse death unto me, but 
I die, in the hope of the merits of Jesus Christ to be 
freed from those eternal punishments due to me for 
sin. Yet I am confident God doth not plead with me 
in this place for my private and particular sins ; but I 
am brought here that the work of God may be made 
manifest, and for the trial of faith (John, chap. ix. 
ver. 3. Pet. chap. i. ver. 7.), and that I may be a wit- 
ness for his despised truth and interest in this land. 


who am called to seal the same with my blood ; and I 
wish heartily that this my poor life may put an end to 
the persecution of the true members of Christ in this 
kingdom, so much actuated by these perfidious prelates, 
and ill opposition to whom, and in testmiony of the 
cause of Christ, I at this time willingly lay down my 
life, and bless God that he hath thought me so much 
worthy as to do the same for his glory and interest. 

*' Finally concerning a Christian duty in a singular 
or extraordinary case, anent my particular judgment 
concerning both Church and State, it is evidently de- 
clared and manifested more fully elsewhere. So fare- 
well all earthly enjoyments, and welcome Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit, into whose hands I commit my spirit. 


The other copies he had in a Psalm-book, and when 
the Psalm was sung threw them about. 

By Mr. Sharp in his Letter to, Mr. Annand, he 
means the Archbishop, whom he attempted ; and con- 
cerning his judgment, which in his speech he saith is 
manifested more clear elsewhere, he means Naphtali. 
I forgot in my last to tell you, that he was sometime 
chaplain to Sir Arch. Johnston, called here Laird of 
Wareston, who was president of the Committee of 
Safety, and hanged for a traitor at Edinburgh. 

Lastly, I here send you a copy of a letter of a silly 
ridiculous minister, who renounced this church, and 



apostatized to the Whigs, whose martyr Michell is. I 
desire you to keep all my letters and papers concerning 
these illiterate and bloody villains. Mr. Smith, the 
secretary's chaplain, will bring you an Act of the Privy 
Council which I pray you to get transcribed, and 
communicate as much as you can to satisfy all rea- 
sonable men with our proceedings against these bloody 
rebellious saints. I would have sent you it, but am 
weary with writing many things, which makes me 
scribble so ill. I always suppose you remember me to 
your neighbour, and communicate to him the Letters 
of him who is entirely yours. 


The Day of Execution, there was a report that the 
women of Edinburgh (my good friends) had a design 
to rescue the malefactor, which made the Lord Provost 
bring a company of the town forces to the place of 
execution, to prevent any such design. 

A gentleman is come in, who assures me that there 
are several epitaphs made upon him, whereof one was 
found this morning at the great Cross, and the other 
upon the door that lets up the stairs which lead to the 
Council Chamber in the Parhament House. He tells 
me also they put epitaphs on his coffin when he was 
carried to the grave. 

To the Rev. Dr. Patrick. 



Mr. Henry Savill to Ms uncle Secretary Coventry. 

[MS. HARt. 7001. aH. 180.] 

*,♦ This Letter is introduced to the Reader from the mention which 
it makes of Tea. It appears from its evidence, that so late as 1678 
Tea was not universally used in English families either as a constant or 
a common beverage. It even complains of persons " who call for Tea 
instead of Pipes and Bottles after dinner :" designating it as "a hate 
unworthy Indian practice." 

Macpherson, in his History of the European Commerce with India, 
says that Tea is mentioned as the usual beverage of the Chinese by 
Soliman an Arabian Physician, who wrote an account of his Travels in 
the East as early as the year 850. But we have no reason to believe that 
Tea was brought to the Western parts of the World for many succeeding 
ages ; not the slightest mention of it being found in the work of any 
European author earlier than the sixteenth century. 

The most credible conjecture of its Introduction is, that it was one of 
the articles purchased by the Portuguese when that people were first per- 
mitted by the Government of China to trade to Sancian. 

Waller, in his Complimentary Verses to King Charles the Second 
upon his Majesty's Marriage, expressly owns our obligations to the 
Portuguese for its introduction into England : 

The best of Queens, and lot of Herbs we owe 
To that hold Nation who the way did show 
To the fair Region where thie Sun doth rise. 
Whose rich productions we so justly prize. 

The first autlientic notice which Macpherson quotes of Tea as an article 
of consumption in England is in the Act of Parliament of the 12th 
Charles lld. c 13. A. D. 1660, whereby a duty of eight pence is charged 
upon every gallon of chocolate, sherbet, and Tea made for sale ; while 
the same quantity of Coffee and even of foreign spirituous liquors is 
charged at only four|)ence. 

Macpherson states that the earliest importation of Tea by tlie East 
India Company from any part of the Indies, was in 1669, when they 


received from Bantam two canisters containing a hundred and forty-three 
pounds and a half ; for it does not appear, he adds, that they had as yet 
any direct intercourse with China the native country of Tea. This 
trifling quantity was partly given away in presents, and partly expended 
in the East India House for the refreshment of the Committee. 

In 1678 (the year in which the present Letter is dated), the East 
India Company began the importation of Tea as a branch of Trade ; the 
quantity received at that time amounting to four thousand seven hun- 
dred and thirteen pounds. The importation gradually enlarged, and the 
Government, in consequence, augmented the duties upon Tea. By the 
year I7OO the importation of Tea had arrived at the quantity of twenty 
thousand pounds. In 1721 it exceeded a million of pounds. In 1816 
it had arrived at 36,234,380/i*. Something more than thirty millions of 
pounds is probably the present average of importation : some allowance 
must be made for Tea damaged and spoiled upon the passage. 

An earlier testimony of the Introduction of Tea into England than 
that which Macpherson advances is found in a single Sheet, preserved 
in Sir Hans Sloane's Library now in the British Museum, of the time 
of the Usurpation. It is as follows. In the mode recommended for 
gathering the Tea in leaf; in the great assemblage of its virtues when 
gathered and prepared for use ; and in the price which it originally brought 
in England, the reader will find some room for astonishment. 

" An exact Description of the groteth, quality, and vertues of the 
Leaf THiA by Thomas Garway in Exchange-Alley near the Royal 
Exchange in London, Tobacconist, and Seller and Retailer of Tea and 

" Tea is generally brought from China, and groweth there upon little 
Shrubs or Bushes, the branches whereof are well garnished with white 
Flowers that are yellow within, of the bigness and fashion of sweet-brier, 
but in smell unlike, bearing thin green leaves about the bigness of 
Scordium, Mirtle, or Sumack, and is judged to be a kind of Sumack. 
This Plant hath been reported to grow wild only, but doth not, for they 
plant it in their Gardens about four foot distance, and it groweth about 
four foot high, and of the Seeds they maintain and increase their stock. 
Of all places in China this Plant groweth in greatest plenty in the Pro- 
vince of Xemsi, I^atitude 36 degrees, bordering upon the West of the 
Province of Honam j and in the Province of Namking near the City of 
Lucheu, there is likewise of the growth of Sinam, Cochin-China, the 
Island de Ladrones, and Japan, and is called Cha. Of this famous 
Leaf there are divers sorts (though aU of one shape), some much better 
than other, the upper leaves excelling the other in fineness, a property 
almost in all Plants ; which leaves they gather every day, and drying 


them in the shade, or on iron pans over a gentle fire till the humidity be 
exhausted, then put them up close in leaden pots, and preserve them for 
their Drink Tea, which is used at meals, and upon all Visits and Enter- 
tainments in private Families, and in the Palaces of Grandees. And it 
is averred by a Padre of Macao, native of Japan, that the best Tea ought 
not to be gathered but by Virgins who are destined to this work, and 
such, ' quae nondum menstrua patiuntur: gemmae quae nascuntur in 
summitate arbuscula servantur Imperatorie, ac praecipuis ejus Dynastis; 
quae autem infra nascuntur, ad latera, populo conceduntur.' The said 
Leaf is of such known vertues, that those very Nations so famous for 
knowledge and wisdom, do frequently sell it among themselves for twice 
its weight in silver, and the high estimation of the Drink made therewith 
hath occasioned an inquiry into the nature thereof among the most in- 
telligent persons of all Nations that have travelled in those parts, who 
after exact tryal and experience by all ways imaginable, have commended 
it to the use of their several Countries, for its vertues and operations, par- 
ticularly as followeth, viz. 

" The Quality is moderately hot, proper for Winter or Summer. The 
Drink is declared to be most wholesome, preserving in perfect health until 
extreme old age. 

" The particular Vertues are these. It makcth the body active and 
lusty. It helpeth the head-ache, giddiness and heaviness thereof. It 
removeth the obstructions of the spleen. It is very good against the 
stone and gravel, cleansing the kidneys and ureters, being drank with 
virgin's honey instead of sugar. It taketh away the difficulty of breath- 
ing, opening obstructions. It is good against lipitude distillations, and 
cleareth the sight. It removeth lassitude, and cleanseth and purifieth 
adust humors and a hot liver. It is good against crudities, strengthening 
the weakness of the ventricle or stomach, causing good appetite and 
digestion, and particularly for men of a corpulent body, and such as are 
great eaters of fiesh. It vanquisheth heavy dreams, easeth the brain, and 
strengthencth the memory. It overcometh superfluous sleep, and pre- 
vents sleepiness in general, a draught of the Infusion being taken, so that 
without trouble whole nights may be spent in study without hurt to the 
body, in that it moderately heateth and bindeth the mouth of the sto- 
mack. It prevents and cures agues, surfeits, and feavers, by infusing 
a fit quantity of the leaf, thereby provoking a most gentle vomit and 
breathing of the pores, and hath been given with wonderful success. It 
(being prepared and drank with milk and water) strengthencth the inward 
parts, and prevents consumptions, and powerfully assuageth the pains of 
the bowels, or griping of the guts and looseness. It is good for colds, 
dropsies, and scurvies, if properly infused ; purging the blood by sweat 


and urine, and expelleth infection. It drives away all pains in the cholic 
proceeding from wind, and purgeth safely the gall. 

" And that the vertues and excellencies of this Leaf and Drink are 
many and great, is evident and manifest by the high esteem and use of 
it (especially of late years) among the Physicians and knowing men in 
France, Italy, Holland, and other parts of Christendom ; and in England 
it hath been sold in the Leaf for six pounds, and sometimes for ten 
pounds the pound weight, and in respect of its former scarceness and 
deamess, it hath been only used as a Regalia in high Treatments and 
Entertainments, and Presents made thereof to Princes and Grandees, till 
the year 1657. 

The said Thomas Garway did purchase a quantity thereof, and first 
publickly sold the said Tea in Leaf and Drink made according to the di- 
rections of the most knowing Merchants and Travellers into those Eastern 
Countries: and upon knowledge and experience of the said Garway's 
continued care and industry in obtaining the best Tea, and making Drink 
thereof, very many Noblemen, Physicians, Merchants, and Gentlemen of 
quality have ever since sent to him for the said I^eaf, and daily resort to 
his House in Exchange Alley aforesaid to drink the Drink thereof. 

" And that Ignorance nor Envy may have no ground or power to report 
or suggest that what is here asserted of the vertues and excellencies of 
this precious Leaf and Drink hath more of design than truth, for the 
justification of himself and satisfaction of others, he hath here enumerated 
several Authors, who in their learned Works have expressly written and 
asserted the same, and much more in honour of this noble licaf and 
Drink, viz. Bontius, Riccius, Jarricus, Almeyda, Horstius, Alvarez 
Semeda, Martinius in his China Atlas, and Alexander de Rhodes in his 
Voyage and Missions in a large discourse of the ordering of this Leaf 
and the many vertues of the Drink, printed at Paris 1653, part 10. 
chap. 13. 

" And to the end that all persons of eminency and quality, gentle- 
men, and others, who have occasion for Tea in leaf may be supplied, 
these are to give notice that the said Thomas Garway hath Tea to sell 
from sixteen to fifty shillings the pound. 

" And whereas several Persons using Coffee, have been accustomed 
to buy the powder thereof by the pound, or in lesser or greater quantities, 
which if kept two days looseth much of its first goodness. And foras- 
much as the Berries after drying may be kept if need require some 
months; therefore all persons being remote from London, and have 
occasion for the said powder, are advised to buy the said Coffee berries 
ready dried ; which being in a mortar beaten, or in a mill ground to 
powder, as they use it, will so often be brisk, fresh, and fragrant, and in 


its full vigour and strength as if new prepared, to the great satisfaction 
of the Drinkers thereof, as hath been experienced by many in this City. 
Which commodity of the best sort, the said Thomas Garway hath always 
ready dried to be sold at reasonable rates. 

" Also such as will have Coffee in powder, or the Berries undried, 
or Chocolate, may by the said Thomas Garway be supplied to their 
content : with such further Instructions and perfect Directions how to use 
Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate, as is, or may be needful, and so as to be 
efficacious and operative, according to their several vertues. 

" Advertisement. 
" That Nicholas Brook, living at the Sign of the Frying-pan in S'. 
Tulies-Street gainst the Church, is the only known man for making of 
Mills for grinding of Coffee powder, which Mills are by him sold from 
40 to 45 shillings the Mill." 

The Coffee House named in the preceding Paper still exists as Garra- 
•way's Coffee House. Secretary Pepys, in his Diary, vol. i. p. 7C. with- 
out saying where he had his drink, makes the following entry, " Sept. 
25"'. 16C0. I did send for a Cup of Tea (a China drink) of which I never 
had drank before, and went away." . 

Paris, Aug. 12, 1678. 
Though as a Secretary of State I ought not to 
trouble you but with things relating to the good of the 
Public Weal, as an Uncle methinks I may sometimes 
present you my duty, which is no small favour ; for, 
as I take it, my friends have as little to brag of my 
duty as of any relation they have, I having been pretty 
sparing of it, and they may thank God when I am in 
the humour to pay it, though I do not ; for methinks 
it is an ill sign when after five and thirty years old, a 


man changes for any thing, and I am so afraid that 
my decent behaviour is rather a sign of age than virtue, 
that I begin to repine at the least act of mine that 
seems to have any decency in it. All the comfort I 
have in this contemplation is, laying a part of this 
upon your kindness to me, and the good reception I 
always find at your house, more especially that arbi- 
trary dominion I am suffered to exercise over that most 
notable minister of state your Butler. These I hope 
are the charms that have prevailed with me to remem- 
ber (that is to trouble) you oftener than I am apt to 
do other of my friends, whose Buttery-hatch is not 
so open, and who calljbr Tea instead of Pipes and 
Bottles after dinner ; a base unworthy Indian practice^ 
and which I must ever admire your most Christian 
family for not admitting. The truth is, all nations 
are grown so wicked as to have some of these filthy 

The vice of this flourishing Kingdom being not to 
sit long enough by two hours at table, and by that 
time one is well sate and settled to an admirable dinner, 
every body rises in haste upon the news that the King- 
has dined, as if what filled his belly filled those of all 
his subjects ; and that it were treason to be hungry 
(though fasting) when the King had dined ; so that in 
more senses than one it may be said, no man in France 
can eat but the King. I dread my share of this 
tyranny when I go to Fontainbleau : the day for that 


voyage being Monday se'nnight ; and a little after, 
every snip of a statesman must follow for his own 
credit. And though I have no commission to justify 
my pretensions to wisdom, the French are so much 
better discoverers of men''s abilities than the English, 
that all the world cannot beat it out of men''s heads 
but that I am in the deepest of the secret of Peace and 
War ; and they rely upon nothing more than my pru- 
dence for a good conclusion of so Weighty an affair. 
After this, would not one think that they are all witches 
here .'' for alas ! what have I done to give the least 
suspicion of this kind ? I appeal to all my friends, all 
my relations, and all my acquaintance whether I have 
deserved this at any body"*s hands, and whether I look 
more like a carrier of peace than several of my ac- 
quaintance that are gone into Flanders look like car- 
riers of war. For my part I am a modest man, and 
neither desire to be pmnted with an olive-branch in my 
mouth, nor a generaFs staff in my hand ; a glass of 
wine shall serve my turn in both, and the very next 
shall be to your health, and so God bless you my ever 
honoured Uncle, and Right Honourable Secretary of 



The Duke of Monmouth to Sir Robert AtTcyns, A. D. 

[from the Orig. IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.] 

*,* The disgrace of Monmouth to which this Letter relates, was fol- 
lowed by the King's Declaration respecting Lucy Walters, printed in the 
former Series. 

For seventeen or eighteen years the suspicion was kept alive at intervals, 
that Monmouth might by some chance be made the Successor to the 
Crown ; for the King was not looked upon as the only person who secretly 
encouraged the intention. That the Report prevailed not only after the 
Duke had left England by order, but even after the King's Declaration 
of 1680, will be seen in the Letter which follows this. 

SiK, Whitehall, 19 h. Sept. 

I HAVE received the King's commands to go out of 
England for some time, and in obedience thereto, I am 
preparing myself for my journey. But before I go I 
am willing to make the settlement of my Estate, and I 
am informed that one part of it must be done in the 
presence of one of the Justices of the Common Pleas, 
who being all out of town at this time, I take the 
liberty to desire you would give yourself the trouble to 
come to London on Monday next, wherein you will 
very particularly oblige, 

Your humble servant, 

For Sir Robert Atkins, Bart, one of 
his Majesty's Justices of the Common 
Pleas, at his house near Barnet. 



Dr. Zacheus Isham Dean of Christ Church Oxford^ 
to Dr. Edmund Borlase. Rumours after the Dis- 
solution of the Parliament at Oxford. 

[m8. DONAT. BEIT. MUS. 1008. foL 112. Orig-I 

Christ Church, Mar. 31, 1681. 

We have not been so much an University here of 
late as a Stage, upon which very sudden turns and 
changes of state affairs have been acted ; but what de- 
nomination tlie Drama must have cannot appear till the 
event, for tlie last act is not yet come, and we must 
expect other revolutions. Indeed the Dissolution of 
the Parliament was very surprising to all here, as well 
as to the Country ; and to me the mystery of it seems 
to be in the dark : but truth will not always be so, and 
in time we may hope to see the plots and contrivance* 
of our disturbers unravelled and defeated. 

We have a long story here of a private conference 
between the King and the Earl of Shaftesbury, who pro- 
posed to him the declaring of the Duke of M. to be 
legitimate, and the enriching of himself by the Church- 
lands; but the King firmly rejected both these proposals 
as unjust. I will not warrant the truth of this relation, 
but it is confidently reported amongst us ; and if it be 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. F 


true, the designs of our leading patriots, (as they would 
be thought,) are sufficiently manifested. 

It is no less warmly discoursed of here, that the 
next Parliament will be called hither about November : 
but I am not apt to believe, that his Majesty will be 
inclined to have another so soon. 

Sir, what transactions were done and carrying on in 
the short Parliament here you must certainly be well 
informed, having the mouth of it at Chester, and there- 
fore I shall not pretend to give you any account of it : 
but had their stay been longer, I should sometimes 
have ventured to give you a taste of my improvement 
among our politicians ; because I find that you are so 
highly favourable to me as to accept of my correspond- 
ence; though truly. Sir, you are not very likely to thrive 
by this trade, for you exchange gold for brass. How- 
ever, Sir, I am very well pleased with this intercourse, 
which is so advantageous to me ; nor will you lose much 
by this traffic, because your communications, like those 
. . . a light, diminish not the fountain ; and be- 
sides, not '' . . . what I gain from you is still 
yours ; but I am so entirely myself as being. 
Your most obedient 
and most devoted servant. 

For the most honoured Dr. Edmund 
Borlase, at his house in West Chester, these, 

• Qt4. of the. •• 9"- note that. 



Sir James Dick, Bart. Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 
to Mr. Ellies at London. The Diike of' York ship- 
wrecked on the Sand-bank called the Lenum and Ore. 


*,• The Duke of York was wrecked upon the Ijemon and Ore, about 
sixteen leagues from the mouth of the Humber, on the morning of May 
5th, 1682. 

Sir James Dick, the writer of this liCtter, in consequence, assumed for 
his crest a Ship in distress and sinking, with the motto '' At Spe$ 

Edinburgh, 9"'. of May, 1682. 
Deae Sir, 
Upon Sunday, at eight o'clock at night, his Royal 
Highness with his retinue arrived safe here, there 
being a most sad disaster upon the Saturday before, 
at eleven o'clock in the morning ; " the man of war called 
the Gloster, Sir John Barrie Captain, wherein his 
Highness was, and a great retinue of noblemen and 
gentlemen, whereof I was one, the said ship did strike 
in pieces and did wholly sink in a Bank of sand called 
the Lemon and Ore, about twelve leagues from Yar- 
mouth. This was occasioned by the wrong calcul 
and ignorance of a Pilot, and put us all in such con- 

* Kennctt, Hist. Engl. vol. iii. p. 404. places this Actident the day before, '" on 
F»irf<iy,May fi""." 

F 2 



sternation that we knew not what to do: the Duke 
and all that were with him being in bed when she first 
struck. The helm having broke, the man was killed by 
the force thereof at the first shock. 

When the Duke got his clothes on and inquired how 
things stood, she had nine feet water in her hold, and the 
sea fast coming in at the gun-ports ; the seamen and pas- 
sengers were not at command, every man studying his 
own safety. This forced the Duke to go out at the large 
window of the cabin where his little boat was ordered 
quietly to attend him, lest the passengers and seamen 
should have thronged so in upon him, as to overset his 
boat. This was accordingly so conducted as that none 
but Earl Winton and the President of the Session, with 
two of the bed-chamber men, went with him. They 
were forced to draw their swords to hold people off. 

We seeing they were gone, did cause tackle out with 
great difficulty the Ship''s boat, wherein the Earl of 
Perth got, and then I went by jumping off the shrouds; 
the Earl of Middleton immediately after me did jump 
in upon my shoulders ; withal there came the Laird of 
Touch with several others, besides the seamen that 
were to row, which was thought a sufficient number 
for her loading, considering there was going so great 
a sea, occasioned by the wind at North East ; and we 
seeing that at the Duke's boat side, there was one 
overwhelmed by reason of the greatness of the sea, 
which drowned the whole in her except two men, whom 

ORIGINAL lp:tters, 69 

we saw riding on her keel. This made us desire to 
be gone, but before we were loose, there leaped from 
the shrouds about twenty or twenty-four seamen in upon 
us, which made all the spectators and ourselves to think 
we would sink, and all having given us over for lost, 
did hinder an hundred more from leaping in upon us. 

With those that were left was Lord Roxburgh and 
Laird Hopton, and Mr. Littledel, Roxburgh's ser- 
vant. Doctor Livingston, and the President of the 
Sessions' man, and my servant. They all being at the 
place when I jumped would not follow, because it seems 
they concluded it more safe to stay in the vessel than 
to expose themselves to our hazard ; all which persons 
in an instant were washed off and drowned. 

There will be perished in this disaster above two 
hundred persons, for I reckon there were two hundred 
and fifty seamen, and I am sure there were eighty noble- 
men, gentlemen, and their servants; my computation was 
that there were three hundred and thirty in all, of which 
I cannot learn that a hundred and thirty are found alive. 

Our difficulties and hazards that were in this boat 
were wonderful. If the rest had not thought us all 
dead men, I am sure many more would have jumped 
in upon us. We were so thronged we had no room 
to stand, and when we were forcing ourselves from 
the ship, she being sinking by degrees all the time ; 
and besides the surfs were so boisterous that we 
were like to be struck in pieces upon the wreck so 


sinking, it was npt but with great difficulty that we 
forced out the boat from the ship ; and when we came 
to row to the nearest yacht, the waves were such, we 
being overloaded, that every moment we thought to 
have been drowned; and being about midway to the 
yachts, there were a great many swimming for their 
lives, who caught a dead gripe of our boat, holding 
up their heads above the water and crying for help ; 
which hinderance was put off and their hands loosed, 
by telling them they would both lose themselves and 
us ; yet this would not do to make them loose their 
gripe, till they were forced off by several in our boat, 
except one that took hold of me, whom I caused catch 
into the boat, lest I should have been pulled out by 
him ; and when it pleased God to bring us wonderfully 
to one of the yachfs side, being not less than a quarter 
of a mile distant from our ship, they not daring to 
come nearer by reason of the sand bank upon which 
we were wrecked ; and if we had not shot off guns, 
shewing them our distress, the other men of war that 
were immediately following would have met with the 
same disaster ; but they immediately bore off. The 
four yachts came as near as they could, and put off 
their boats to help us, but all that could be done could 
not prevent this great loss of about two hundred men. 
I was in my gown and slippers, lying in bed, when she 
first struck, and did escape in that condition ; and 
when unexpectedly and wonderfully we came to the 


yacht's side, called Captain Saunders, we were like to 
be crushed to pieces by it, which by reason of the 
great sea was like to run us down. 

At last a rope was cast, which was so managed that 
we were brought to the lee side, then every man 
climbed for his life, and so did I, taking hold of a 
rope, and made shift upon the side till I came within 
men's reach, and was hauled in ; and I then looked 
back but could not see one bit of our Great Ship above 
water, but about a Scots ell long of the staff upon 
which the Royal Standard stood ; for with her striking 
she had come off the sand bank which was but three 
fathoms, and her draught was eighteen feet. There 
was eighteen fathoms water upon each side when she 
struck, and so did sink in the deepest place. Now if 
she had continued upon the three fathoms, and broke 
in pieces there, all would have had time to have saved 
themselves ; but such was the misfortune, that she was 
wholly overwhelmed, and all washed into the sea that 
were upon her decks. There would have been relief 
by boats if she had stood half an hour longer. 

So to conclude this melancholy account, all the above 
persons, our countrymen, that were of resj^ect, are 
as I have told. Of Englishmen of respect there were 
lost Lord O'Brien and Lord Hyde's brother, who was 
lieutenant of the ship ; and a number of noblemen and 
gentlemen's servants, which I cannot name. I can 
I hardly speak with any that were aboard with the 


Duke but they have lost of servants more or less. 
God make me thankful for this wonderful deliverance. 

I believe I shall have trouble now that both my Lord 
Roxburgh and his man are lost, to recover payment 
of these bills : all my clothes and papers are lost, having 
nothing saved but the twenty guineas which were in 
my little pocket with my watch, and the little box with 
my wife's ring and necklace; but for my papers, I 
rolled them up in a handkerchief, and put them off 
me, so that both the King's letter for the .^1200 ster- 
ling, and the accompt I filed with you, are gone. 

Yesterday his Royal Highness called the King's 
Council, and there the King's will was declared as to 
his Chancellor, who was the President of the Session ; 
my Lord Queensberry for Treasurer, and Lord Perth 
Justice-General which Queensberry had before. 

Notwithstanding the disaster his Highness met with 
in this last sea voyage, yet he is within five or six days, 
with his Duchess and the Lady Anne, to take shipping 
for London. 


To Mr. EUies, in London. 

-The reader will do well to compare the Letter which he has just read, 
with the very different statement which Hume gives of the circumstances 
of the Shipwreck. He says, " As the King was master in England, and 
no longer dreaded the clamours of the country party, he permitted the 
Duke to pay him a visit ; and was soon after prevailed on to allow of his 
return to England, and of his bearing a part in the administration. The 


Duke went to Scodand, in order to bring up his family, and settle the 
government of that country ; and he chose to take his passage by sea. 
The Ship struck on a sand-bank, and was lost ; the Duke escaped in the 
BABGE ; and it is pretended, that while many persons of rank and quality 
were drowned, and among the rest Hyde, his brother-in-law, he was very 
careful to save several of Ms dogs and priests ; for these two species of 
favourites are coupled together by some writers. It has likewise been 
asserted, that the barge might safely have held more persons, and that 
some who swam to it were thrust off, and even their hands cut, in order 
to disengage them." 

Among the persons of consequence who perished at this time, beside 
those who are mentioned in the Letter, was Sir John Douglas. 

The commander. Sir John Berry (called Barrie by Sir James Dick), 
escaped by a rope over the vessel's stem. He was afterwards examined 
before the Privy Council, when the King, having satisfied himself that 
no fault attached to him, gave him the command of another vessel, the 
Henrietta, destined for the Coast of Ireland. 


Lady Rachel Russell to 


Woburn Abbey, April 30, 84. 
Yours of the 20"' of April I have read; your 
Prayers and Wishes are kindly accepted by your af- 
flicted servant ; who have no other shadow of comfort 
but to find myself at all esteemed by worthy persons, 
and those had so for, and were so by that loved friend 


my soul longs to meet again. When at any time you 
allow me the like favour, and I am not in London (as 
I purpose it not yet) if your Letters be left at my Ser- 
vant's house who brings this to your Servant, they will 
be carefully and safely delivered me. I have appointed 
him, at his giving this to your servant, to direct him 
where he shall find him ; his name is Benjamin Por- 
daye, his house in Great Russell Street near Montague 
House; he shall be very punctual to your servant. 
Till I have a return to this from you, Sir, you shall 
receive no further trouble from your ever mournful 

obliged faithful servant, 


Of the Illness which immediately preceded the death of Charles the 
Second a very full and curious detail in Latin is preserved in the Library 
of the Society of Antiquaries, together with copies of the Prescriptions 
administered (two of them signed by no fewer than fourteen Physicians), 
and an Account of the appearances of his Majesty's body when opened ; 
the whole completely removing the suspicion that the King was taken 
off by poison. 

It begins, 

" Feb. 2°, 1684. 

" Ad octavam prsecise horam Rex serenissimus Carolus II. lecto re- 
cens relicto, dum in cubiculo leniter inambulabat, inordinatum quendani 
in cerebro sensit motum, cui mox aphonia motusque convulsivi vehe- 
mentiores succedebant. 

" Aderant forte tunc ex Bledicis Regiis omnino duo, qui, ut tanto Re- 
gum optimi periculo mature prospicerent, venam ei in brachio dextro 
apcrucrunt, sanguinisquc eduxerunt uncias circiter sedecim. 


" Interim et caeteri Medici, per celerrimos nuncios advocati, in Regis 
subsidium convolarunt; habitoque inter se consilio, oninem navarunt 
opcram, ut periclitanti Majestati suppetias ferrent praesentaneas." 

On the morning of the G"". it is said, 

" Caeterum (Eheu !) intempesta jam nocte S. R. vires usque adco iii- 
fractffi videbantur, ut totus Medicorum Chorus ab omni spe destitu- 
tus animum desponderit ; ne tamen uUa in re officio suo vidercntur deesse, 
generosissimum illud Cardiacum instituunt 

52 Antidoti Raleighance Jj. 
Julap. Perlat. cochL 5. 
Sp. Salis Armoniac. succinat. 
g". XX. M. statim propinentur. 

" Novissimo huic moestissimoque Medicorum Conventui aderant, 
C. Scarbui^h, E. Dickenson, E. Browne, R. Brady, T. Short, C. Farell, 
T. Witherby, T. Millington, R. liower, P. Barwick, J. Le Febure. 

" Aderat etiam inclytus ille heros, Regis frater unicus Regnique op- 
timo jure haeres, Jacobus hinc Eboraci quidem et Albanite Dux illustris- 
simus, hodie vero Britanniarum augustissimus Monarcha, qui summa in 
Regem pietate et plusquam fratemo amore afFectus, de illius salute 
usque adeo sollicitus fuit, ut a decumbentis lecto vix unquam decedere 
sustinuerit, nunc totus in luctu versans, nunc sedulus cxequendis Medi- 
corum consiliis ipsemct invigilans alias ab Archiatro Ccrlesti opcm auxi- 
liumque ardentissimis precibus votisque et gemitibus subinde eifusis im- 
plorans, ut omnibus constiterit maluisse ipsum charissimi fratris consor- 
tio perfrui, quam Sceptro, frustra reluctantibus Fatis. Nam post tot 
amicorum vota et suspiria, post omne genus medelse a fidissimis juxta et 
eruditissimis Medicis tentatum, Regum optimus orthopnaea lethali ex 
improviso correptus, quae cum subinde violentiam remitteret, mox acrius 
recrudesceret, fomite mali perpetuo superstite, tandem toto naturae roborc 
dolorum immanitate attrito, mortalcm coronam placide dcposuit, ut ac- 
ciperet immortalem. 

^' Expiravit Fcbruar. sexto paulo post meridiem, anno aetatis quiuqua- 
gcsimo quarto ad finem decurrente." 

The following is the Account of the Opening of the Body : 

" In Caroli Sccundi augustissimi Britanniarum Regis Corpore aperto 
pot^t mortem reperiebantur, 

1". In cerebri cortice Venae et Arteriae super modum replctae. 

2". Cerebri turn ventriculi omnes serosa quadam materia inundati, tuni 
ijisa substantia consimili humore baud leviter imbuta. 

',V\ Thoraci dextri Uteris Pulmoues Pleurae tenaciter adiucrcntcs, sini.s« 



tra vero plane liberi, quemadmodum ex Naturae instituto in sanis esse 

4°. Pulmonum substantia neutiquam culpanda quidem sed sanguine 

5°. Cor amplum firmumque, et in omnibus rectissime formatum. 

6°. In infimo ventre nihil praeter naturale, nisi quod hepatis color ad 
lividitatem inclinaret, forte a sanguinis inibi restitantis pleonasmo, quo 
renes et lien cernebantur suflParcinati." 

The total of the " Medicorum Chorus," as appears from the Sig- 
natures to the different Prescriptions, included also the Doctors, Gu. 
Charleton, Edm. King, C. Frazier, Fer. Mendes, and M. Lister. In all 


In the preceding Series the death-bed scene of King Charles 
THE Second, surrounded by the Protestant Bishops, has been fully 
described. Nevertheless it is equally undoubted that he received the rites 
of the Romish Church the day before his death. 

Dr. Birch, among his Papers bequeathed to the Museum, has a copy of 
a Letter from one J. Aprice, to his brother-in-law Mr. William Lyn- 
wood of Deane in Northamptonshire, detailing Father Hudleston's Account 
to him of his administering extreme unction to the King. Dr. Birch has 
added a " Note of the Bishop of Lincoln" at the end, in these words : 
" The original Letter is now in the hands of Mrs. Eyre of Stamford, and 
J. Aprice abovementioned was a Romish priest and relation of hers, as 
was also Mr. Lynwood to whom the Letter was written." 

It is not generally known, however, that Father Hudleston's own Ac- 
count is extant in print, published under the patronage of James the 
Second and the Queen Dowager, in a Work of which the following is 
the Title : 

" A Short and Plain Way to the Faith and Church : composed many 
years since by tJiat eminent Divine Mr. Richard Hudleston of the 
English Congregation of the Order of St. Benedict ; and now published 
for the common good, by his nephew Mr. Jo. Hudleston of the same 
Congregation. To which is annexed his late Majesty King Charles the 
Second his Papers found in his Closet after his decease. As also a 
Brief Account of what occurred on his Death-Bed in re- 
jgard to Religion. Permissu Superiorum." London, 1688, quarto. 

The dedication of this Tract is " To the Queen Dowager." John 
Hudleston declares himself, in it, to have been in Her Majesty's service 
from the time of her first Accession, and that the Book which had been 
written by his uncle was first seen by him " in his retirement at JMoscley 
in Stafibrdshirc." 


The Dedication is followed by " The Publisher (John Hudleston 
himself) to the Reader." Hudleston here gives an Account of his Uncle's 
life and Studies, and states that the Work, the title of which has been 
just copied, was instrumental in King Charles the Second's conversion. 
He then says, 

" There are none so ignorant who have not heard of the defeat of his 
late Majesty's Army by the Rebels at Worcester, on the 3^. September 
1651 ; and of the then Preservation of His sacred life and person by 
the care and fidelity of his catholic subjects, of whom I acknowledge 
myself the most unworthy. In this sad conjuncture it was, that thd 
desolate King after having been harassed to and fro. Night and Day, in 
continual fatigues and perils, from Wednesday the day of the battle till 
Sunday following, at last found an Asylum and Refuge at M'. Whit- 
grave's House at Moseley, whither divine Providence, not long before, 
brought me, and where I had first the honor of attending upon him. 
During this retreat, whilst M'. Whitgrave, his Lady, and Mother, (who 
alone of all the Household were privy to the secret) were often busied in 
watching and other discharges of their duty towards his accommodation 
and safeguard, His Majesty was pleased to entertain himself for the most 
part with me in my chamber, by perusing several of my books, amongst 
others he took up this present Treatise then a Manuscript, lying on the 
table of a closet adjacent to my Chamber. He read it ; he seriously con- 
sidered it ; and after mature deliberation pronounced this Sentence upon 
it (viz.) ' I have not seen any thing more plain and clear upon this sub- 
' ject : the Arguments here drawn from succession are so conclusive, I 
' do not conceive how they can be denied.' Now that this was not any 
sudden motion or superficial compliment of His JIajesty, but the pro- 
duct of a real and solid conviction is manifest by the tenor and gravity 
of the words themselves ; by the Papers found in his Closet after his de- 
cease under his own hand, which seem even to the very manner of ex- 
pression to breathe the same spirit and genius with that of the book ; and 
lastly by those truly Christian Catholic resolutions he took (albeit through 
frailty late) in disposing himself for an happy departure out of this World 
by an entire reconcilement to God and the Church." 

At the end of the Tract, p. 31. we have Copies of Two Papers written 
by the late King Charles II. of " blessed memory." • 

The first concerns the Declaration of the King that the Roman Ca- 
tholic is the only true Church. At the close of it is this Attestation. 

" This is a true Copy of a Paper I found in the late King my Bro- 
ther's strong Box, written in his own hand. 

J. R." 

• These have heeii printed more than once. 


The second is to the same effect, showing that the Roman Catholic is 
the true Church " from whence there can be no Appeal." Attested 
" This is a true Copy. 

J. R." 

Afterward comes 

" A Brief Account of Particulars occurring at the 


THEN Assistant Mr. Jo. HUDLESTON. 

" Upon Thursday the Fifth of February, 1685, between Seven and 
Eight a Clock in the Evening, I was sent for in hast to the Queen's 
Back-stairs at Whitehal, and desired to bring with me all things necessary 
for a dying Person. Accordingly I came, and was order'd not to stir 
from thence till further notice. Being thus obliged to wait, and not having 
had time to bring along with me the most Holy Sacrament of the Altar, 
I was in some anxiety how to procure it : In this conjuncture (the Di- 
vine Providence so disposing) Father Bento de Lemos a Portuguez came 
thither, and understanding the circumstance I was in, readily profer'd 
himself to go to S'. James's and bring the most Holy Sacrament along 
with him. 

" Soon after his departure I was call'd into the King's Bed Chamber, 
where approaching to the bed side, and kneeling down, I in brief pre- 
sented his Majesty with what service I could perform for God's honor, 
and the happiness of his Soul at this last moment on which Eternity 
depends. The King then declared himself: That he desired to die in 
the Faith and Communion of the Holy Roman Catholic Church ; That 
he was most heartily sorry for all the Sins of his life past, and particu- 
larly for that he had deferred his Reconciliation so long ; That through 
the Merits of Christ's passion he hoped for Salvation ; That he was in 
charity with all the world ; That with all his heart he pardoned his Ene- 
mies and desired pardon of all those whom he had any wise offended, 
and that if it pleased God to spare him longer life, he would amend it, 
detesting all Sin. 

" I then advertis'd His Majesty of the benefit and necessity of the 
SaCrainent of Penance, which advertisement the King most willingly 
embracing, made an exact Confession of his whole Life with exceeding 
compunction and tenderness of heart; which ended, I desired him, in 
farther sign of Repentance and true sorrow for his Sins, to say with me 
this little short Act of Contrition. 

" ' O my Lord God, with my whole heart and soul I detest all the 
' Sins of my Life past for the Love of Thee, whom I love above all 
' things ; and I firmly purpose by thy Holy Grace never to offend thee 


' more, Amen, sweet Jesus, Amen. Into thy hands, sweet Jesus, I com- 
' mend my Soul; Mercy, sweet Jesus, Mercy.* 

" This he pronounced with a clear and audible voice, which done, and 
his sacramental penance admitted, I gave him Absolution. 

" After some time thus spent, I asked His Majesty if he did not also 
desire to have the other Sacraments of the Holy Church administred to 
him ? He replyed, ' By all means 1 desire to be partaker of all the helps 
' and succours necessary and expedient for a catholic Christian in my 
' condition,' I added, ' And doth not your Majesty also desire to receive 
the pretious Body and Blood of our dear Saviour Jesus Christ in the 
most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist ?' His answer was this : ' If I 
am worthy, pray fail not to let me have it.' I then told him, it would 
be brought to him very speedily, and desired His Majesty, that, in the 
interim, he would give me leave to proceed to the Sacrament of Extreme 
Unction, he replyed, ' With all my heart ;' I then anoyled him, which as 
soon as pcrform'd I was cal'd to the door, whither the Blessed Sacra- 
ment was now brought and delivered to me. 

" Then returning to the King, I entreated His Majesty that he would 
prepare and dispose himself to receive. At which the King raising up 
himself, said, ' Let me meet my Heavenly Lord in a better posture than 
in my bed.' But I humbly begg'd His Majesty to repose himself: 
God Almighty who saw his heart, would accept of his good intention. 
The King then having again recited the forementioned Act of Contrition 
with me, he received the most Holy Sacrament for his Viaticum with all 
the symptoms of devotion imaginable. The Communion being ended, 
I read the usual Prayers termed ' the Re commendation of the Soul,' ap- 
pointed by the Church for Catholics in his condition. After which the 
King desired the Act of Contrition : ' O my Lord God,' &c. to be re- 
peated : this done, for his last spiritual encouragement I said, 

" 'Your Majesty hath now received the Comfort and Benefit of all the 
Sacraments that a good Christian (ready to depart out of this World) can 
liave or desire. Now it rests only. That you think upon the Death and 
Passion of our dear Saviour Jesus Christ, of which I present unto you 
this figure' (shewing him a Crucifix) ; ' lift up therefore the Eyes of 
your Soul, and represent to yourself your sweet Saviour here crucified : 
bowing down his head to kiss you : his arms stretched out to embrace 
you : his body and members all bloody and pale with death to redeem 
you : and, as you see him dead and fixed upon the Cross for your re- 
demption, so have his remembrance fixed and fresh in your heart : be- 
seech him, with all humility, that his most precious blood may not be 
shed in vain for you : and that it will please him by the merits of his 
bitter death and passion to pardon and forgive you all your Offences : and 
finally to receive your Soul into his blessed hands ; and when it shall 


please him to take it out of this transitory World, to grant you a joyfull 
Resurrection and an eternal Crown of Glory in the next. In the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.' 

" So, recommending His Majesty on my knees, with all the transport 
of Devotion I was able, to the divine mercy and protection, I withdrew 
out of the Chamber. 

" In testimony of all which I have hereunto subscribed my Name. 


The Editor has been informed that in a Diary still extant of Philip 
Earl of Chesterfield, who was immediately about the person of King 
Charles the Second, the particulars of father Hudleston's admission to 
the King on this occasion are recorded. M. Barillon, also, in his 
Letter to Louis the Fourteenth, printed in the Appendix to Mr. Fox's 
History of the Early Part of the Reign of James the Second, written im- 
mediately after Charles's death, corroborates Hudleston's Narrative in 
the main facts. Hudleston's introduction to the King was certainly in- 
tended to have been a secret, but Barillon very properly believed that it 
could not long be kept : " cependant les femmes de la Reine, et les au- 
tres pretres, ont vu tant d'allees et de venues, que je ne pense pas que le 
secret puisse etre long tems garde." Barillon says, that Hudleston had 
a wig and cassock to disguise him : " on lui donna une perruque et una 
cassaque pour le deguiser." The Duke of York who introduced him to 
the King said, " Sire, voici un homme qui vous a sauve la vie, et qui vient 
a cette heure pour sauver votre ame. Le Roi repondit, qu''il soil le bieti 
venu.^' Hudleston's Interview lasted for three quarters of an hour. 






VOL. IV. SER. 2. 

The Letters of the Reigns of KING JAMES the SECOND and 
KING WILLIAM and QUEEN IMARY are here combined, not 
only because it is impossible to separate one Reign from the other at the 
immediate moment of the Revolution, but because King James retained 
possession of a part of his Irish territory till the Battle of the Boyne 
drove him finally from his Dominions. 

Of the Reign of KING WILLIAM alone, Two Letters only are 

Those which relate to the Revolution tell the daily story of their 
time. A political Change of such importance never perhaps took place 
in any Country with less of violence and bloodshed. Public Feeling was 
certainly moderated, if it was not entirely subdued, by the recollections 
of the Great Rebellion. 



to Mr. Ellis, Secretary of the Re- 
venue in Ireland. Hampden said to be reprieved. 
Some of the Bishops JaUing out qfjavour. 

[ms. dokat. 4194. pag. 1. Orig.'\ 

*0* This with numerous other Letters in the Donation Volume, 4194, 
many of which are here transcribed, are without the signature of the 
writer. The Post-marks, however, authenticate the transmission of the 
Letters, and a Seal of Arms upon two or three, affords a presumption 
that the name of the writer must have been the same with that of the 
person to whom the Letters were sent. The Arms are those of Ellis of 
the West Riding of Yorkshire. The writer was probably a cousin to the 
Secretary of the Revenue in Ireland ; from passages in one or two of the 
Letters he could not have been a brother. He held a post about the Go- 
vernment, and in one or two instimces mentions himself as attending King 
James's Levies. 

London, Jan. 5'^ 168 ^ 
Dear Sir, 

I HAD yours of the 19'^ I suppose, but it bore no 

date. I hope your Lord Lieutenant is safely arrived 

by this time, though some of our inspired folks said 

on Saturday he was cast away, and he could not be 

at the water-side till Thursday evening. The whole 

discourse both in City and amongst the under-spurr- 

leathers of the Court is that Hambden is to die on 

Friday, a but he himself has better knowledge of what 

• John Hampden, Esq. He had been arraifpied for hiRh-treason, a» connected with 
Lord Russel, and had pleaded guilty. 

a 2 



usage he is likely to receive from Court ; and I am 
well informed that the warrant that they say was signed 
for his execution was a reprieve; though in the Re- 
corder"'s Roll of the condemned, his name was crossed 
amongst the designed for execution. A strong report 
now goes likewise of a Session of Parliament ; but 
those behind the curtain say not. I apprehend Dela- 
mer in much danger ; his trial comes on on Thursday 
next week. 

The Bishop of London's fame runs high in the 
vogue of the people. The London pulpits ring strong 
peals against Popery ; and I have lately heard there 
never were such eminently able men to serve in those 
cures. The Lord Almoner Ely is thought to stand 
upon too narrow a base now in his Majesty's favor, ^ 
from a late violent Sermon on the Fifth of November. 
I saw him yesterday at the King's Levy, and very httle 
notice taken of him, which the more confirms what I 
heard. Our old friend the new Bishop St. John gave 
a smart answer to a (no very well put) Question of his 

M with respect to him, that shows he is not 

altogether formed of court-clay ; but neither you nor 
I shall withdraw either of our friendship for him on 
such an account. 

We have still whispers of new Law men : Chief 

» Francis Turner bishop of Ely. He liad preached the Sermon at King James the 
Second's Coronation. He was discovered to have corresponded with the Court of St. 
Germains. and in 1690 was deprived for refusing to take the oaths to King William 
and Queen Mary. 


Justice, Attorney, and Solicitor General: but who 
succeeds I can [not] hear yet further than that Allibone 
says he will do fine things in a great place. The latter 
end of next month we are likely to see you. I hear of 
rare matters putting in order in Scotland; Religious 
Houses settled ; &c. : but more of that hereafter as I 
hear the bruit of it. Leml'. Kingdon is patching up 
again. Adieu in haste. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary of 
his Majesty's Revenue in Ireland, 


The same to the same. Hampden reprieved. The 
Bishop of London in disgrace. A Pardon granted 
to Roman Catholic Officers for fiolding their com- 
mands without talcing the Test. 

[ibid. p. 3. Ong.\ 

January 9"'. 168^. 


I THANK you for your last Letter. I gave the in- 
closed to Sam, who is well, and we drank your health 
to-day at friend Colletts. I suppose it will be no news 
to tell you that Mr. Hambden is reprieved, and it is 
believed will be pardoned; or that my Lord Bishop 


of London a is no longer a Privy Councillor or Dean of 
the Chapel, which places the Bishop of Durham fills. 
Yesterday a Proclamation was ordered for the pro- 
roguing the Parliament till 10'''. May next ; and then 
not to sit unless there be special occasion. This day 
came into our office a Pardon for the Roman Catholic 
Officers now in the Army of all pains and forfeitures 
incurred by their holding their commands without 
taking the Test, &c. and a dispensation for them to 
hold their commands for the future, notwithstanding 
the Acts for the taking the Test and Oaths of Alle- 
giance and Supremacy, &c. Lord Delamere comes to 
his trial on Thursday next, for which a scaffold is pre- 
paring in Westminster Hall. 

For John Ellis, Esq. 

Custom-House, Dublin. 


The same to the same. The Trial and Acquittal of 
Lord Delamere. 

[ibid. p. 9. Orig.'\ 

*^" Henry Booth, Lord Delamere, was accused of acting in con- 
junction with the Duke of Monmouth. Lord Orford says he narrowly 
escaped the fury of JefFeries, who was high-steward upon his trial : but 

• Henry Compton, youngest son of Spencer earl of Northampton, was translated 
from the See of Oxford to London, Dec. 18th, 1675. 


Speaker Onslow, in a note to the last edition of Burnet's History of his 
Own Times says, that JefFeries behaved himself with a decency and a 
dignity upon this trial which he had never shown before. Lord Dela- 
mere was afterwards one of those who planned the Revolution. Yet 
"William had little affection for him : he made him Earl of Warrington 
in 1690, but afterwards dismissed him to gratify the Tories. 

16 Jan. 168^. 

On Thursday Lord Delamer came to his Trial in 
Westminster Hall before his Peers, who were twenty 
six in all. They unanimously acquitted him. The 
evidences against him were very many, and the cir- 
cumstances very numerous and presumptive ; yet there 
happened to be but one positive witness (and he a very 
suspicious one) whose testimony was invalidated by a 
cloud of others for the Lord, who made a very notable 
defence, and being well skilled in our Laws, and withall 
a good spokesman, gave all the advantage to his cause, 
and good entertainment to his auditors. 

It is said the King hath already ordered that Evi- 
dence (called Saxton-'') to be tried for perjury; and 
when he hath got his reward for that, he will be sent 
into the West to be tried for high- treason as having 
been in the Rebellion. 

This fellow also was the chief, if not only evidence 
against Sir Robert Cotton and Mr. Offley, upon whose 
testimony the bills of high misdemeanor were found 
against them at Chester. 

* * # # # 

« 1 1 should be Saxon, edit. 



Samuel de Paz to John Ellis, Esq. Lord Delamere 
has an audience of the King: False Reports of 
Quo Warrantos issued against Cathedral Churches. 
Mrs, Sedley to he Countess of Dorchester. Sir 
Henry Waldegrave to be Baron Waldegrave. 

[ibid. p. 11. Orig.^ 

Whitehall, 19 Jan. 168|. 

▼ ^ vr ^ ^ 

My Lord Delamer was admitted last Saturday to 
kiss the King's hand, when his Majesty was pleased to 
give him warning as to his future behaviour. The 
Gazette tells you of the Orders already given for the 
proceeding against Saxon for perjury. 

iU- ^ ^ ^ ^ 

The King has shewn great concern at the false 
reports spread abroad of Quo Warrantos being out 
against Cathedral Churches and the like, and in order 
to prevent the ill consequences of such like false re- 
ports, all possible care is taking for the suppressing of 
all seditious Newspapers, or Letters commonly read in 
Coffee-Houses and sent about to poison the Country. 

Mrs. Sidley is making Countess of Dorchester, » 

• Catharine daughter of Sir Charles Sedley, Bart, was created Countess of Dor- 


and Sir Henry Walgrave (married to Mrs. ChurchilFs 
daughter) a Baron of his own name.''* 
Dear Sir, 

Your most humble 
and most obedient servant, 


Mr. Ellis. 


to Mr. Ellis. Mantaffue Hcruse burnt. 

Mr. Harbor d ordered to surrender. 

[ibid. p. 12. Orig.] 

Whitehall, the 21 Jan. 168|. 
On Wednesday at one in the morning a sad fire 
happened at Montague House in Bloomsbury, occa- 
sioned by the Steward"'s airing some hangings, &c. in 
expectation of my Lord Mountague''s return home, and 
sending afterwards a woman to see that the fire-pans 
with charcoal were removed, which she told him she 

Chester, Jan. 2<>. 1685-6- Burnet says much upon the agitation which the advance- 
ment of this Lady to the Peerage brought upon the Queen and the Romish priests. 

Mrs. Sedley was as little restrained In her conversation as the Lady Castlcmainc 
had been ; and was so far from beautiful in face, that Charles the Second used to 
say, his brother " had her by way of penance." She afterwards espoused the Earl of 
Portmore, and died in 17 IT. 

» .Sec the former Scries of these Letters, vol. iii. p. 32<(. 


had done though she never came there. The loss that 
my Lord Mountague has sustained by this accident is 
estimated at d£'40,000, besides .£'6000 in plate, and 
my Lord Devonshire's loss in pictures, hangings, and 
other furniture is very considerable. 

The Earl of Arran is very dangerously ill. 

A Privy Seal is sent to Mr. William Harbord, com- 
manding him to appear within fourteen days before 
some of his Majesty's Privy Council, upon his alle- 


The same to the same. Public News. Countess of 
Dorchester. The Princess Anne. Pepys. 

[ibid. p. 35. Orig.'l 

London, April 6 »'. 1686. 
Yours per the 5"^. of last month came on Saturday 
hither per the boat we concluded lost. The busy time 
of Devotion is now over here. His Majesty, God bless 
him ! one of the zealousest. Ten hours in a day some- 
times. The Court returns from St. James's to White- 
hall to-morrow, and go not to Windsor till the middle 
of May ; when, also, the Camp opens at Hounslow. 
Our sparks all go for Hungary to-morrow. D. Ha- 



miltou, Lieut. Gen. Drummond, &c. come to town this 
evening ; sent for I imagine. It will end in his Grace 
becoming Commander of Scotland, though the common 
vogue is, he was sent for to be chidden for the method 
of his management since he became a Commissioner of 
the Treasury there. Our Ministers of State have all 
retired likewise this holy season ; Lord Chancellor to 
his Country House near Uxbridge, Lord Treasurer to 
Twitnam, Lord Sunderland to Althrope; either for 
their private satisfaction in their consciences, or to 
avoid showing in town whether they have any or no. 

I imagine your Countess Dorchester will speedily 
move hitherward, for her house is furnishing very fine 
in St. James's Square, and a seat taking for her in the 
new consecrated St. Anne's Church. The French King 
is not right yet, though little is said of him. Madame 
de Maintenon makes all the applications to him that 
he stands in need of. 

I hear poor Pr. Anne is sadly teased about a new 

declaration in matters of so that at last it is 

agreed to, after lying in. But I hope it may not be 
thus. Say nothing of it. 

New equipage in great splendor is every where to be 
seen, especially their Majesties. Her Majesty is won- 
derfully glorious in her own apparrel. 

Here is arrived an Italian Prince of Piombino, the 
greatest spendthrift in the world reckoned, for he has 
consumed the greatest part of a matrimonial estate of 


150,000-'. per annum, and the Treasure of Three 
Popes. So it seems not that we need fear his poHticks. 

This next Term I am like to be confined hither, and 
then what I shall do I know not. Lord Or — and 
Oss — come next week. If their favour help not, I 
will see you for a little to wind up a mean bottom very 
indifferently worth my while ; and so go for Paris, and 
with my Lord Denbigh into Italy in the winter. 

I hope you will succeed in your design of removal 
hither; but these Lords keeping thus out of town, 
puts us both out of our way. Phil has many wonderful 
kind expressions from the King, so that I imagine some 
room in the Navy (where they rowle in money) might 
be found. So I advise you to solicit hard and court 
kindly. Sure Pepys would value Lord Ossory's re- 
commendation at no mean rate, though Eure and he 
together neglect all where money chinks not.^ You 
may be sure of me on all occasions. 

« Samuel Pepys, Esq. with whose Memoirs the world has been so recently de- 
lighted, is the person here alluded to. He was Clerk of the Acts of the Navy. Eure, 
as he is called, was William Hewer, Esq. a Commissioner of the Admiralty, who had 
been Pepys's servant. 

There is another Letter in the same Volume dated London, April 10*. 1686, which 
speaks in stronger terms. The writer says, " I shall urge your monkish brother all 

I can, and imagine his personal interest in will do. He tells me he discoursed 

Pepys about the matter who told him all was settled. I know the griping temper of 
lK)th him and Eure, and what rates every poor boson (boatswain) pays for what he has 
purchased with his blood and many years hardship." 

One cannot upon this occasion refrain from adverting to some passages in Pepys's 
Diary, even at an earlier period, which show how rapidly he obtained his wealth. 

Junes*. 1660. "At sermon in the morning; after dinner into my cabin to cast 
my accounts up, and find myself to be worth near 100?. for which I bless Almighty 
God, it being more than I hoped for so soon, being I believe not clearly worth 2il. 
when I come to sea besides my house and goods." vol. i. p. S6. 

Dec. 1660-1. " Myself in constant good health, and in a most handsome and 
thriving condition. Blessed be Almighty God for it." vol. i. p. 88. 

Oct. 30*. 1003. " To my great sorrow find myself isi. worse than I was the last 


Your new Chancellor is on the road, and I am going 
to sup with Will Legg, Governor of Kinsale, who 
follows him to-morrow. 


The same to the same. Judges and Serjeants changed. 
Disorders in London on account of Popery, 

[ibid. p. 44. Orig.^ 

London, April Tl^K 86. 

•H, * * Ht * 

Here are a new set of Judges and Serjeants, such 
as they are. For their names I refer you to the Ga- 
zettes, and for their virtues to those that know them 
better. Solicitor General was put out on Saturday, 
and Powis in his room, a very young counsellor, but a 
cozen and careful man in Christian causes. The At- 

month, which was then 760/. nnd now it is but 7 IT/. But it hath chiefly arisen from 
my layings out, in clothes for myself and wife." vol. i. p. 247. 

Dec. 30'''. 1665. " All the afternoon to my accounts, and then find myself to my 
great joy, a great deal worth above 4000/. for which the Lord be praised ! and is 
principally occasioned by my getting 500/. of Cocke, for my profit in his bargains of 
prize goods, and from M'. Gauden's making nie a present of 500/. more, when I paid 
him 800/. for Tangier. 81". Thus ends this year, to my great jcy, in this manner. I 
have raised my estate from 1300/. in this year to 4400/." vol. i. p. 384. 

Dec. 81, 1666. " To my accounts wherein at last I find them clear and right ; but 
to my great discontent do find that my gettings this year have been 578/. less than my 
last: it being this year in all but 2986/.; whereas, the last, I got 8560/. Blessed 
be God ! and I pray God make me thankful for it, I do find myself worth in money, 
all good, above 6200/. Thus ends this year of public wonder and mischief to this 
nation." vol. i. p. 497. 


toriiey is threatened, but yet keeps within the Bar. 
Many more new matters are let fly abroad to see how 
they will relish, that they may be given to chew. 

On Sunday, the London hot-heads were bantering 
Mr. Sandford's Chapel, got away a cross, and set it by 
a pump, paying very disorderly adoration to it, with 
holloaing, and then going back and taking a crucifix, 
and saying they would have no wooden gods wor- 
shipped. These frighting the priest, but not hurting 
him. Then comes the Lord Mayor and commands 
the peace. The answer was in a scornful way. ' What ! 
the I^ord Mayor of our city come to preach up popery ! 
too sure, it cannot be !' Then the guard militia was 
ordered to send the rabble away ; and asking what 
they meant, the answer w;as, ' Only pulling down 
popery ,"■ and their return was, ' If that be all, we can- 
not in conscience hinder.' But vespers not going on 
in the chapel, they dispersed. By next Sunday more 
matters may occur. 

The King went hence on Monday his water voyage 
to visit the ships at Chatham, and returns not till 
Thursday ; and I shall not wonder if the Scotch regi- 
ment of guards now quartering at Greenwich be quar- 
tered in Cheapside before this week is out. 

More comes to my knowledge than the common talk 
of a letter will bear, or than ordinary reason would put 

Twenty thousand swords lately seized in Stockton 


in YOTkshlre, and many people buzzing about ; and 
from Holland the Amsterdam caballers have sent spies 
that have very lately escaped here. 

I suspect old Macclesfield has put his blundering 
brains to work, and they will dash out his son's if he 
have any : for it is not his fault, but father's flight that 
keeps him in fetters. » 

The Court cares not to stir hence till the latter end 
of May, and the King himself encamps with his army. 
1 will say more as to yourself on Saturday. 


The same to the same. King James drinks the Church 
of England as established by Law. The Judgment 
in the Case (^ Sir Edward Hales. 

[ibid. p. 48. Orig.'\ 

June 22d. 86. 
# # # * * 

The King they say dined in the camp, and in my 

• Charles Gerrard, Lord Gerrard of Brandon. He was first made Earl of Newbury 
by King Charles the Second, who afterwards, in 16T9, changed his earldom for that 
of Macclesfield. H'm flight from justice is noticed in a Proclamation dated fh>m 
Windsor, Sept. 7'^. 168S. In the a"". James II'i. he was convicted of high-treason, 
and sentenced to die, but was afterwards pardoned. He subsequently fled to Holland 
whilst Monmouth was preparing for his expedition, and thence to Germany, whence 
he returned to the Hague in 1688, to take part in the preparations of the Prince of 
Orange. See Onnerod's Hist, of Cheshire, vol. i. Introd. p. xlii. note. Kennet's 
Hist. Engl. vol. iii. pp. 443, 488. 


Lord Dunbarton's tent the other day ; where after his 
and the Queen's health had gone round, His Majesty 
was pleased to renew his kindness to the Church of 
England, by beginning a health to it as established by 

The judgment in the case of Sir Edward Hales is 
gone for His Majesty, and one of the arguments and 
reasons for it as I am told, is, that what the act enjoins 
in that case, being a service or ceremony relating to 
His Majesty, he may in his prerogative royal dispense 
with it. a 


The same to the same. The Appointment of Lords 
Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction. 

[ibid. p. 59. Orig.] 

17 July, 86. 
In return for your kind letter of the 7''i. I have not 
much to send you worthy your curiosity. What takes 

• " An Action was brought" (against Sir Edward Hales) "on thestat. 25<i'. Cha. II, 
c. 2. for the penalty of 500?. on account of his executing the office of a Colonel of 
Foot without taking the Communion, Oaths, and Test; to which the Defendant 
pleaded, he had a dispensation under the broad seal to act, no}i obstante the statute : 
to this the Plaintiff demurred, and in conclusion, judgment was given for the De- 
fendant that his plea was good." Life of King James the Second, publ. by Dr. J. S. 
Clarke, vol. ii. p. 82. Sir Edward Hales, after the Prince of Orange's arrival, fol- 
lowed the fortunes of King James. 


up most men here is a new Commission that His Ma- 
jesty hath issued out, whereby he is pleased to consti- 
tute Seven Lords Commissioners for executing and 
exercising all Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction : viz. the Lord 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Bishop of Durham, and 
Bishop of Rochester, Lord Chancellor, Lord Trea- 
surer, Lord President, and Lord Chief Justice Her- 
bert. They have power and authority to visit and 
correct all offences, to enquire of any misdemeanors 
against the ecclesiastical laws, and to punish the same 
offenders by suspension, deprivation, and excommuni- 
cation, and other church censures, according as they 
in justice shall think meet; to examine into all irre- 
gularities and immoralities punishable by church laws, 
and even into Disorders in Marriages ; and to call 
before them and punish any offenders, or any that shall 
seem to be suspected persons ; to cite and swear wit- 
nesses; to punish the obstinate and disobedient; to 
tax and condemn in costs the party prosecuting or 
prosecuted ; to have a Register (who is Mr. Bridgman), 
and a Common Seal with the circumscription of Si- 
gillum Dominorum Commissariorum S, R. Majestatis 
ad Causas Ecclesiasticas. For all this Three are to be 
of the quorum, whereof Lord Chancellor to be one. 
They are farther to cause all Universities, Colleges, 
Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, to bring up their 
charters and statutes when required, and the same to 
alter as they see cause, and to add to or diminish from 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. ir 


the same; and where there is room, to make such sta- 
tutes as any five of them shall think meet, notwith- 
standing any law, statute, &c. to the contrary. This 
is the purport of it as far as I can remember. 

We know not yet who succeeds the Bishop of Ox- 
ford. Doctors South, Hooper, Aldridge, Levett, and 
Dr. Parker are talked of; the last stands fair with the 
King and is now at Court. ^ Lords of Powys, Arrun- 
del, Bellasis, and Dover are said to be this day ad- 
mitted of the Council at Hampton Court. 

Mr. Ellis. 


The same to the same. Bishop Compton called before 

the Lords Commissioners. 

[ms. donat. mus. BRIT. 4194. fol. 69. Orig.'\ 

*^* In " the Life of King James the Second collected out of Memoirs 
writ of his own hand," we read, " It was not long after the opening of 
the Commission, that D^ Sharp, rector of S'. Giles, was complained of 
for using reflecting expressions on the King and his government ; upon 
which His Majesty ordered the Bishop of London to suspend him." 

lO^K Aug. 86. 
Yesterday Lord Bishop of London appeared be- 
fore the Commissioners, who told him he was to answer 

» Samuel Parker, D. D. was consecrated bishop of Oxford October 17'K 1686. He 
died March 20'''. 1C87. His Histoiy of his own lime from icco to icso, is sufficiently 


to this Question, ' Why he disobeyed the. King in not 
suspending D' . Sharp when his Majesty commanded ?'' 
His Lordship saiji, he hoped it was no disobedience to 
say he could not do it without a judicial Act. But, 
the better to frame his 4-nswer, he desired he might 
have. First, a Copy of their Lordships' Commission ; 
Second, his Charge in writing ; and a longer time to 
answer to it. 

First, the Lords told him, that no Courts granted 
Copies of their Commission, and that this had passed 
all the offices to the Great Seal, whence he might easily 
get a copy : Second, that there was no libel given in in 
this case, that the proceedings were as in the like cases 
summary and ore tenus, and the charge being but a 
plain easy question, he might give it as plain an answer 
upon the place. Third, that they thought any long 
time to be urmecessary. However, that they would 
allow his Lordship till next Monday. 

H 2 



The same to the same. The Duke of Ormond. Father 
Peters. Lord Tyrconnel. 

[ms. DONAT. 4194. fol. 91. Orig.^ 

London, Nov. 30*. 1686. 
Dear Sir, 
I FOUND yours of the 10*. here when I came* 
last Thursday and had writ on Saturday last that I 
knew httle what to write, especially Lord Duke of Or- 
mond being out of Town in Hampshire to see a house 
which he has a mind to purchase, but I think will not, 
though he is very much bent upon having a decent 
country-house in some sporting part of the Kingdom. 
After a little discourse with his grace, I brought you 
in, and how desirous you were to be beholden to him 
for a transportation hither. He said he doubted the 
difficulty would be great ; and stumbled at doing for 
me what he formerly promised ; so that I left him but 
indifferently satisfied. I must work as well as I can. 
My Dartmouth interest too is at a very low ebb. The 

Jesuit Jack Peters is very great and Tyr works 

by him. This High-Priest has the lodgings in White- 
hall which were the King's whilst Duke. Tyr 



makes all the visible preparations for the chief govern- 
ment of your kingdom, as coaches, plate, beds, &c. 
and Tho. Sheridan his chief secretary. This is the 
public vogue, but no other signs, no declaration in 
Council, nor any thing in the offices ; and WilL Shaw 
is confident he wont go this twelvemonth ; what reason 
he has for his confidence I cannot see. » 

* * # # # 

If Tyr. comes, the Royal Chap, of Christ Church is 
in a fine way. 

Direct to Mr. Wynnes in Germain Street. 


The same to the same. The Affliction qftlie Princess 
of Denmark. 

[ms. donat. MU8. BBIT. 4194. foL 1 18. Orig.\ 

5'!'. Feb. 168|. 
The beginning of February proves still fatal and 
unlucky to us here. Upon the st^cond, the late King 

• The Earl of Tyrconnell went for Ireland Jan. 11'''. 168|- with hig Majesty's Com- 
mission as Deputy of tliat Kingdom ; the Commission not to be in force till after 
fo\irteen Days of his arrival there: Lord Tyrconnell carrying at the same time a 
letter from the King to the Lord Lieutenant, that he should be constituted in the 
interim the Lord Lieutenant's Deputy, that the Lord Lieutenant might come away 
in that quality, and have no greater person there than himself while he staid. Letter 
of Jan. U'h. 


sickened, and upon the same, three days ago, died the 
Lady Ann Sophia youngest daughter of the Princess 
of Denmark, to the great grief of us all, and the more 
as that it happened upon the heels of a miscarriage, ^ 
and that the eldest daughter Lady Mary lies de- 
sperately ill. All this put together, may, I am afraid, 
too sensibly affect the Princess herself. 

We are told L. Tyre is driven back to Neston.'* 


The same to the same. The Birth of' the Prince^ 

[ms. DONAT. BRIT. Mus. 4194 p. 201. Orig.^ 

l^fh. June 88. 
Dear Sir, 

In return of all your favours from thence I can send 
you now the joyful news of a Prince of Wales. God 
continue it to us. It is a brave lusty boy, and like to 
live. Nothing but this happy incident could have 
justled that of the Bishops so soon out of our thoughts. 
What will become of them I know not. Thanks for 
yours of the 1**. 

Mr. Ellis. 

• In a previous Letter of the same writer it is mentioned that the Princess had 
miscarried January the 2l«. 
^ The news of Lord Tyrconnell'o arrival at Dublin came to England. Feb. T^. 




The same to the same. D. ofMonmoutKs Citaplain 

[M8. DOKAT. MU8. BHIT. 4194. fol. 208. Or%g.\ 

June 21«t. 1688. 

# # * * * 

On the 19 ''. was a Trial at Westminster Hall be- 
tween the Earl of Lincoln and several Pawnbrokers 
who had received divers parcels of his goods that had 
been stolen. The Earl indicted them upon an Action 
of conspiracy with the Thieves, and upon hearing of 
the matter the Court was very ill satisfied with those 
sorts of Cattle called Pawnbrokers, alias receivers of 
stolen goods, and declared them to be one of the ble- 
mishes of the government. 

# ♦ * » » 
Nathaniel Hook, the late Duke of Monmouth his 

Chaplain, who was concerned in the Rebellion, and 
hath ever since skulked up and down without being 
able to obtain his pai'don, threw himself lately at His 
Majesty's feet, desiring His Majesty's pardon, or to be 
speedily tried and executed ; since now life itself, as 
well as the sense of his guilt, was wearisome to him ; 
whereupon His Majesty thought fit to extend his gra- 
cious pardon to him. 

# # * * « 



The same to the same. King James at the Camp on 
Hounslow Heath. Pannel of the Jury at the Trial 
of the Seven Bishaps. Various lesser News. 

[ms. donat. BRIT. Mus. 4194. fol. 216. Orig.] 

London, June 28th. 1688. 

His Majesty was pleased yesterday to go to Houns- 
low heath, where the Camp opened, and a battalion 
of the Guards marched. His Majesty did the Lord 
Churchill the honour to dine in his tent. In his return 
he called at Richmond, and viewed the Palace where 
the Prince of Wales is to be lodged ; as the Prince 
and Princess of Denmark are to be at Hampton Court. 

To-morrow (though St. Peter's Day) being the day 
for the Trial of the Seven Bishops, preparations are 
making for it accordingly. Ifs a bad wind blows 
nobody good. The Officers of the Court will get well 
by the trial for places and conveniences to hear the 
same, which are sold excessive dear. Most of the no- 
bihty are also come up and will be present. The 
pannel of the Jury as it was agreed on, is as followeth 
Sir Roger Langley, Sir William Hill, 

Sir John Berry, Roger Jennings, 


Thomas Harriott, Nicholas Baxter, 

Geoff ry Nightingale, Nehemiah Arnold, 

William Withers, John Green, 

William Avery, Robert Barre, 

Thomas Austine, George Ford, 

Nicholas Grice, Charles Prior, 

Mich. Arnold, Ed. Harris, 

Thomas Doune, John Walton, 

Richard Shoreditch, James Supple, 

William Hewer, Richard Cooper. 

Of which the twelve first will likely stand for a Jury, 
in case they do appear, unless some very legal objec- 
tion be made against them. Most of them are known 
to be Church of England men : several are employed 
I by the King in his Navy and Revenue : and some are, 

I or once were of the Dissenter's party. 

On the 26**'. M'. Attorney General prayed judg- 
ment against several Charters and Corporations in 
f England and Wales that are forfeited for not pleading 

to the Quo Waranto brought against them. 

# # * * # 

We expect Verses gratulatory upon the birth of the 
Prince from l)oth the Universities ; and also from the 
Society of Magdalen College in Oxford, in a particular 
b(X)k by themselves. 

We are told from Oxford that the Convocation voted 
against an act, only Obadiah Walker and some of his 
friends were for it. Cambridge seems also inclined 


to have no commencement, but it is not yet de- 

The Count de Grammont is dispatched by the most 
Christian King to compHment the Court of England 
upon the birth of the Prince. 


The same to the same. Trial of the Bishops, who are 

brought in not guilty. 

[ms. donat. BRIT. Mus. 4194. p. 219. Orig.^ 

London, June the 30th. 1688. 


Yesterday the Seven Bishops came to their trial, 
which held from morning till seven at night. We gave 
you an account of the Jury in our last. The first 
twelve stood ; only Sir John Berry was not there. 
They did not bring in their verdict last night, and it 
is said they had not agreed upon it this day at four 
in the morning. 

The Counsel in handling the matter for the Bishops 
divided the substance of the information into two parts, 
whereof the same consisted. The first was that they 
had maliciously, seditiously, and slanderously made, 
contrived, and published a false and seditious libel 
against the King, which tended to dimini^ his royal 


authority and prerogative ; the second part of the plea 
for the Bishops was to the special matter of their Pe- 
tition, which shewed there was no malice or sedition 
in it. 

As to the first point, much time was spent in proving 
the hands of the Bishops. That of the Archbishop 
was proved and well known by several ; but that of the 
other Bishops was not otherwise made out than by the 
belief and supposition of the- witnesses ; though their 
own servants were subpoena"'d against their masters : 
so that the Court were of opinion there was not suf- 
ficient proof of their hand-writing. 

As to the Archbishop, it was objected that he could 
[not] be within the indictment, for that it was laid in 
Middlesex, and his Grace had not been out of Surrey in 
seven or eight months. To this it was answered that 
his signing and writing of the Petition, and sending of 
it over to be delivered in Middlesex was a sufficient 
publishing of it there ; but the Court was divided in 
this point. 

Then the King's Counsel alledged that the Bishops 
had owned their hand-writing in the Council, and had 
also confessed the delivery of the petition. It was re- 
plied on the bishops' side, that they had owned their 
hands, but after that the Lord Chancellor had required 
them to do it, and that they had done it trusting to 
their Majesties' goodness that no advantage would be 
made of their confession against themselves. But they 


denied they had owned the delivery of the petition, 
much less that they had published it : and there being 
no other evidence of it than that they had been with 
the Lord Sunderland, and had offered his Lordship a 
sight of a petition which he had refused, nor did he 
see them deliver it to the King, the Court said it was 
only a presumption and no proof. 

As to the matter of the petition, whether a libel upon 
the government or no, the Attorney and Solicitor Ge- 
neral maintained it was, for that it boldly meddled 
with the acts of the government, declaring His Ma- 
jesty's toleration to be illegal, and thereby tending to 
diminish the King's authority and prerogative royal. 

To this the Bishops' Counsel replied, that they had 
done but what was the right of every subject, to peti- 
tion the King ; and that, in matter of conscience and 
upon the account of religion, they were by their oaths 
and by laws of the land to take care of; and quoted 
several laws and statutes to the purpose. They urged 
also that they did not declare the King's declaration 
of indulgence to be illegal, but said only that the par- 
liaments of 62, 72, and 85, had declared so ; where- 
upon the Journals of the Lords and Commons were 

The Court was also divided in this point. The 
Chief Justice and J. Allebone said that it was a libel ; 
but J. Powell and Holloway were of a contrary opinion. 

The Attorney and Solicitor were only for the King, 


and kept their ground against Pemberton, Sawyer, 
Finch, PoUexfen, Treby, and Sommers, who were for 
the bishops. 

This morning between ten and. eleven the Jury 
brought in their verdict, the bishops attending in 
court, NOT GUILTY in part or whole: which causes 
great joy. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, Dublin. 


The same to the same. Disorders of the Populace 
upon the Acquittal of the Bishops. 

[ms. donat. 4194. p. 221. Orig.] 

London, July the 3d, 1688. 
The jury having brought in their verdict of not 
guilty upon the bishops on Saturday morning, the un- 
ruly Mobile broke out into wild huzzas and acclama- 
tions. Some of the gown were also observed to be as 
loud as any ; for which the Attorney General caused 
one of Gray"'s Inn to be seized, and bound him to an- 


swer to an information ; the Solicitor General was like 
to catch another, but that he narrowly escaped in the 

The giddy rabble continued their disorderly joys 
till Sunday morning, making bonefires all Saturday 
night and committing some insolencies where they 
found no contributions. Several were wounded, others 
were robbed ; and many will be called to an account 
this week, that the Quarter Sessions do begin. 

Yesterday the Lord Mayor appeared before the 
King and his Council to give account of those few 
bonefires which were made in the city by some of too 
fiery and indiscreet zeal. 


Changes in the Privy Council, ^c. The King dines 
ui the Camp twice a week. The Prince declared 
Prince of Wales. Changes in Westminster Hall. 

[MS. DONAT. 4194. p. 228, Orig.] 

London, July 7^''. 1688. 

Last night his Majesty was pleased to admit of his 

most honourable Privy Council these persons following: 


viz. Sir John Trevor, Knight, Master of the Rolls, 
Mr. Sylas Titus (commonly called Colonel Titus), and 
Christopher Vane, Esq. son of the late Sir Henry 
Vane, a person of good estate in the county of 

His Majesty is so much pleased with the care and 
ability of Sir William W^illiams, his Solicitor General, 
particularly in his late behaviour about the trial of the 
bishops, that he has been pleased to confer the honour 
of a baronet upon him. 

His Majesty dines at the Camp most commonly 
twice a week, as he did last Wednesday with Major 
General Worden, where there were eight regiments of 
horse, besides six or seven thousand foot drawn up. 

Their Majesties and the Prince continue in very 
good health. The King hath declared the Prince, 
Prince of Wales, though he is not yet created, and 
hath ordered him to be prayed for in all churches under 
that title. About fifteen days hence the Court will 
be removing to Windsor, and the Prince to Richmond. 

About the 10 ''. of this month the Queen^s Majesty 
intends to come abroad, her Month being then out ; 
and to welcome Her Majesty there are eight or nine 
vast Engines made upon the Thames of different forms 
and figures which are to play several sorts of Fire- 
works within a few nights after. 

# * * # # 

Since the trial of the bishops. Sir Richard Holloway 


and Sir John Powell, two of the judges of the King's 
Bench Court, have had their quietus sent them. 
* # # * * 

It is commonly discoursed that there are some other 
changes to be in Westminster Hall ; and if so, it is 
generally believed that his Majesty will have a gra- 
cious regard to the merits and great capacity of Sir 
William Williams his Solicitor General. 


The same to the same. Joy at Rome upon the birth 
of' the Prince of Wales. 

[ms. donat. BRIT. Mus. 4194. p. 239. Orig.] 

London, July 17'h. 1688. 

^ ^ ¥^ ^ # 

This Evening the Fireworks upon the Thames 
will be played. The devices of them are very inge- 
nious, and too long to be here inserted. There are 
several thousands of Baloons that are to be shot into 
the air, and then to fall into the River and represent 
several figures. There are twelve Mortar-pieces that 
are to cast granado shells into the air, which when 


they break will discover odd mixtures and shapes ; the 
figure of Bacchus representing Plenty, out of whose 
great tun and belly are to be discharged about eight 
or nine barrels of combustibles. There are also two 
large feminine figures, which represent Fecundity and 
Loyalty, the emblems of the first are a Hare and a 
Hen and Chickens, each of which are in their proper 
time to act their part in the magnificent Show of this 

# * * * * 

Our Italian letters continue to speak of the dismal 
confusion occasioned by the late earthquakes. That 
they had now again taken out four hundred persons 
alive from under the ruins of the Houses, and among 
others a Lady with child, who through a kind of 
miracle had there continued buried, though alive, for 
eleven days together, even without drinking or eating. 
And that a pillar of Fire had been seen to fly in the 
air over the City of Coritto. 

At the same time they tell us of the extraordinary 
joy at Rome upon the birth of the Prince of Wales, 
and that it was expected his Holiness would suddenly 
nominate M. Barberino, or some other prelate, to carry 
his Royal Highness the blessed clouts. 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. 



The same to the same. The Departure of the Court. 
The Prince taught by the Marchioness of Poiois 
his Governess to present a Petition to the King for 
increasing tJte Number of Hackney Coaches, the 
revenue arising from which was to he applied to the 
maintenance of Foundling Children. Circuits of 
the Judges. Excesses of the Mob at Amsterdam 
upon the celebration at the English ConsiiVs on the 
birth of the Prince of Wales. 

[ibid. p. 240. Orig.'\ 

London, July 19'^. 1688. 

Orders are given for carriages and other necessaries, 
for the removal of the Court, to be ready next Monday, 
and on Tuesday their Majesties depart for Windsor, 
the Prince to Richmond, and the Princess of Denmark 
to Tunbridge. 

It is yet uncertain whether the King designs a Pro- 
gress this summer; if so, it will likely be towards 
York. But the Scots would have it somewhat farther. 

The Lady Marquis of Powis, govemante to the 
Prince, hath taught his Royal Highness a way to ask 
already, for, few days ago, his Royal Highness was 


brought to the King with a petition in his hand, de- 
siring that two hundred Hackney Coaches may be 
added to the four hundred now licensed, but that 
the revenue for the said two hundred might be ap- 
plied towards the feeding and breeding of Foundling 

The Judges were introduced to the King last Sun- 
day by the Lord Chancellor, and had their charge and 
instructions given them before they go their circuits : 
it is said they are to repeat the same assurances to the 
Counties, that his Majesty is resolved to convene a 
Parliament in November, and to direct that such 
members be chosen as will comply with his Majesty's 
intentions, which are for the ease and quiet of his 

» * « « « 

What is said of the Prince of Orange having sent 
five Dutch Men of War, and their having made a 
descent upon St. Christophers, and driven the French 
thence and seized the Place by way of reprizals for 
what the French did at Orange, is very uncertain, and 
is an invention of them that love to feed the town with 
the Air of Novels. 

The mobile at Amsterdam did, at the English Con- 
sul's celebrating the birth of the Prince of Wales, 
commit such rudenesses as require severe resentment. 




The same to the same. A Household established Jbr 
the Prince of Wales. The acquitted Bishops hold 
Catechizings and Confirmations in their respective 
BishopricJcs. Their example followed hy the Roman 

[ibid. p. 242. Orig.^ 

London, July m.^K 1688. 

An Establishment of the Prince of Wales his house- 
hold is made, wherein Sir Stephen Fox is said to have 
had a hand, and in most places to have put those that 
are or were his own servants and relations. 

On Tuesday last was solemnized the marriage of my 
Lord Chancellor's son with the daughter of the late 
Earl of Pembroke, in favour of whom against the pre- 
sent Earl a decree past in Chancery this last term ; her 
mother (who is the Duchess of Portsmouth's sister) 
was present at the marriage, and though she be a Ro- 
man Catholic, yet consented the rharriage should be 
performed by a Protestant minister. This match af- 
fords matter of discourse. 

* * * * * 

The bishops that were lately in the Tower are gone 
to their respective bishopricks, and have resolved to 


hold frequent catechizings and confirmations ; and last 
week the Archbishop began at Lambeth, and at Croy- 
don in Surrey, where the Bishop of Gloucester assisted 
him in confirming some thousands of children that 
were brought to them. 

This good example is followed also by the Roman 
Clergy about the town, and last week Bishop Ellis, 
assisted by Father Poulton the Jesuit,'confirmed some 
hundreds of youth (some of them were new converts) 
at the new Chapel in the Savoy. 

# # « * 4K 

The Bishop of Durham is still indisposed, and has 
suspended several of his Clergy, particularly Doctor 
Morton his chaplain, for not reading the Declaration ; 
the Bishop of Chester is said to intend the same thing 
in his Diocese, and especially at Chester, where the 
Dean is affirmed to have once promised the reading, 
and then to have been sick a bed when the day came, 
so that it was not read in the Cathedral. 

His Majesty returned yesterday at noon from the 
Buoy in the Nore, where he spent a whole day in 
viewing his squadron of ships, and is said to have given 
orders for the equipping of ten more. 

The Archbishop and the Clergy of London are said 
to have had several conferences with the chief of the 
Dissenting ministers, in order to agree such points of 
Ceremonies as are indifferent between them, and to take 
their measures for what is to be proposed about religion 
at next Parliament. 



The same to the same. Falsity of a Report concerning 
Father Peters. 

[ibid. p. 247- Orig."] 

*,♦ The person called Father Peters in this Letter, was Edward Petre 
the King's Confessor, who was at the head of the Jesuits, and whom 
James was absurd enough to make a member of his Privy Council. He 
greatly accelerated the downfall of the King. 

London, July 26"'. 1688. 

On Tuesday their Majesties went for Windsor, and 
Tomorrow the Prince of Wales is to remove for Rich- 
mond. His Royal Highness goes abroad in the Park 
every day to take the air. 

4|( # * * # 

What is said by some newsmongers about the 
Town, of fovir soldiers having shot at Father Peters in 
the Camp, is false; no such indignity having been 
offered to any of the fathers ; only one of the King's 
priests happened to be riding six or eight miles from 
the Camp, as two soldiers were a drinking the King's 
health, and out of gaiety discharged their musquets ; 
and this was found to be the fact upon examination at 
a Council of War. 



The same to the same. The Prince of Wales in- 
disposed. The Judges and their Charges. 

[ibid. fd. 263. Orig.] 

London, Aug. 7''. 1688. 

Their Majesties have passed three or four days at 
Richmond with the Prince of Wales, his Royal High- 
ness having continued indisposed by the gripes and 
looseness. Several consults of Doctors and Mid wives 
and Nurses have been had ; and at last it was resolved 
his Highness should have the breast, and a fresh coun- 
try woman hard by was had on Saturday, and he hath 
since sucked and been much better. 

The Queen is resolved to continue with the Prince 
at Richmond till he be well and in a condition to be 
removed to Windsor. 

Councils and Committees were put off at Windsor 
by reason that the King was with the Prince at Rich- 

# * # * * 

Great exceptions are taken by the several Counties 
against the Judges, who arraign the Bishops in their 
Charges at the Circuit Sessions after they have been 


fairly acquitted by a Tryal and a Verdict in the King's 

Some of the Judges are said to have behaved them- 
selves lukewarmly in the matter, and to have foreseen, 
at least forethought, what disservice to the Crown a 
general discontent may prove to be, so that we may 
expect some farther change in Westminster Hall the 
next Term. 


The same to the same. A Wet-Nurse provided for 
the Prince of Wales. Death of Henry Carre, Va- 
rious News. 

[ibid. fol. 267. Orig.'\ 

London, Aug. 9^^. 1688. 

At Richmond the Prince of Wales continues to 

suck the Nurse allowed him, and it hath that good 

effect which is natural and usual to children, and their 

Majesties returned thence this day to Windsor. The 

Nurse is the wife of a Tyle-maker, and seems a healthy 

woman. She came in her cloth petticoat and waistcoat, 

and old shoes and no stockings ; but she is now rigged 

by degrees (that the surprise may not alter her in her 


duty and care). A dfi'lOO per annum is already set- 
tled upon her, and two or three hundred guineas 
already given, which she saith that she knows not what 
to do with. 

Yesterday morning about three or four o'clock died 
that pains-taker Henry Carre author of the late 
* Pacquet of Advice from Rome' and of the < Weekly 
Occurrences;' some of our chief Newsmongers are 
posted to Windsor to put in for his places. 

The Judges at Oxford made strict inquiry after 
those scholars who had rescued the townsmen from 
the constable for abusing of Obadiah Walker, and the 
High Sheriff of the County recommended it to their 
Lordships' cares in an elegant but short speech he made 
in the Court, to this effect : " Pray my Lord let's have 
Justice, or good night Nicholas." 

The Marchioness of Powys hath had a Privy Seal 
for d^lO,000 to be paid her without account to be laid 
out for the use of the Prince of Wales. 

We hear his Royal Highness is to be proclaimed 
and registered upon the Council Book of Ludlow, 
though he be not like to be created yet for some years. 

The Lord Chancellor went on Monday morning 
towards Canterbury to visit his brother, who is one 
of the Prebends there ; his Lordship passes thence to 
Dover to wait on the Countess of Pembroke who era- 
barks for France. 



The same to the same. The Prince of Wales recovered. 
His Wet'Nurse has a Governess to look after her. 

[ibid. p. 269. Orig.'\ 

London, Aug. 14, 1688. 


On Saturday last his Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales was removed from Richmond to Windsor, 
where he is lodged in the Princess of Denmark's House 
(which was M's. Ellen Gwyns) and is well recovered 
of his late indisposition, to the joy of the whole Court 
and Kingdom. 

His Highness's Nurse is also in health and good 
plight, being kept to her old diet and exercise. She 
hath also a Governess allowed her (an ancient gentle- 
woman) who is with her night and day, at home and 



The Prince of Orange is now forming a Camp near 
Maestricht, and 'tis said the Elector of Brandenburgh 
and other neighbour Princes are to have bodies of men 
within call, to join if there shall be occasion.** 

» The secret Confederacy between the Priiice of Orange and the Elector of Bran- 
denburgh at this time, was celebrated by the latter on a Medal. The Obverse repre- 
sented the Elector's bust to the right, hair long, in armour with a mantle: the 
l^egend. FRIDER . HI . D . G . M . BRAND . S . R . I . A . C . ET . ELECT. 
• R . FALTz.' The Reverse bore a whole length figure of Juno her finger to her 
mouth, a sceptre in her left hand, and an Eagle at her feet. A Fleet in the distance. 
Legend, EXPED . BRITAN . CONSIL . ET . ARMIS . ADIVTA. Exergue, 
1688. R. F. 



The same to the same. The Queen Dowager. 

[ibid. p. 296. Orig.'\ 

Lond. Sept. 8"'. 1688. 
The Queen Dowager thinks of going to live re- 
tiredly, and to receive no visits but from the Royal 


The same to the same. Writs to be issued Jbr the 


[m8. dokat. 4194 p. 298. Orig.^ 

Lond. Sept. 15th. 1688. 
The Lord Chancellor hath been in town since 
Wednesday. The Parliament Writs are all ready, 
and will be sealed and delivered out next Tuesday. 

The Elector again repealed this Medal when King of Prussia. Obv. his bust to the 
right, laureate, shoulders bare. Leg. FRIDERICVS . D .G . UEX . BOUVSSIAE. 
< v . MAM,.' The Reverse was from the same die tm the preceding Medal. 

Frederick did not assume the royal title till the month of January, 1701. His 
Kingdom was acknowledged in 1T13 by the Treaty of Utrecht He lent WillLani 
al;out six thousand troops. 

The King of Denmark also issued a Medal at this time. On the Obverse a large 
Fleet. On the Reverse this Inscription within a wreath, A CHRISTIANO . V . 
MDCLXXXIX. These troops were actually furnished; they were landed in 
England and Scotland, and were employed in Ireland. 



The same to the same. Court News. Mr. Skelton 
the late Envoi/ at Paris committed to the Tower. 

[ibid. p. 304. Orig.] 

London, Sept. 20*^ 1688. 

On Monday night the Princess of Denmark came 
to Whitehall from Tunbridge, and on Tuesday came 
the King from Windsor, and this day her Majesty the 
Queen and Prince of Wales are expected. 

Yesterday his Majesty went down the river to 
Chatham to view the ships that are there fitting out, 
which we are told are five and three fire ships, to be 
added to the fleet. 

We hear no more of the Dutch Fleet or of its de- 
sign. Our last Letters of the 14'^'. left it upon the 
Coast of Holland cruising before the Maes. The re- 
port of its appearing upon our Coast was a mistake 
raised by our timorous oyster or herring women who 
are concerned for their trade. 

On Tuesday night there was a Council held at 
Whitehall where the case of M'* Skelton, his Majesty's 
JEnvoye at Paris, was taken into consideration. He 
had landed at Deal but the day before, and after 
Council on Tuesday he was sent prisoner to the Tower. 


What his crime is we yet know not, but are told it is 
some false step he made to the Court of France, by 
meddling with what he had no instructions for, and by 
exceeding his commission. The further particulars 
whereof you may have hereafter. » 

# * # « « 

The Parliament Writs were delivered yesterday. 


The same to the same. Mr. Skelton. The Mayor of' 
Scarborough tossed in a Blanket. 

[ibid. p. 310. Orig.'\ 

London, Sept. 22, 1688. 

M"". Skelton is still in the Tower, and is in more 
danger than was at first apprehended. 

We hear no further of the Dutch fleet. 

Capt. Ouseley is said to be come to town to give his 
reasons for tossing the Mayor of Scarborough in a 
blanket. As a part of his Plea he has brouglit with 
him a collection of Articles against the said Mayor, and 
the attestations of many Gentlemen of note. 

« Compare Burnet's Hist, of his Own Times, e»lit. Oxf. 1828. vol. iii. pp. 12 and 
768. He was afterwards Constable of the Tower. 



The same to the same. The Mayor and Aldermen of 
London address the King and Queen. The King's 
Address to them respecting the Dutch Fleet. 

[ibid. p. 312. Orig.] 

London, Sept. 25^h. 1688. 
Yesterday the Lord Mayor and Aldermen waited 
on the King and Queen to pay their duty upon their 
Majesties' return from Windsor. His Majesty, in 
his gracious return to the compHment, took notice of 
the report, as if the Dutch intended to attempt upon 
England, and bid them not be concerned. That he 
would stand for them, as his Majesty hoped they would 
stand for him ; and as he had often ventured his person 
heretofore in defence of the Monarchy, so would he go 
as far as any body to do it still against any body that 
should offer to disturb our quiet; or to that effect; 
which renders all men in the City both hearty and 



The same to the same. The Prince of Orange reported 
to he upon the point of emharlcing. 

[ibid. p. 313. Orig.^ 

27'h. Sept. 88. 
We are told by Express this morning that the Prince 
of Orange is to embark on board his mighty Fleet, for 
England to-morrow, or on Monday next at farthest. 
This puts us into great hurry and confusion ; all pre- 
paring for a brush : and it is to be feared His Majesty 
(whom God preserve !) will venture his own royal per- 
son. Many of our Nobility are said to be already with 
the Prince. 

To John Ellis, Esq. Secretary for 
the Revenue of Ireland, Dublin. 


The same to ike same. The King's Proclamation 
concerning the intended Invasion of the Dutch. The 
Dnkes of Ormond and Berwick have the Garter. 
Hearing before the Council concerning the tossing 
of the Mai/or of Scarborough in a blanket. 

(ibid. p. 317. Orig.] 

London, Sept. 29"'. 1688. 
His Majesty last night in Council was pleased to 


order a Proclamation to be published touching the in- 
tended Invasion of the Dutch, whereby he animates all 
his loving subjects to behave themselves like true En- 
glishmen, and that they be neither daunted with Dutch 
prowess (for the sake of the reputation of English 
courage), nor suffer themselves to be carried away 
with those specious pretexts and insinuations which 
they intend to publish in their Declaration, when- 
soever it be scattered abroad. What ought to incite 
our courage against them the more is, that they are 
said to have a thousand Saxon horse on board ; as if 
Old England were to be conquered a second time by 
that Nation. 


The Writs of Parliament are to be recalled, and the 
Elections to be put off by reason of this unforeseen in- 
cident of an Invasion. 

The Bishop of London could not be found, being 
gone 'tis thought to his Sisters in Yorkshire, but his 
suspension is taken off. The Archbishop was also in- 
disposed, and could not wait on the King ; but about 
ten other of the Bishops have attended his Majesty 
yesterday, and having been a long time in his Closet, 
were dismissed very well satisfied, and one of the chief 
of them telling his friends that Omnia bene. 

The Dukes of Ormond and Berwick have the Gar- 
ters, and were invested therewith yesterday at a Chap- 
ter held on purpose at Whitehall. 

The Mayor of Scarborough, and Captain Wosely 


who tossed the other in a blanket, were heard last 
night before the Council. The Captain pleaded his 
Majesty's gracious general pardon (which is in the 
press) and so both were dismissed. 


Tlie same to the same. The Charter of the City of 

London restored. 

[MS. DOMAT. 4194. p. 330. Orig.\ 

Whitehall, 2". Oct. 1688. 

This evening His Majesty called before him in 
Council the present Lord Mayor and Aldermen of 
London, as also those that were Aldermen at the time 
that judgment was entered against the City"'8 Charter; 
and as a mark of his confidence in the loyalty and 
affection of the City (especially at this time that the 
nation is threatened by a foreign Invasion) was gra- 
ciously pleased to restore to the City its Charter in 
the same terms they had it before, to the inexpressible 
surprise as well as joy of them all. His Majesty told 
them likewise that he thought the Dutch Fleet was by 
this time under sail. 

To John Ellis, Esq. Secretary for 
the Revenue at Dublin, Ireland. 

VOL. IV. SEB. 2. K 



The same to the same. Coffee Houses and other 
Houses which dealt in News suppressed. 

[ibid. p. 332. Orig.] 

London, Oct. 9*''. 1688. 
* # # * * 

Yesterday the Lord Chancellor by the King*s 
command directed the Justices of Peace of Middlesex 
to suppress all Coffee Houses and other Public Houses 
that deal in News Letters, or expose to the public any 
foreign or domestic Newspapers besides the printed 


The same to the same. Description of the Dutch Fleet. 
Measures taken for defence. 

[ibid. foL 334.] 

London, Oct. 2<l. 1688. 
The Advices from Holland continue to give us the 
same account of the Dutch Fleet, that it lies (as the 


Gazette has it) off of Goree, and is three or four hun- 
dred sail strong in capital men of War and by landers 
for the transportation of troops. Their Army is said 
to be about eighteen or twenty thousand strong, made 
up of High and Low Dutch, of refuged Frenchmen, 
English fugitives and rebels, and such like medley. 
Earl Maxfield (they say) is to command all the horse, 
and Colonel Sidney the foot, and our late Admiral 
Herbert the fleet ; and if fame be true he is to carry 
the Standard of England. According to the Dutch 
computation, this Army will have conquered England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, in six weeks time ; and so far 
are they from making any secret of it, that they make 
it their public brag, and it is the common talk and 
vapouring of their carmen and fishermen about their 
streets. But we hope they reckon without their host, 
and that England and its old renown, is not yet sunk 
so low as to be made a prey to such mongrel invaders. 

We hear that many Noblemen and others have 
prayed and had his Majesty's Commission to raise 
men in their Countries for the public defence. 

His Majesty is said to have resolved to march in his 
own royal person (whom God preserve) as soon as they 
are landed, and all the Court and his Ministers are 
preparing to attend him. 

The Lord Bishop of Winchester is also ready to 
attend his Majesty, as he did against the rebels in the 

K 2 


Several of the Monmouthians that were pardoned 
after the Western rebellion, are said to be missing now, 
whence we may reasonably conclude (from the immu- 
tability of some men's tempers) they are slipped over 
for a new command upon this occasion. 

The City is unanimously resolved for the common 
defence, and the London apprentices seem eager for an 
opportunity to try their loyalty and briskness against 
those new pretended invaders. 

The Lord Dartmouth is gone down the river to 
hasten the Fleet together, but will be back once again 
before they sail. 

The Mayor of Cambridge (though once a Quaker) 

has taken the oaths from the Vice-chancellor ; but the 

Mayor of Oxford seems unwilling to do it. 

For John Ellis^ Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin. 


The same to the same. The Society of Magdalen 
College Oxford restored. Imprisonment of Hu- 
bert Bourke. Various news. 

[ibid. fol. 342.] 

London, October 13, 1688. 

It is very certain that the Bishop of Winchester 


has received orders from his Majesty to repair to Ox- 
ford to establish Magdalen College there according to 
its ancient laws and statutes, and to restore Dr. Hough 
the president with the rest of the former Society, and 
to expel the members that are now settled in that 

One Hubert Bourke, one of the evidence and nar- 
rative-men in the late Popish Plot, being lately come 
from Holland, where he pretended to have quitted a 
considerable employment to come to serve his Majesty, 
having by his behaviour and language given occasion 
to suspect the honesty of his intentions, was seized and 
clapped up in the Gate House. 

Mr, Goodwyne Wharton was taken into custody by 
one of the messengers, and examined touching a com- 
plaint sent against him from one of his Majesty's Gar- 
risons {as if he did somewhat he ought not about his 
Majesty's fortifications), but is again released upon 
bail before one of the judges. 

We mentionetl in our last the choosing Sir John 
Chapman Lord Mayor, and Sir Humphry Edwynne 
and Mr. Fleet Sheriffs for this next year, and Sir Peter 
Rich to be Chamberlain. But we do not hear yet who 
is to be Recorder, Sir George Treby being said to have 
refused it; Mr. Common Serjeant acted at the Old 
Bailey this Session for want of a Recorder. 

The Bishops are said to have received command 
from his Majesty to deliver him in writing what they 


at several times spoke, which some think may be 
printed. The Archbishop of Canterbury has also 
prepared a Form of Prayer to be used upon occasion 
of the danger that threatens the Kingdom at present, 
which is in the press. 

The Wind has continued westerly for these ten days 
past, which we believe obstructs the coming of any 
letters from Holland, and keeps back the Dutch fleet, 
nor do we yet know what certainty there is in that re- 
port, as if the Dutch had declared war against France. 
Some of the Squadron of ships that cruized in the 
Mediterranean are returned, and joined to his Ma- 
jesty''s fleet now in the mouth of the river. • ; 

There are not above a thousand men yet landed in 
Chester out of Ireland, notwithstanding the great noise 
of our jealous spirits about the City of London, as if 
there were a thousand for each hundred. We have 
no foreign Mail come in as yet, three being wanting 
from Holland, three from France, and four from 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners of the Revenue 
in Ireland. 



The same to the same. The General News of the day. 

[ibid. foL 156.] 

London, Oct. 27, 1688. 
» * 

The Wind did again come about yesterday to the 
south- cast, which was fair to the Dutch, so that it is 
probable they took hold of that opportunity to come 
away, especially the nights being so clear mid light, 
but to day it is south-west again. 

Some tell us of the Prince of Orange's being sick, 
and that the bloody flux reigns in their fleet, some foot 
and horse having been embarked these three weeks or 
a month, and most of them people that having never 
seen the sea before, they are supposed to be in a sweet 

The first tempest disabled several of their best 
Ships three weeks ago, but the storm of last Saturday 
night was yet more violent, so that we expect with im- 
patience to know how the Dutch Fleet escaped it, 
thirty of their men of war having been seen abroad 
that day under sail some few hours before the storm 
began, which in all likelihood forced them back again. 

The Count of Nassau, general of the horse, and the 


Count of Solms, are said to be on board the Holland's 
fleet, and they tell us that during the Prince of Orange's 
absence, the Count of Flodrop, the Prince Waldeck, 
and Lieutenant General Alva will have the command 
on the frontiers of Guelderland ; Lieutenant General 
Delvich upon those of Overyssell ; the Count of Horn 
and Lieutenant General Webnom in Flanders, and 
Major General Obdam at Bois-le-duc. 

The King's Fleet under my Lord Dartmouth were 
seen off of Essex, sailing towards the gun fleet ; there 
were thirty-three men of war in number, and sixteen 
fireships. Some of the biggest ships are yet in the 
river, and will follow very speedily. 

The City of London chose one Mr. Rhunners to be 
their Recorder, but he declined it, and since they have 
elected Mr. Selby. 

Mr. Serjeant Stringer (whose son married the Lord 
Chancellor's daughter) is made puisne judge of the 
King's Bench, in the room of Judge Allybone lately 

Great noise has been made about a large sum of 
money and arms found in a Milhner's house in the 
Pall Mall ; but we are very well informed it is only a 
mistake, and that though there were several trunks 
searched, yet there was nothing in them but books, 
which they say belong to Colonel Sidney, who went 
into Holland some while since. 

The Depositions about the birth of the Prince of 


Wales are to be enrolled in Chancery,^ and several 
lords and ladies attended this day to that purpose. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin. 


The same to t/ie same. The Prince of Orange driven 


[ibid. fol. 158.] 

27^''. Oct. 88. 
We have neither Letters nor Gazettes from Holland, 
and the Marquis is forced to keep house and to live in 
ignorance, and to keep us so too. The Prince of 
Orange was in last Saturday's storm ; he embarked the 
19''', and last Sunday he was driven back in a shattered 
condition upon the Dutch coast. We know not the 
particulars of his loss ; three or four hundred horse 
are said to be thrown overboard, and all the rest in 
disorder ; others say seventy or eighty, and some small 
craft lost and sunk, and two men of war disabled. 
My Lord Preston is made Secretary of State, and my 
Lord of Middleton removes to my Lord of Sunder- 

» These nepoitition'ii were afterwards printed in a *c|)aratc form, m folio and 
octavo, by command, for general cireulation. 


land's Office ; perhaps I may stick with one of them 
still, but wherever I am I shall always be most faith- 


I had four packets from you on Thursday. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary for 
the Revenue of Ireland, at Dublin. 


The same to the same. The Council ordered to wait 
upon the Prince and Princess of Denmark with the 
depositions cmicerning the Birth of the Prince of 
Wales. The Prince of Grangers Declaration dis- 
persed about the Town. Reports of the Dutch Fleet. 

[ibid. fol. 336.] 

London, November the 3''. 1688. 

His Majesty hath ordered in Council that the whole 
Privy Council should wait on their Highnesses the 
Prince and Princess of Denmark, with a Copy of the 
Dejx)sitions which were taken and sworn unto in Coun- 
cil touching the Birth of the Prince of Wales. 

His Majesty having notice that a printed Paper 


called the Prince of Orange's Declaration is dispersed 
about the town, and the disperser himself (who is now 
in Newgate) was seized with several about him. It is 
ordered that a Proclamation be published forthwith for- 
bidding all persons upon pain of High Treason to read, 
write, disperse, or conceal any of the said Declarations, 
but give notice thereof to the next Justice of Peace. 

Yesterday the Archbishop and all the Bishops about 
town, were summoned to attend the King ; what past is 
not certainly known. But most people do conclude, 
it was the King's pleasure to communicate to them 
that part of the Prince of Orange's Declaration which 
concerned them and the Clergy, it being (as we hear) 
pretended in the said declaration that the Clergy, among 
others, had invited the Prince of Orange to come over. 
What the said bishops will do. Time must tell us. 

The Wind hath been very strong and fair for the 
Dutch these five days, and yet there are vessels come 
into this river, which saw their fleet on the other side 
on Tuesday and Wednesday last, and letters from the 
best hands in Holland by way of Flanders, dated from 
the Hague on Tuesday last, do aflirm they will not be 
ready to sail these eight days : on the other hand a 
master of a ship of great credit on the Exchange, that 
set sail on Wednesday night from the Macse, affirms 
that the Dutch set sail that evening before him, and 
this his assertion is confirmed by letters from Nieuport, 
dated on Thursday last. 


In meanwhile, several people come from the Country 
report to have heard the noise of guns going off, whence 
some fancy that the Fleets may have been engaged, 
but having no account from any good hands, there is 
no credit to be given it, and it is more probable that 
it was some more ships sailing out of the river to go 
and join the fleet which rides about the Galloper. 

The same Volume, fol. 344. contains 

1. The Prince of Orange his Speech to the States. 

Hague, Oct. IS'*". Old StUe. 
My Lords, 

I am going to the navy to embark. I hope you do not take it ill that 
I do not make it known to you all where I am going. I will assure your 
Lordships, that what I am designing is for the good of the Protestant 
Religion in general, and of your State in particular, as is not unknown to 
some among you. I will either succeed in it, or spend my blood to the 
last drop. 

My Lords, your trust in me, and kindness to me at this time, is un- 
bounded ; if I live, and make it not the business of my life to make your 
Lordships suitable returns for it, may God blast all my designs, and let 
me pass for the most ungrateful wretch that ever lived. 

2. Heer FageWs Answer by Order. 
My Lords the States are not at all displeased that you conceal from 
them your design ; they do repose an entire confidence in your Highness' 
conduct, zeal to the Protestant religion, and afiection to their State ; other- 
wise they would never have given you the abs(dute disposal of their navy, 
their armies, and their money. My Lord, the States wish you all the 
success in your designs, and have ordered a Public Fast, and Prayers to 
God, for your success through all their dominions ; and beg it of your 
Highness not to venture your life and person unnecessarily, for though 
tiieir navy and their army be the very sinews of their State, your person is 
more considerable to them than both. 



The same to the same. The Dutch arrive upon the 
Coast of Devonshire. 

[bis. DOXAT. MUS. BRIT. 4194. fol. 161. Ortg-.] 

6«'. Nov. 88. 
Just now at, Seven, we hear the Dutch fleet (five hun- 
dred sail) was put into Torbay, Exmouth, and Dart- 
mouth ; all conclude they design to Bristol, but will 
take Exeter and other places in the way. We here are 
in good health though in some hurry, and hope for 
good success ; our enemies having fed these two months 
upon a biscuit, two herrings, and a pint of Dortz-en- 
gelze a day. We hope to find their noble courage 
much cast down. When any thing occurs and I have 
a minute's time, I shall give you part of it ; a Counter- 
Declaration is sent to the press. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary for 
the Revenue of Ireland, at Dublin. 



The same to the same. The Prince of Orange at 

[ibid. fol. 368 b.] 

lOtii. Nov. 88. 

Yours of the 24*i\ past are but just come in ; the 
Prince of Orange is at Exeter since yesterday twenty 
thousand strong, he hath bespoke ten'* thousand pairs 
of shoes. The Country is not fond of liim nor for- 
ward to run in to him ; they keep good order, but 
cannot prevail with Coll. Strangways or any of his 
neighbours to come at them, but they send their in- 
viting Letters unopened up to the King. They want 
Oxen and Horses for draft. Our artillery went out 
this day. The King follows next Thursday : so that 
you will imagine we are here in hurry and some con- 
fusion. We seized a Bag of Letters and a Boat of 
theirs going for Holland. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary 
for the Revenue of Ireland, at 

• In the next Letter it is said six thousand. 



The same to the same. The Prince of Orange still at 
■ ' Exeter. The general state of Affairs. 

[ibid. fol. 369.] 

London, Nov. 13, 1688. 

It is said the Prince of Orange is now settled at 
Exeter as his head quarters, but that most of his com- 
panions are lodged in the neighbouring towns ten or 
fifteen miles off. The six thousand pair of shoes which 
he bespoke at Exeter are not yet ready, and so we 
know not what way they intend to take. Others think 
that the bespeaking these shoes was but a trick to drill 
on time, till they could see if any part of England 
would come in to them ; but we are assured their allies 
come on but slowly, all the West being quiet, and 
almost unconcerned at their being there, while they 
pay for what they have. Some of the scurf and meaner 
part run in to them as they would to see a show, but 
generally retreat the next day ; most of our Western 
people having ever since Monmouth's time been much 
troubled with dreams of gibbets, &c. 

The Dean and Chapter as well as the Bishop ran 


away at their coming into Exeter, and so would most 
of the inhabitants, but that it happens to be a great 
fair time there. 

They stop and rifle all Mails and Letters that pass 
that way, and the doing of it now in fair time does (in 
some people's opinion) seem as if they looked for money 
and bills of exchange, and not letters of news. Some 
tell us they begin to plunder and imprison, notwith- 
standing they have promised the contrary, having 
taken violently ^6*300 from the Collector of Excise, 
and thrown him into prison. 

Though there has been a great noise as if some men 
of quality, Mr. Wharton and others, were gone in to the 
invaders, yet it proves false, for Mr. Wharton was seen 
since at Court and other places where he frequents. 

Some few of the Maltsters and Butchers of Buck- 
inghamshire (most commonly those that owe more than 
they can pay) are missing, and supposed to be run 
away in hopes to plunder, not to pay their creditors. 

Great endeavours are used to prevail with the lads 
of London to be troublesome under the pretence of 
pulling down the Popish Chapels in Lime street, 
Bucklersbury, and S^ John's : some scores of them have 
rendevouzed these two last nights, but upon beat of 
drum, and appearing of any small part of the Militia, 
have scampered away, and by flight provided for their 
safety. The Lord Mayor and Lieutenancy of the City, 
as well as the Officers of the County of Middlesex, 


keeping a strict eye to the least motion that is made 
by these young mutineers. 

Our Fleet is still about the Downes, and that of the 
Dutch about Torbay, several of their sea and land 
men desert them, last night a Lieutenant of one of their 
Men of War was examined at the Council in White- 
hall, he was originally a Scotsman, and says their 
Fleet is but forty-four sail, and twelve fireships, and 
.no great vessels among them, and that they begin to 
want provisions. 

We have no farther apprehension of a party of their 
fleet being gone Northward, for that Major-general 
MaCay who was to command them was one of the first 
who landed in the West. 

We are told the Duke of Beaufort has broke his^rm 
at Bristol, which, if true, is the greater mischance at 
this time that his presence is so necessary for the King's 
service at that place. 

The French go on with their conquests in Germany 
without control, it being sleeping time with the Ger- 
mans, who did not expect a campaign in the depth of 
Winter ; all the Palatinate is surrendered, and many 
of the Locks of the Rhene in the Electorates of Co- 
logne, Mayence, and Treues; Coblentz, the famous 
magazine and fountain of good Rhenish wine, is bom- 
barded, and quite ruined to the ground, but the French 
of a sudden retired from before it, likely to go upon 
some design that required more haste. The French 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. L 



are drawing men together towards the borders of 
Holland, being loath to slip the opportunity of the 
Prince of Orange's absence with the chief and best of 
the Dutch officers. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Rerenue 
of Ireland; at Dublin. 


The seme to the same. Lo?'d Lovelace taken in his 
wa/y to Join the Prince of Orange. Dr. Burnet 
reads the Prince''s Declaration at Exeter. Nexvs 
Jrom the West. 

[ibid. p. 374. Orig.'X 

London, Nov. 15, 1688. 

Last night came an express from Cirencester in 

Glocestershire, with an account that the Lord Lovelace 

riding through that town with a strong party of about 

a hundred horse very well armed, was stopped by the 

Militia of the County, and they requiring of him what 

was his business to go so armed, and whither he was 

a going ; but his Lordship not giving any good answer 

ORIGINAL lettp:rs. 147 

of Iiimself or his company thought it his best way to 
fight his passage through, and charging the Mihtia, 
which was but part of a Troop, they came to blows, 
and in the scuffle one Major Louridge and his Son who 
commanded the Mihtia were killed, one Captain Wil- 
liams and five or six more wounded; but we do not 
yet hear how many of the rebels were killed ; only that 
the Lord Lovelace and thirteen of his followers were 
taken and are now in the Gaol at Cirencester. 

This Party designed to go join the Prince of Orange 
in the West, from whence the Lord Lovelace had been 
come but few days, and those with him are supposed 
to be his tenants and neighbours, but none of any great 
note that I can yet hear of. 

We are told from good hands at Exeter that Dr. 
Burnet has taken possession of that Cathedral," and 
both preached in it on Sunday last before the Prince 
of Orange, and then openly read the Prince's Declara- 
tion ; though the Prince and he well approved of the 
not reading the King"'s late Declaration. Burnet sent 
in the Prince's name to all the Clergy, commanding 
them also to read it, and to read a Form of Prayer for 
the Prince's good success, but they are said to have all 
unanimously refused, and rejected the Proposal. 

We do not find that any one Gentleman of quality, 
substance, or estate is come in to them from the West, 
but some from the Eastern parts of England flock to 

■ The Bish())> of Exeter had llcil to tlourt, as will be seen in .inothcr Letter. 

L 2 


them by the means and interest of those Lords and 
others said to be already there, as E. Shrewsbury, E. 
Maxfield, Lord Mordent, one of the Whartons, Lord 
Wiltshire, and some Scotch Lairds also. 

The Prince has his Privy Council which meets every 
day, which consists of the said Lords and other Gen- 
tlemen, as Major Wildman (and some other Oliverlans) 
together with Burnet, Ferguson, and Balfour who is a 
Scotch field-preacher, and said to be the man that mur- 
dered the Archbishop of St. Andrews about the year 
78 and for which he has been since fled and protected 
by the States of Holland. 

His Majesty is very well satisfied with the zeal and 
care of the MiUtia in Glostershire, who behaved them- 
selves so well upon the occasion in taking the Lord 
Lovelace, and it is said his Majesty intends some par- 
ticular mark of favour to every one concerned in that 
action which, as it is much for their own honour and 
for the credit and reputation of the Militia of that 
County, so it is hoped it may prove a good example to 
the Militia of other Counties to do their duty likewise. 

Some Letters from the West say the Prince of 
Orange intends for Bristol, and thence to Glostershire 
and to Salop, and that he has abundance of copper and 
tin Boats to use upon the Severn ; but of this, time 
must tell us the certainty, and his Majesty has sent 
some thousands of his army to dispute their passage 
about Bristol. 


Orders are given to stop all passengers in all parts 

of England who have no passes from a Secretary of 

State, and the Militia are to take care in it, as well as 

the civil Magistrate. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Sec. to the 
CJommissioners for the Revenue of 
Ireland, at Dublin. 


The same to the same, 

[ibid. p. 3^&. Orig.} 

17 Nov. 88. 
Just now late comes yours of the 3''. This day at 
two o'clock his Majesty marched for Windsor with the 
Prince of Wales. They 'II be tomorrow at Bazinstoke 
or Andover. The Queen is here still ! This is a me- 
lancholy time with us all ; what adds to our pain is, 
that our Fleet set sail yesterday in quest 'tis thought 
of the Dutch Fleet. God send us good success. A 
Petition signed by the Archbishops and several Lords 
(about seventeen in all) was this noon delivered his 
Majesty, praying him to call a Free Parliament, and 
to prevent the effusion of blood. I know not what 
answer it had. 

For John Ellis, Esci- Secretary for 
the Revenue of Ireland, at Dublin. 



The same to the same. General News. 
[ibid. fol. 177.] 

London, Nov. 17, 1688. 

Yesterday his Majesty's Fleet under the Lord 
Dartmouth set sail out of the Downs towards the West, 
the wind N. E. a brisk gale, and it is confidently re- 
ported his Lordship'^s orders are to fight the Dutch. 

The Lord Lovelace and his partizans that were 
taken with him are removed from Cirencester Gaol to 
Gloster Castle under a strict guard. 

The Prince of Orange continues to seize on the 
King's money at Exeter : besides the ^£'300 we formerly 
mentioned, we are told now of £^QQO more arriving 
from the Customs and Excise. 

^ ^ « * ^ 

This day was published a proclamation forbidding 
the holding of Exeter fair, or any other fair within 
twenty miles of that place. 

Yesterday the Bishops in Town attended his Ma- 
jesty, but how far any persons have expressed their 
desire of an accommodation, we know no farther than 
the common report. 



On Thursday last the Bishop of Exeter kissed the 
King's hand in order to be Archbishop of York, and 
the Bishop of Bristol to be Bishop of Exeter. 

A bill was brought to the Grand Jury against Cap- 
tain Lexham for dispersing the Prince of Orange's 
Declaration, but would not find it, as is reported, unless 
they had a sight of a copy thereof. 

One Mr. Purefoy is taken into custody of a Messen- 
ger, and a Lieutenant in the Lord Dartmouth's regi- 
ment is brought back. 

On Thursday evening we were not a little surprised 
that part of some regiments had deserted to the enemy. 

His Majesty departed this day and lies at Windsor 
for to-night, to-morrow at Basingstoke, and will be at 
Salisbury on Monday. 

The ten Officers taken in the Dutch fly boat were 
removed from the Gate-house to Newgate. 

This day the Queen with the Prince of Wales re- 
moved to Windsor. The Gentleman that writes the 
news being called this day about extraordinary busi- 
ness, has been forced to leave the collection of the news 
to his clerk. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue , 

of Ireland J at Dublin. 



The same to the same. Reports and Information of 
the lyay. 

[ibid. foi. 379.] 

London, Novemb'. the 20 ''. 1688. 

Though it be commonly and credibly reported that 
our Fleet sailed by Dover on Friday and by Ports- 
mouth on Saturday last, yet there is no manner of 
account yet come upon what design it was bent, but 
all conclude it was with orders to find out the Dutch 
Fleet, which is still about Torbay. But the sharp 
East winds we have had these three days have been 
one reason that we have heard of no action. 

His Majesty lay on Saturday at Windsor, and on 
Sunday night at Andover, and was expected yesterday 
betimes at Salisbury. 

Here is a report as if Sir Rowland Guynne were 
landed with a Party in Wales, where he hopes to find 
those that will join him in great numbers, but some 
think he has not experience sufficient in military affairs 
as to make it very probable. 

We hear the Militia are every where strict in exa- 


mining such as pass and traverse the country, especially 
if the persons or their numbers be any thing suspicious. 
It is said his Majesty hath sent for the breaking 
down the Bridge of Kersham near Bristol to prevent 
the incursion of the Rebels into Gloustershire. 

His R. H. the P. of Wales went from St. James on 
Saturday in his way (it is believed) towards Ports- 
mouth. The Queen continues still at Whitehall, but 
will follow, as people say, in a few days. 

The Dutch Army is reported to begin to want 
money, yet the strictness of discipline keeps the sol- 
diers in quiet. The Prince is said to have hanged one 
for stealing a bone of mutton, yet we do not hear any 
correction was given those that robbed the King"'s Party 
of their horses and clothes. 

* ♦ * * « 

The Petition presented on Saturday by the Arch- 
bishops and other Lords, about nineteen, is printed, the 
Prayer of it is that his Majesty would forthwith call a 
free Parliament, and use such means as should to him 
seem fit for preventing the effusion of Christian blood. 
A Report is very hot about Town that the Lord 
Delamere is up in Cheshire at the head of a consider- 
able body of Horse, that he declared himself in favour 
of the Prince of Orange''s proceedings, and had him- 
self read that Prince's Declaration at the Market Cross ; 
those rumours adding at the same time the names of 
sundry Lords and Gentlemen that concur with that 


Lord in the same measures and that their general ren- 
dezvous is to be at Derby ; but though several ex- 
presses are dispatched upon this account, yet as all this 
is with uncertainty we shall forbear all particulars till 
further confirmation. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin. 


The same to the same. Continuation of News. 

[ibid. fol. 381. Orig.] 

London, Nov. 22, 1688. 


The winds have continued so loud and violent of 
late that we could not expect to hear of any action be- 
tween the Fleets, were they both never so well disposed. 
Besides we are told the Dutch Fleet is dispersed by 
the late storm ; above thirty sail being driven to the 
Westward towards I^ands End. His Majesty's Fleet 
rides by Westwards of Portsmouth, not many leagues 
from Torbay. 

We want the confirmation of the news that is spread 
about, as if there had happened a rencontre betwixt a 


party of his Majesty's Army and that of the Prince of 
Orange, and that Colonel Kirk and some others are 
killed. Nor do we find it to be true what is said of 
Mr. Bernard Howard's being killed in a duel by one 
of his own officers, who had provoked Mr. Howard to 
give him some unbecoming language. -^ ;• 

His Majesty is in good health at Sarum, and reviews 
some part of his troops daily, who are cheerful and 
brisk. The Marshal de Schomberg threatened to 
bring most of them to their night caps, without striking 
a stroke. 

People please themselves here with a conceit as if 
Admiral Herbert had met with a French Squadron, 
and had at one dash sunk nine or ten of them, which 
is every whit as true as that an army of 50,000 French 
arc already landed at Dover. 

Though there never was more occasion of inquiry 
for busy impertinent people that gad about all day 
long for coffee and news, yet never was less certainty 
of what passes in the world ; most people affecting to 
disguise the truth, and there being at present about the 
City many engines that are made use of to spread what 
most suits the humour of some party ; yet the City of 
London was never more quiet, every man minding his 
business and securing their debts, and the generality 
of the soberer and the richer sort have expressed their 
dislike of these proceedings, which are like to perpe- 
tuate and entail war upon the nation, by the removal 


of the Prince of Wales who is now at Portsmouth, and 
as some will have it will pass into France. 

We have no farther account of the Lord Delamer 
and others, in and about Cheshire, who are said to 
march out of that County to join others about Stafford- 
shire and Nottinghamshire, in order to march to the 
West ; it is a long march, and accidents may happen in 
the way. We do not yet hear of Sir Rowland Gwyne. 
^ Our foreign advices tell us the Lord Thomas 
Howard was come away from Rome carrying with him 
among other things the Pope's Bull, whereby he sub- 
mits all the diiFerences between him and France to his 
Majesty's determination and mediation. 

The Prince of Orange has been at Bridgewater, 
and other places in the neighbourhood, and swept 
away all the horses in the County ; haunting all the 
markets, and seizing all the cattle that come in, but 
giving some money for them ; he took away a hundred 
in one market diy at Tiverton, and borrowed seven 
from Sir Creswell Tint, a gentleman of that neigh- 
bourhood. We do not yet hear of his advancing fur- 
ther. It is said he has turned out the Corporation of 
Exon, and granted them a new Charter. He has also 
settled three Commissioners to manage the Revenue of 
Customs, Excise, and Hearth-money, who are Lord 
Wiltshire, William Harbord the late Surveyor Ge- 
neral, and Monmouth's Anthony Rowe. 

It is said He and his Council have again published 


another Declaration, which is not yet seen in these 
parts, offering to be confined with his army to any 
corner of the Kingdom till a Free Parliament be called ; 
but this is but a hearsay. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin, 


The same to the same. 

[ibid. fol. 385. Orig.'\ 

London, Nov. 23'. 1688. 
I HAD yours of the 23 '. past, and thank you in the 
name of the Kingdom for the quiet repose you pro- 
mised us this winter ; but by the last Easterly wind 
you would find we are not to enjoy such sweet sleeps 
as you wish us, for the Army 27,000 strong will be 
able to offer battle by Tuesday next on Salisbury 
Plains, and our imperial Monarch at the head of them, 
where my person (amongst his faithful subjects) intend 
to stick by him. I am like to be well paid for my 
pains, but cannot at this instant tell the value, but it 
is no part of the reason of my going : though I can (to 
my sorrow) say why milk-asses are provided for. The 


health is in a very ill state, what with the fa- 

tigue of these preparations, and the anguish of such a 
sort of people's going to the enemy, viz. we are well 
assured of the Earls Wilshire, Shrewsbury, Macles- 
feild, Lords Lorme, Mordent, Mr. Sydney, &c. we 
fear E. Dev — Exe — Rad — Lord Lovelace, E. Man- 
chester, Lord Grey Rut — , with eighty Gentlemen and 
a great number of the finest horses of England. Our 
intelligence from the West comes slow or is much con- 
cealed: the end of these matters are dreadful, or at 
least the execution. This Household went to-day, and 
we think the King may before or on Monday. If I 
should repeat all the occurrents pass here, they would 
fill volumes ; but the ordinary people list themselves 
apace, and the gentry thereabouts are slow in coming 
in, but those of the East make up the want sufilciently. 
D. of Grafton is here though calumniated, and some 
others. None can be absent two days but undergo 
censure. Lord Colchester, Thomas Wharton, Charles 
Godfrey, Anthony Roe, &c. are gone I fear. 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary of 
his Majesty's Revenue in Ireland, 



to John Ellis, Esq. More News. 

[ms. donat. 4194. foL 387. Orig.'l 

♦^* Tins Letter is in a diflferent hand to the preceding Letters ; and 
evidently came from a different person. 

London, Nov. 24«'. 1688. 

The Falmouth Letters of the 19"*^. instant say, the 
Company of Foot of the Earl of Huntington's Regi- 
ment that was in Pendennis Castle are marched towards 
Plymouth, and a Company of the MiUtia marched in, 
to which are to be added three Companies more of the 
Militia who are to relieve each other. 

Last week a great Tin-work gave over, by which 
four hundred Tinners are out of employ, who it is 
feared will all march to the Prince of Orange. None 
yet of the County of Cornwall are come in unto him. 

In the Western parts reports have been of a mas- 
sacre in Ireland of six thousand ; but a Vessel is come 
into Falmouth which came out of Cork the last week. 
The master says that all was in peace and quiet, and 
no such thing feared. 


The Prince hath seized Dartmouth Castle, and is 
marched Eastwards. 

Yesterday and this day the Officers in the Tower of 
London have been employed in planting mortars upon 
the White Tower, which makes a noise among the 
women and children. 

On Tuesday morning the King intended to rendez- 
vous his whole Army on the Plain next Salisbury ; 
and it is generally believed the Army was then drawn 
up. But I have not seen any Letters thence. 

The Prince hath left four thousand horse and foot 
in garrison at Exeter, and made Mr. Seymour, the 
late Speaker, governor. 

The King's Majesty hath been a little indisposed, 
and some drops of blood fell from his nose, upon which 
His Majesty was let blood, and now is perfectly well. 

A council of war, held at Salisbury, resolved it was 
His Majesty's interest to return to London with the 
army, lest the Prince, in his march, get betwixt the 
King and his capital city : to which His Majesty hath 
consented, and I am told the array is upon their march, 
and that the King (who was expected this night) will 
be here on Monday at the farthest. 

A small party of foot being far advanced towards 
the King's forces. Col. Sarsefield commanded a de- 
tached party of horse and dragoons,, and met with 
them at Wincaton, eighteen miles from Salisbury, 


where the Colonel killed about thirty and hanged four, 
and lost of his own party five, and Col. Webb"'s son 
who was a cornet. But it is said young Schomberg 
meeting a party of the King's horse upon Doncaster 
road hath killed fifty-three out of sixty-five in revenge, 
refusing to give quarter, as is by report charged upon 
Col. Sarsefield, beside the hanging four which some 
say were revolters. 

The King's fleet are at Portsmouth now. Some 
have suffered much in the late storms, and I am told 
a Fourth Rate is lost. 

Just now comes an express that the Earl of Dauby 
and some Lords have seized York, the governor, and 
Castle, and declared for the Prince of Orange. 


to Mr. Ellis. Storms. The Prince 

of Orange's movements. The Rising in Cheshire. 
[ms. donat. mus. BRIT. 4194. fol. 391. Orig.] 
This is in the same hand with the former anonymous Lettets. 

• • 

London, Nov. 24*''. 88. 

We had most violent storms these three nights past, 

which still began with the evenings, and must have 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. M 


done great damage to the Fleets, though we have not 
yet the particulars of it. Two or three of his Ma- 
jesty"'s ships are already put into Portsmouth to be 
refitted, and the Lord Dartmouth got in time enough 
to avoid the brunt of the hurricane. 

It is said the Prince of Orange is marched with his 
artillery out of Exeter, and takes his way towards 
Axminster, and intends to encamp at a place called 
Wincanton (where the late Skirmish was, mentioned 
in the Gazette of this day), though some think his 
chief aim is upon Bristol, and will make the best of 
his way thither, though the season and those roads be 
very inconvenient for heavy carriage and cannon. 

Most people had difficulty to believe that the Prince 
of Orange had forbidden praying for the King. But 
letters from good hands are said to confirm it, and 
that Burnet's prayer for success against the King is 
commonly used, though the English Clergy have re- 
fused it. 

We are told of several Addresses and Petitions for a 
free Parliament that are coming from several parts of 
the Kingdom, but we are told the generality of Eng- 
land as well as this City do not intend to meddle with 
the merits of this Invasion, but to take a surer card, 
and so declare for the Monarchy and our Laws as now 
established. The Gentry of Yorkshire were assem- 
bled for that purpose on Thursday last, the result of 
whose deliberations we shall know ere long. 


Of all the men that have appeared in arms and de- 
clared for the Prince, none have done more zealously 
than those who began the dance in Cheshire, who ga- 
ther weight like a snow-ball, and, as many affirm, do 
plunder as they go, having begun with the taking of a 
waggon of arms sent hence to one Captain Lee*'s com- 
pany quartered at Manchester. But we must suspend 
our belief to what is nevertheless confidently reported, 
namely, that they fall foul upon their old friends 
and neighbours, (particularly Mr. Lewson-Gore, whose 
house they are said to have entered by force, and taken 
away all his arms and horses, and even his lady''s coach- 
horses), by reason the nice will condemn this conduct 
as too outrageous a violation of the rules of Knight- 
errantry. The chief officers of this body are affirmed 
to be old Oliverians that have long lain lurking about 
Chester and Cheshire, in expectation of a day of 

The Party that was detached to break the Bridge 
of Kenisham near Bristol was commanded by Captain 
Loyd of the Earl of Peterborow's Regiment, who in 
his return met seventeen sparks well mounted, marcli- 
ing to the West, and took nine of them prisoners, and 
all their Horse.*" 

His Majesty continues in good health at Sarum ; 
only was let blood once since his being there. 

Several of the Duke of St. Allmn's Regiment are 

M 2 


come back, though in a most plundered condition ; 
having refused the large pay and encouragement which 
was offered them ; but it would not weigh against tlieir 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin. 


The same to the same. The King returns. The 
Princess Anne withdraws herself. General News. 

[ibid. fol. 393. Orig.] 

Yesterday between four and five of the clock the 
King came to Whitehall, and looks very well. We 
hear by some of his company that Prince George, the 
Dukes of Grafton, Ormond, Lord Churchill, Lord 
Dumlengrick, Sir George Hewitt, Colonel Trelawny, 
Colonel Berkeley, Lieutenant General Kirke, Mr. 
Harry Boyle, Captain Kendall, and very many others 
of note, are gone to the Prince of Orange's Army. 
Kirke, we hear, is retaken by the King's forces, and 
bringing to town ; but what is at least as bad news as 
this, is, that yesterday morning when the Princess of 
Denmark's women went to take her out of her bed. 



they found she had withdrawn herself, and hath not 
yet been heard of. Nobody went in her company that 
we hear of besides Lady Churchill and Mrs. Berkeley. 
Lord Churchill's bedchamber place is given to Lord 
Melford, and his Troop of Guards to the Duke of 
Berwick ; and it is said this morning that Lord Dover 
hath the Government of Portsmouth, and Mr. Skelton 
is made Lieutenant of the Tower. We hear to-day 
that the Duke of Albemarle is dead at Jamaica. The 
King hath sent to all the Lords Spiritual and Tem- 
poral that are about the Town to attend him this after- 
noon at four of the clock ; if I hear any thing that 
passes there, you shall have it. I have told you many 
lamentable Stories, and I wish you do not hear more 
from other people. I thank you for your favour of 
the 5th of this month, and for the good Account you 
give me of yourself. Remember us to my Brother and 
Sister when you see them. I do not write to-night to 
either of them. All here are your servants. Pray tell 
me what is become of Dr. Dunn. I hope you have 
heard I have delivered the enclosed present you sent 
me for Lord Clarendon. I am always, 

Dear Sir, 
Yours most faithfully. 
27 »'. Nov. 1688. 

We hear that the Lords have spoke very freely to 
his Majesty. The things proposed by them were, a free 


Parliament, a General Pardon, and a Treaty. The 
King hath taken a short time to consider of them, 
when they are to attend him again. 


The Princess Anne to tlie Queen ; apologizes Jbr ab- 
senting- herself. 
[ms. lansd. 1236. fol.238.] 

I BEG your pardon if I am so deeply affected with 
the surprising News of the Prince''s being gone as not 
to be able to see you, but to leave this Paper to express 
my humble duty to the King and yourself; and to let 
you know that I am gone to absent myself to avoid the 
King's displeasure, which I am not able to bear, either 
against the Prince or myself: and I shall stay at so 
great a distance as not to return before I hear the 
happy news of a Reconcilement : and, as I am confident 
the Prince did not leave the King with any other de- 
sign than to use all possible means for his preservation, 
so I hope you will do me the justice to believe that I 
am incapable of following him for any other end. Never 
was any one in such an unhappy condition, so divided 
between Duty and Affection to a Father and an Hus- 
band ; and therefore I know not what I must do, but 



to follow one to preserve the other. I see the general 
falling off of the Nobility and Gentry, who avow to have 
no other end than to prevail with the King to secure 
their Religion, which they saw so much in danger by 
the violent counsels of the Priests, who, to promote 
their own religion, did not care to what dangers they 
exposed the King. 

I am fully persuaded that the Prince of Orange 
designs the King"'s safety and preservation, and hope 
all things may be composed without more bloodshed, 
by the calling a Parliament. 

God grant an happy end to these troubles, that the 
King''s reign may be prosperous, and that I may shortly 
meet you in perfect peace and safety ; till when, let 
me beg of you to continue the same favourable opinion 
that you have hitherto had of 

Your most obedient daughter and servant, 



. . . . . to John Ellis f Esq. The Queen 
and Prince gone for France. The King follows. 
The Prince of Orange generally declared for. 

Decemb. 11, 1688. 
Dear Friend, 

I AM now to tell you that the Queen and Prince of 

Wales went down the River yesterday morning, and 


'tis believed gone for France, and the King went this 
morning about the same time ; I hear hardly any body 
with him. God preserve him in health. But here all 
people are wondering. The Prince of Orange will be 
in Oxford this night. The people in the city are search- 
ing all Roman Catholic houses for arms and ammuni- 
tion : and this day they are about the Strand and other 
places. The Duke of Northumberland has put out 
all Papists out of his Troop of Guards, and so they 
say they will out of all the Army. The King's party, 
which I hear was Colonel Butler's dragoons, and the 
Prince's, had a skirmish. 'Tis said about fifty of the 
King's were killed. This was about Reading, on 
Saturday night or Sunday. I am told a Common 
Council were called this night. The Bishops and 
Lords that are here sate at Guildhall to-day with my 
Lord Mayor, who is the best man in the King's ab- 
sence; and Colonel Skelton, who was Lieutenant of 
the Tower, came and yielded up his trust, and for 
the present my Lord Clare and some other Lords are 
in it. 

This sort of News concerns every body ; but I now 
tell you, that the good Lady Dowager of Ossory died 
this morning about six o'clock. She was taken yester- 
day morning with a sort of an Apoplectic Fit, and had 
three or four of them ; and so that good Lady is taken 
out of a World that is, and is like to be very full of 


The Prince seems to say he Avill settle Ireland ; if 
so the Comptroller of the Ordnance was turned out 
without any cause. 

I pray consult Garret and my cousin Gourny what 
is fit to be done ; if that employment be in arrear in 
the Treasury, I wish an item were given not to pay. 

This night I was frightened with the wonderful 
light in the sky, and 'twas the Rabble had gotten 
the wainscot and seats of a Popish Chapel in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, and set it on fire in the middle of it. 
Until we knew what it was we guessed it to be a great 
Fire. Here is a very great Guard, both Militia and 
the Army. You will hear very suddenly all declaring 
for the Prince of Orange, from whom the Commis- 
sioners sent to the King, before he went away, this 
Message; that he came to settle the Protestant Religion, 
and desired all the Papists might be disbanded, and to 
call a Parliament, and that he would not come near 
London but with the King's leave, and with what num- 
ber of men the King should say, provided he had not 
a greater to mind him. But now 'tis believed he will 
be here very soon. My Wife and all in St. James's 
send hearty service to you. I hope I may see you in 
the Spring. God send us a good meeting. 



to John Ellis, Esq. The Prince 

of Orange invited to Town. Tumults of the Mob. 
The Army disbanded. The Prince of Orange's Pro- 
posals. Lord Chancellor Jefferys taken in disguise. 

[ibid. p. 397. Orig.'\ 

*^* After the momentary excesses of the Mob, the most striking fact 
mentioned in this Letter is the capture of lord Chancellor Jefferys, the 
very sight of whom, though a prisoner and in disguise, frighted the Lord 
Mayor. His committal it appears was virtually the act of the Council 
at Whitehall. 

A few years ago, the Portrait of this man drew universal attention at 
one of the Exhibitions of the British Gallery, where the benignity which 
the painter's art had thrown upon the countenance led many to suppose 
that History had been cruel to the Judge. Whether long acting in the 
distribution of justice as Recorder of London, at such a period, made his 
heart insensible for later life, may perhaps admit of doubt. Law certainly 
never wore so frightful an aspect as upon his last Cu-cuit in the West. 
Did we want the proof of his severity. King James has himself given 
it ; » Granger says he embraced the Judge upon his return, and called his 
Circuit " Jefferys's Campaign.^'' 

London, Dec. 13*. 1688. 


Upon notice on Tuesday of the King's being secretly 
withdrawn, the Enghsh-Dutch Officers that were under 
confinement in the Savoy were discharged, and are now 
gone to attend the Prince. 

• Life of James IL publ. from his own Memoirs, by Dr. Stanier Clarke, vol. ii. 
pp. 43, 44. 


In our last we left the Lords assembled, as also the 
Common Council for this City. The former have 
departed, the Bishop of Ely, the Lords Pembroke, 
Waymouth, Culpepper, &c. to wait on the Prince; 
and the latter, four Aldermen, and eight Commoners, 
to carry his Highness an address and Invitation to 
Town : their names are Sir William Pritchard, Sir 
Samuel Dashwood, Sir WilUam Ashurst, and Sir 
Thomas Stampe, the two M^ Hublands, M^. Ham- 
mond, M». Langham, Mr. Box, M^. Robinson, Sir 
Benjamin Newland, and . A Messenger 

being likewise dispatched to the Lords in the North, 
to engage them to approach the Town. 

On Tuesday night there was an alarm, occasioned 
by burning the Papists' Lincoln's Inn Fields Chapel ; 
they did the like to the Chapels of St. John's Clerken- 
well, and Lime-street, but not easily breaking into the 
latter, cried they would down with it, were it as strong 
as Portsmouth. And, accordingly, having levelled 
them, they carried all the trumpery in mock procession 
and triumph, with oranges on the tops of swords and 
staves, with great lighted candles in gilt candlesticks, 
thus victoriously passing of the Guards that were 
drawn up. And after having bequeathed these trinkets 
to the flames, they visited Harry Hills' Printing House,=* 
which they served in like manner. But, what is most 

» Henry Hills was Printer to the King for his Household and Chapel. His 
Priiitinf! House wa<5 " on the ditch side, in Dlack- Fryers." He was the Printer of 
Father Hudlcstoii's " Plain Way to the Faith and Church." 



ungrateful, their execution reaching to the Spanish 
Ambassador's House, which they plundered of all its 
rich furniture, plate, money, and three coaches, to the 
value as is computed of <5£'20,000. 

All sober people are extraordinarily concerned at 
this horrid violation of the Law of Nations, and the 
Lords are said to have assured his Excellency that they 
will study some means to make him satisfaction. 

Yet, however ill this has been resented, and what- 
ever precaution could be used, they did the like Yes- 
terday evening to the Duke of Florence's Minister's 
House in the Haymarket, Nevertheless the Trained 
Bands came up to disperse them, and a soldier dis- 
charging his musquet at them, shot his officer (Capt. 
Douglasse) through the back. This performance being 
over they went to the Nuncio's, who being flown, the 
Landlord, with some money, compounded with them 
for the House. The flame of this Confusion still 
increasing, and the Mobile threatening to treat the 
French and all other Ambassadors' houses in like 
manner, the Council, being then assembled, got a body 
of Horse together, and ordering them to fire with ball, 
this gave a check to those disorders ; though they seem 
still resolved to go through-stitch. 

The King is said to have left a Paper behind him di- 
rected to the Earl of Feversham, for him to disband the 
Army, which his Lordship read at the head of most 
Regiments, and accordingly disbanded them, some with, 


others without their Arms, and it is dismal to think 
what will become of such vast numbers of poor wretches, 
if the Prince's mercy and the People's compassion be 
not extraordinary. 

In the mean while, the Lords Churchill and Col- 
chester, now with the Prince, have sent to the Troop 
of Guards to be in a body, and they will unite thetn 
in a few days. 

On Tuesday in the afternoon returned the Three 
Commissioners that were sent to the Prince of Orange, 
bringing with them Five Proposals from his Highness 
for the accommodating the present Differences, but were 
extremely concerned to find that the Prince's good in- 
clinations and their good offices were rendered abortive 
by the King's being withdrawn. 

We hear not yet what is become of their Majesties ; 
but the King is said to have taken along with him 
those Writs of Elections that were not issued out, as 
also the Broad and Privy Seals, with the Crowns and 

Yesterday the Lord Chancellor, in a black wig and 
other contrivances to disguise, offered a Collier fifty 
guineas to carry him to Hamburgh ; the Mate, having 
seen him formerly, suspected who he was, and con- 
sulting with a merchant, he advised them to repair to 
the Lord Mayor for an order to seize him ; but not 
meeting with satisfaction there, they repaired to the 
Council at Whitehall, and orders being accordingly 


given, he was taken and brought amid universal exe- 
cration of the People before the Lord Mayor, who upon 
sight of the Prisoner fell into a violent paralytique fit, 
so as to hinder him from examining him, and still con- 
tinues ill. Nevertheless, upon the directions of the 
Council at Whitehall, the Lord Chancellor was com- 
mitted Prisoner to the Tower. 

The Bishop of Chester is said to have been seized 
near Dover, and M'". Baron Jenner, Burton, and Gra- 
ham at the Town of Fereham ; Bishop Ellis is also 
secured, and William Penn was brought before the 
Lords at Whitehall who were prevailed upon to make 
6000 bail for him ; and diligent search is made after 
such others as are reputed to have been injurious to 
the Government. 

The Prince is expected in town to-morrow. 

About two this morning, an Alarm was spread 
through City and suburbs, of " Rise, Arme, Arme, the 
Irish are cutting throats ;" ^ insomuch that in half an 
hour's time there was an appearance of above an hun- 
dred thousand men to have made head against any 
enterprise of that nature ; all the windows of the houses 
being lighted with candles from top to bottom ; but 
these terrors were quickly over, upon notice that the 
Prince of Orange"'s Advance-Guard was near the Town. 

This night came a Letter from the King himself at 

• This circumstance is particularly noticed by King James in the Memoirs of his 
Life, vol. ii. p. 25T. 


Fevershani, directing what servants he has in Town to 
be to him hither with fresh linen and clothes. Besides 
those that are stopped at that place, many are stopped 
at Dover. 

The Duke of Grafton arrived this evening at White- 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin. 


to John Ellis, Esq. King James 

returns from Feversham. Arrival of the Queen 
and Prince at Ostend. Princess Anne'^s entry into 

[bis. donat. BRIT. Mus. 4182. fol. 72. Orig.\ 

London, December 18'»i. 1688. 

The King returned on Saturday from Feversham 
to Rochester, and on Sunday aboOt four in the After- 
noon came through the City, preceded by a great many 
Gentlemen bare-headed, and followed by a numerous 
Company with loud huzzas. The King stopped at the 
Queen Dowager's before he came to Whitehall, and 
the evening concluded with ringing of bells and bone- 



Those at Feversham who rifled his Majesty of his 
money, &c. came with great contrition, and would 
have restored the same. But his Majesty not only 
refused to take it, but gave them ten guineas to drink 
his health. 

The King before his coming from Feversham, made 
the Lord Winchelsea Lord Lieutenant of Kent in the 
room of Lord Teynham, as also Governor of Dover 

His Majesty sending the Earl of Feversham with a 
Letter to the Prince of Orange, his Highness detained 
the said Earl for High Treason, declaring he did it 
for his disbanding the Army without orders, &c. at 
which his Majesty was somewhat concerned. 

We had a general discourse that his Majesty would 
constitute the Prince of Orange Admiral and Gene- 
ralissimo of all his Three Kingdoms. In effect it is 
almost done, for yesterday his Highness sent his Or- 
ders to all the King's forces in and about London to 
march out to certain quarters, except only the Lord 
Craven's Regiment, and six Companies of the King's 
Regiment to go and take possession of Portsmouth, 
assigning the Irish there in other Quarters, and sub- 
sistence money. 

The Duke of Grafton has possessed himself of Til- 
bury Fort, and the Irish are sent away with passes ; 
but Captain Nugent is committed to Maidstone, as 
beginning the late disorder. 


Sunday last Sir William Waller came to town, and 
was publicly at the Coffee House, Church, and Meet- 
ing, and the Lord Colchester, Col. Godfrey, and Sir 
Thomas Clerges, who went to the Prince^ are also in 

The Prince has given the Earl of Oxford the Duke 
of Berwick's Regiment of Horse, which his Lordship 
was formerly Colonel of. 

There came advice yesterday that the Queen and 
Prince of Wales were safely arrived at Ostend in 

Yesterday Sir Roger Lestrange was seized and 
brought before the Court of Aldermen, and upon 
oath made by one M''. Braddon of something in his 
writings tending against the Government, he was .com- 
mitted to Newgate. 

One Major Littleton and Captain Adderley quar- 
relled and fought a duel in the street, and the former 
was killed in the rencontre. 

The Princess of Denmark made a splendid entry 
into Oxford Saturday last ; Sir John Laneer with his 
Regiment meeting her Royal Highness some miles out 
of the town. The Earl of Northampton with five 
hundred Horse led the van. Her Royal Highness was 
preceded by the Bishop of London, at the head of a 
noble Troop of Gentlemen, his Lordship riding in a 
purple cloak, martial habit, pistols before him, and 
his sword drawn, and his Cornett had the Inscription 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. N 


in golden Letters on his standard " Nolumus Leges 
Angliae mutari." » The rear was brought up by some 
MiHtia troops. The Mayor and Aldermen in their 
formalities met her at the North Gate ; and the Vice 
Chancellor with the Heads of the University attended 
in their scarlet gowns, made to her a Speech in 
English, and the Prince^ received her Royal Highness 
at Christ-Church Quadrangle with all possible demon- 
strations of love and affection, and they will be to- 
morrow at Windsor. 

Last night the King went off from Court, and this 
day about three o'clock the Prince arrived at St. 
James's with great acclamations of joy and huzzas. 

The Gentleman that writeth the News Letters being 
indisposed desires to be excused for writing not this 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin. 

" Granger, in his account of Bishop Comptonj alludes to this same appearance in 
arms, but at Nottingham, before the bishop came to Oxford. He says, the following 
is a remarkable instance of Bishop Compton's spirit. " King James discoursing 
with him on some tender point, was so little pleased with his answers, that he told 
him, ' He talked more like a colonel than a bishop.' To which he replied, ' that 
his Majesty did him honour in taking notice of his having formerly drawn his sword 
in defence of the constitution ; and that he should do the same again, if he lived 
to see it necessary.* Accordingly, when matters were coming to extremity, he Car- 
rie I off the Princess Anne to Nottingham, and marched into that town at the head 
of a fine troop of gentlemen and their attendants, who had formed a guard for her 
Highness." Biogr. Hist, of Engl. vol. iv. p. 283. 

b Prince George of Denmark, as appears by another Letter. 



TJie same to the same. King James's Jinal retirement 
from Whitehall. The Prince of Orange at St. 

[MS. DONAT. BRIT. MUS. 1482. fol. 76. Orig.^ 

London, Dec'^r. 20th. 1688. 

# * * 

What we add to the King's last withdrawing from 
Whitehall is, that the Marquis Halifax, Earl of Shrews- 
bury, and the Lord Delamere arrived at Whitehall on 
Tuesday about twelve o'clock, and brought the King 
the message to retire the same day, eithA to Hampton 
Court, or somewhere else, signifying that the Prince 
did not think it safe for him to come to London so long 
as his Majesty had such a confluence of Papists still 
about him, and that the Prince's Guards should go 
along with him to preserve him from the insults of the 
mobile ; the King went accordingly at one o'clock, and 
lay that night at one M'". Eckinse's house an Attorney 
in Gravesend, and about ten next morning set forwards 
for Rochester. His Majesty's barge was followed by 
ten or twelve boats of the Prince's soldiers. 

The Prince of Orange remains at St. James's, where 



no great business were done yesterday by reason of 
paying and receiving Visits; only a Regiment was 
sent to possess themselves of the Tower ; most of the 
Bishops about the town were with his Highness ; the 
Duke of Norfolk came and paid his devoirs. The 
Prince in the afternoon went to Whitehall, and from 
thence, in the Queen's barge, to Somerset House to 
compliment the Queen Dowager. In his return hearing 
that the Prince and Princess of Denmark were come 
to town, he called to see them at the Cock-pit. « 

» The Harleian HolV, V. ti. preserves the original Accorapt of the Reeeiptsi and 
Expenses of King William, from the time of his landing to his Arrival at St. James's. 

" The DupUcament of the Accompt of Willm. Harbord, Esq. of the money by hira 
received and paid for their Ma''». service in the West. 
Rec*. 21*. March, 1690-1. 
The Duplicam'. of the Accompt of the Right honorable Will'm Harbord, Esq. one of 
their Ma'ties King Willm. and Queen Mary's Privy councell who was by the said King 
appointed Comissary gen", from the tyme of his landing in ths West part of thi» 
Kingdome of England, untill his arrivall at his pallace of S^ James, Wherein he the 
said Willm. Harbord doth voluntarily charge himself with the severall Sumes of 
mony by him or his Deputy George Bride received and paid for the said Kings Ser- 
vice between the 1 ith day of November 1688 and the 16th tlay of December following, 
of the Severall persons hereafter named. As by an Acco'. thereof exhibited by the said 
George Bride upon his corporall oath taken before John Turton Esq', one of the 
Barons of his said now Ma"^". Excheq'. the 17th day of June 1689, That is to the best 
of his knowledge the same is a true Accompt of all the monies received and paid by 
the s"". Willm. Harbord or his said Deputy for the service of the said King, within 
the time aforesaid, as by his said Accompt thereof will appear. And his said now 
Ma'tie haveing under his L'res of Privy Seale beareing date the 8th day of August in 
the first year of his Raigne signifyed his gratious will and pleasure that he is thereby 
and of his ovsme knowledge well satisfied with the truth of the said Accompt, and that 
it is just and reasonable that the said Will'm Harbord should have full and plenary 
Allowance and Discharge of the severall Sumes of money by him or his said Deputy 
received and paid as aforesaid, did order and direct that in his Acco'. thereof to be 
made up declared and passed in due forme and according to the Course of the Ex- 
cheq'. he should have allowance and be thereof discharged as hereafter is more parti- 
cularly expressed,which said Accompt was taken and declared before the R'. HonoWc. 
S'. John Lowther Barr«. Richard Hampden esq', chancellor and under trea'r of the 
Excheq'. S'. Stephen Fox kn'. and Thomas Pelham Esq'. Lords Com'rs of their Mats 
Treasury V". die Junij 1690. 

That is to say ; 


One Capt. St. Ange, a French R. C. was seized at 
Court and sent prisoner to Newgate. 

The SAID AccoMPTANTS are herein charged with the aeveruU Sumes of mony here- 
after specified to be received by the said George Bride by order of the said W.illm. 
Uatbord Esq'. Comisary Gcn<i. as aforesaid. 

Money issuing out of the Duty of Excise. Vi^ 

i. s. d. 
Oi M% Tipping, bein^ money he seized in the hands of M'. Coven CoV 

lector of the Excise in part of the Countys of Devon and Somersett 70 
Of Mr. Ferguson, being money he seized in the said M'. Covens hands 304 15 3 

■Of M'. Anthony Row, being money received at Exeter ariseing out of the 

duty of Excise within tlie Collection of the said M'. Coven . . or. 2 I 

More of him, in further part of the duty arising by Excise about Uic City 

of Exeter . . 07 o o 

More of him, ariseing by the duty arising by the Excise of Coffee in the 

said City of Exeter . .. 531 

Mor« received at the Excise Offloe in Exeter out of the said Duty arise- 
ing in the parishes of Hawtrey. Kenton, Topham, and Athngton . 2&1 15 9^ 

More received of the said M'. Coven Collector of the Excise in the 

County of Devon 244 2 o 

Of Sundry persons at Newberry in the County of Berks, ariseing out of 

the Excise 02 10 3 

Of M'. Pinkney. out of the duty of Excise at Wilton and other {(laces ad- 

ioyncing to Salisbury 3411 

Of Sundry Brewers at Salisbury, viz', of M'. John Paine brewer 
18/. \2s. 8d. M'. Francis Mercer 24/. 6s. 1 1^. M'. Gardner 
brewer 16/. ft». io\d. M'. James Ely brewer 6/. 10*. oxd. 
M'. Will'm Penny brewer is/. 4*. l |d. 81 14 7| 

Of M'. Yorke, servant of the Lord Walgrave, being Trophy money raised 

in </ie CounQ/ o/Somer«e« remaincing in his hands .... 260 o 

Of Will'm. Trcncliard, as being presented to his Royallhighnes the Prince 

of Orange, his tiovi JAa'tic, by the C'lothiets of Wiltshire . . • 250 

Of M'. Score, deputic collector of the Customs at Exeter, the sume of 800 14 6 

Of M'. Waterman the postmaster at Salisbury 46 1 1 o 

Amounting in all the said Severall Receipts to the Sumc of 32U7 8 8^ 
whereof the said Acoomptants are allowed and discharged. 

The Discharge. 

By mony paid for grinding of wheat at Exeter, bought for the use of the 
Army • 


The Garrison of Portsmouth quietly submitted to 
the order of the Prince, and drew thereout, and the 

I. s. d. 
By money paid to a Messenger sent into the Country, to enquire after 

Horses 116 

By money paid two Soldiers, to quarter upon the Bakers who refused to 

bake bread for the Army 020 

By money paid several! Bakers at Exeter for bakeing 30758 loaves of 

Bread at 4^. per loafe vi'\ were delivered to the Army there . . 384 9 6 

By money paid the Butehers for 30304'. pd' of Beef at a-i. per lib. . . 252 10 4 
By money paid the Shoemakers for xx. paire of Shoes at 3'. 6''. each paire 3 10 o 
By money paid a Messenger carrying out Warrants to summon the 

Officers of Excise 110 

By money paid John Blake, John Smith, Robert Horndall, and Anthony 

Walker gangers of Excise in and about Exeter, their Salaries at 1''. 

each 28 

By money paid the Dragoones that attended the Officers of Excise, the 

people refuseing to pay the said Duty 2 

By money paid for Parchm'. for sundry Comissions 10 

By mony paid for a pair of Shoes made for a pattern for the Shoomakers 3 6 

Paid Mounsier Vandermill, major of the Artillery 27 10 

For carrying a lOO''. in mony from Exeter to Honiton . . . . 2 

Paid at Honiton to severall Bakers for 6948 loaves of Bread baked there 

for the Army 86 17 

For bakeing Rye Bread at Exeter made of the Rye brought out of Hol- 
land 9 18 

Paid the Dragoones who accompanied the Officers in collecting the Ex- 
cise when the people refused payment, and for guarding the money 15 

By money paid S'. Robert Peyton at Crookhorne by his Mat's particular 

direccions, to supply his imertiate wants 20 o 

Paid to Cap'. Wingfield at Sherbom by order of the Lord Churchill to- 
wards the relief of those troopes which came to his Ma'tie, particularly 
those of his owne Regiment 20 

To the Dragoones for pressing of waggons and carts in the Country . 4 6 

To the Dragoones who brought M'. York to Wincanton, and carried the 

money to Henley 100 

To Capt. Bedford for subsistance money for those souldiers of Maior 
Generalls Kirkes and Coll' Trelawnys Regira". by his Ma'ties direc- 
cions 200 

To Cap'. Pownall for the subsistance of the Lord Churchills Regim'. 400 o o 

To a Messenger at Salisbury who was sent to press carts and waggons . o 3 o 

To Samucll Bone one of the Officers of Excise at Salisbury, for his salary 3 

To a Messenger sent to seize a considerable quantity of Mcalc . . i o o 



Duke of Berwick rendered himself to the Lord Dart- 
mouth on board the Fleet. Col. Talmash is said to 
be made Governor of the said place by the Prince. 

{. «. a. 

Paid for 282 paire of Shoes at 4'. p' paire distributed among the Souldiers 

at Salisbury 66 8 

For 70 pair more at 3«. 6'^. p' paire 12 5 o 

Paid there for 9051 loaves of Bread at 2*. each 75 8 6 

Paid to M'. Anthony Smith, being left unpaid by the Dutch S<rfdier8 . i T o 

To a Messenger sent to summon in the Offlcers of Excise, & for his 

horse hire 116 

To a Messenger at Hungerford, sent to press cartes and waggons . . o lo o 

For Parchment for makcing Comissions I o 

For Hire of Carriages from Salisbury to Newberry which brought meale 3 

For bringing money ariseing by Excise from Newberry to Wallingford 2 6 

Paid tenn Dragooncs two Serg". one wcekes pay to attend the pressing 

of waggons and cartes to carry the money 7 

Paid at Newberry for 3521 loaves of bread delivered the Soldiers by direc- 

cions of Count Solmes 2a o 10 

Paid M'. Bradwell, an officer of the Excise, at Newberry for his Sallary 

upon his paym'. of the money he had received for that tluty . . 6 

PaidatWallingfordforiiapaireofShoesbroughtthilherfromSalisbury 22 8 o 

For two Carts bringing meale from Salisbury to Wallingford . . . i o 

Paid at Wallingford for releife and dyett of Prisoners taken at Reading 2 lo o 

Paid there for 1237 loaves of bread at 2'>. each 12 it 8 

Paid Mr. Pinckney and other Officers of Excise (allaryes, bringing the 

money collected by them to Wallingford 1 1 4 o 

Paid at Henley by his Ma'ts order to Capt. Langston for the subsistancc 

of Coll. Langstons Regim' 200 

Paid for 282 Loaves of bread baked at Henley & delivered Uie Soldiers 

there by order of Count Solmes 2 7 6 

Paid at Windsor for bakeing of 1400 loaves of Bread of the Meale taken 

at Salisbury 2 16 

Paid to Six Teames and Carriages from Wallingford to Windsor for the 

serviceof the Army and his Ma'ts Servants 3 

For bringing 1000 loaves of bread from Wallingford to Windsor by water i o o 

For the Hire of three Teames from Windsor to London . . . i 6 o 

To the Dragoones for pressing Teames at Windsor and guarding the 

money to London o lo e 

In all 1809 17 4 


A Minister in the City is made one of the Prince's 
Chaplains. M'. Ferguson goes publicly to the Coffee 

It is said an Order will suddenly be published to 
banish all Papists ten miles out of town. 

One of the Prince's Guards was found in Long Acre 
with his throat cut and other wounds about him, and 
being known that he quartered in a Papist's house near 
that place, the people are secured upon it. 

The Lord Teynham and M'". Richard Lee are seized 
and sent to Upnor Castle prisoners. The Earl of Fe- 
versham is put in Round Tower in Windsor Castle, 

For John Ellis, Esq. Secretary to 
the Commissioners for the Revenue 
of Ireland, at Dublin. 

Charges of passing this Acco'. viz'. I. s. d. 

Lastly there is herein allowed in pursuance and by vertue of his now 
Ma'ts L'rs of Privy Scale before mencioned for the Charges of the 
said Will'm Harbord in passing his said Accompt . . . . 60 o 

Sume Totall of the paymentts & allowances aforesaid 1959 it 4 

And soe there remaines in the Aceomptants hands undisposed of at the 

time of the determinacion of this Acco'. ...... 33T 6 ii 

Ex' p' Bro. Bridges Aud"*. 

Declaratur xx". die Novi»'. 1689. 
Declaratur V". die Junij 1690. 
John Lowtheb 
R. Hampden 
Stk. Fox 
T. PeI/HAm. 



The same to the same. King James arrives in France. 

[ms. donat. mus. BRIT. 4194. fol. 403. Ong.'\ 

London, Dec. 29'^. 1688. 

The 24-1'. of last Month was the date of yours with 
me ; many transactions you may be sure hath passed 
here ; the Prints are so full of them that I will say the 
less in this way : I wish you here for many reasons. 

The King landed on Tuesday morning near Marques '' 
and went post to Paris on Wednesday. I cannot see 
who your Government will fall to; I think neither 
our friend nor the pert pretender. The Prince is very 
unwilling to break any one Regiment, so that he must 
have further work ere long for them : I know not what 
will be my lot, but I am vain enough to think in a 
general bustle I shall shift for one. You will pardon 
me that I say no more. 

KiKG James, on the 12th of March 1689, landed at Kuisale in Ire- 
land, at the head of five thousand French Troops. King William, in 
all probability, did not expect the attempt to be made so soon, or he 
hoped to take King James upon his return. Among tlie Lansdownc 
Manuscripts in the Museum the following original paper is preserved :'' 

' He laiuleil ut Amblctcusc, at three o'clock in the morniog. 
'' MS. Lansd. 849. fol. to. 


" Instructions. 

To our right trusty and welbeloved Councellor Arthur 
Herbert Esq^ Admiral and Commander of our Ships in 
the Narrow Seas. Given at our Court at Whitehall this 
16 day of March, 1688-9. In the First Year of our Reign. 

In case you shall take any Ship or Vessel in which the late King 
James shall happen to be, you are to treat him with Respect, and imme- 
diately send us an Account thereof. But without expecting any further 
Orders you are hereby required to transport him to some Port belonging 
to the States General of the United Provinces, and give notice of the 
Arrival to the said States, and you are to dispose of the said King James 
into such hands as the said States shall appoint to receive him. 

You are to leave such a Number of Ships in the Stations appointed 
by the other Instructions as you shall judge that service will require. 

W. R. 

By His Ma"'^^ command, 



Tlie Earl ofMelfort to Mr. Innesjrom Rome. The 
Circulation of the Gun Money in Ireland. 

[mS. LANSD. MUS. BRIT. 1163. p. 164.] 

*,„* The portion of the Letter here printed, with several other Letters 
which succeed it, are copied from the Earl of Melfort's Register of what 
he wrote to the Court of St. Germains during his negotiation with the 
Pope, from March 8th to Dec. 13th, 1690, preserved in three Volumes 
in folio among the Lansdowne Manuscripts in the Museum." These 
Volumes were bought at Paris in 1744 of the then Countess of Blelfort, 
who had married the Earl's grandson, by Mr. Barbutt Secretary of the 
Post-Office. They afterwards became the property of Philip Carteret 

> MS. Lansd. Mus. Brit. 1163. 


Webb, Esq. at whose decease they were purchased by the Marquess of 
Lansdowne at that time Earl of Shelbume. 

The Earl of IVJelfort had become a convert to Popery early in the reign 
of James the Second, to whom he was Secretary of State. In 1689 he 
accompanied that King to Ireland, where in the capacity of sole Secretary 
he endeavoured to engross all power to himself, and excited the jealousy 
not only of Lord Tyrconnel » the Lord Deputy of that Kingdom, but 
even of the Count d'Avaux the French Ambassador ; so that James was 
obliged to remove him from the direction of affairs, and, the Queen fearing 
the same jealousy at St Germains, he was sent at once to n^otiate the 
King's business at Rome, where Louis the Fourteenth is said to have 
allowed him a pension to support his character. 

This notice of him, which occurs in the Life of King James the 
Second published by Dr. Stanier Clarke,'' explains the neglect with which, 
from his own account, the Court of St. Germains treated his dispatches; 
not condescending, even as late as the month of October 1G90, to let him 
know either privately or officially, the fate of the battle of the Boyne. 

Some of these Letters arc interesting, as displaying, in true colours, the 
conduct of the Pope toward King James. In prosperity professing zeal 
to assist him, in adversity giving pity only. Two or three of the hatd 
Jlelfort's Letters are impassioned. 

When he returned to St. Germains, the Earl of Melfort still continued 
a favourite with the King and Queen, and again had the administration 
of affairs, till a Letter which he wrote to his brother the Earl of Perth, 
intercepted by King William, <^ caused Louis the Fourteenth to banish 
him to Angers. He died in 1713. 

Mr. Innes, to whom the following Letter is addressed, as appears from 

• Lord Tyrconnel was afterwards created Duke by King James. The foAowing U 
the Earl of Melfort's complaint of his unkindness, in a Letter to the Queen from 
Uome, tiatcd Sept. aoth. 

" Your Majesty is pleased to bid me say no more of that matter of the Duke of 
Tyrconnel, and I obey most heartily since 1 know it is your inclination, which may 
conv ince your Majesty of the difference of the regards he and I have to your service ; 
for hatl he as easily laid down his unjust grudge against me, as I do now my just one 
at him, I had been in less trouble, and I hope the King would have been better 
served. I dare say your Majesty condemns him in your heart for the want of gene- 
rosity at least. If I had had him in Scotland, I and all my friends should have strove 
to serve him, and to make him greater than we found him ; but, without a fault, to 
let loose a pack of about fifty nephews against me, besides the females, and all the 
time protest all maimer of friendship and respect for me, swearing he could not tell 
what co\ild be done when I was gone, to send his Dutchess to cry an hour at my 
lo<lgings, and make me cry too for company, and all this while harbor malice in hi» 
heart Is horrible. But since your Majesty commands, for ever I forgive him and am 
friends with him, and will do what you will have me in that as in every thing else." 
MS. Lansd. 1103. vol. iii. p. 110. 

>> Vol. ii. p. 380. 

' It is printed in Kcnnett's Hist. Eng. I'< ediu vol. iii. pp. 703, T93. 


Bishop Rennet's List of the Court of St. Germains, was King James's 
Secretary of State for Scottish Affairs. » He is better known perhaps as 
the Principal of the Scots College at Paris. 

23^. April, 1690. 

My Letters from Ireland say that the Brass Money 
goes now amongst the Rebels' army as well as guineas, 
and that it pays debts and clears mortgages as cur- 
rently as any other money ever did ; and that I have 
but very few enemies left there. The World is a 
game of hazard, and not worth a wise man's pains to 
be anxious for ; do our duty, and be careless of the 

The different expedients to which King James resorted upon his 
arrival in Ireland to procure a sufficient supply of money having failed, 
he attempted to remedy the scarcity by coining Sixpences of copper and 
brass. These were first made current by proclamation June 18th 1689 ; 
and Ijefore the end of the month, in pursuance of another proclamation, 

» King James's Court at this time consisted of 

1. The Duke of Powis, Lord Chamberlain. 

2. Col. Porter, Vice Chamberlain. 

3. The Earls of Dunbarton and Abercorn, Lords of the Bedchamber. 

4. Captains Macdonald, Beadles, Stafford, and Trevanion, Grooms of the Bed- 

5. Fergus Graham, Esq. Privy Purse. 

C. Edw. Sheldon, Esq. Sheldon, Esq. Sir John Sparrow, Board of Green 


7. Mr. Strickland, Vice Chamberlain to the Queen. 

8. Mr. Brown, brother to the Lord Viscount Montacutc, Secretary of State far 

9. Sir Richard Neagle, Secretary of State for Ireland. 

10. Father Innes, President of the Scots College, Secretary of State for Scotland. 

11. John Caryll, Esq. Secretary to the Queen. 

12. Stafford, Esq. previously Envoy in Spain. . 

The Five lf»st were the King's Cabinet Counsellors. 

Kcnnctt's Hist. Engl. 2d edit. vol. iii. p. 601, note. 


pieces somewhat larger were circulated, purporting to be Shillings and 
Half-crowns, to which in the next year Crowns of brass were added. These 
are usually called Gun Money, probably from the circumstance of 
some brass cannon having been delivered to the Commissioners of the 
Mint from the court of Dublin Castle, to be converted into this money, 
which was also made from bell-metal and every description of what was 
technically called battery. 

In this wretched sort of money the popish soldiers received their sub- 
sistence, and the protestant tradesmen and creditors their debts ; James 
promising at a more favourable time to exchange it for silver. 

Nine days after the battle of the Boyne, King William ordered these 
coins, by proclamation, to be reduced in value : the crown, and the half- 
crown of the larger size to go for a Penny each, the smaller half-crown 
to go for Three farthings, and the shilling and the sixpence for a Farthing 
each. ■* 


The Earl ofMelfcyrt to Father Maxwell. 

[ms. LAN9D. MUS. BRIT. 11G3 p. 164.] 

23''. April, 1690. 
* # # * * 

God be thanked that the succours are safely arrived 
to you, and that his holy hand appears for the King. 
I am glad of the success of the Copper Money. God 
alone was the sender of it, and nobody has reason to be 
vain of it. To his own name be the glory of it, for 
undeniably it has done good ; but that it should go 
amongst the Rebels is a strange thing. 

• Sec Simons on Irish Coins, and iluding's Annals of the Coinage of Britain. 


I am doing all I can, and that to no great purpose ; 
the hearts here are harder than marble, and there is 
not such a thing as fellow feeling (the presbyterian 
word). No man knows what it is to do more than 
just to his own family, and it is a tramontano folly to 
give to any but for interest, I mean temporal. I labour 
against all the oppositions imaginable, and yet gain 
ground, and am in no ill reputation with the men of 
the Country who are very nice of esteeming strangers : 
but God I hope will give success to the King here and 
every where else, and that he shall quickly put him in 
possession of his own. 


The Earl of Melfort to the Queen of James IF. 
Anxiety for the confirmation of the News that the 
Battle of the Boyne had been gained by James. His 
Advice as to the first steps to be taken upon English 

[ms. LANSD. 1163. vol. ii. p. 225.] 

*,* King William, the day before the battle of the Boyne, while re- 
connoitering, was wounded by a ball from a field-piece, which having 
grazed on the bank of the river slanted upon his right shoulder and tore 
the flesh. The English, seemg some disorder among those who attended 
him, set up a shout through their camp. The Report of King William's 
death flew presently to Dublin, and thence spread not only to Paris, 


where the people expressed their joy by bonfires and illuminations, but 
through the whole of Europe. The Battle was fought upon July 1st, 

During the action itself. King James stood with some squadrons of 
horse on Dunmore Hill ; but Count Lauzun informing him that he would 
be soon surrounded by the enemy, he went off attended by the regiment 
of Sarsiield to Duleck, and thence to Dublin. He staid there one night : 
but the next morning, according to Kennett, attended by the Duke of 
Berwick, the Duke of Tyrconnel, and the Marquis of Powis, he went to 
Waterford, and thence to St. Germains. King James's own Memoirs 
say nothing of these attendants, but that the King went on board a vessel 
at Duncannon. 

The Letter now before the Reader is instructive to those who peruse 
the page of History. It shows at least what one of his advisers recom- 
mended to James when impressed with the notion that Victory was his. 

That James would have gone as far as Lord Melfort in his changes 
seems more than probable. The older he grew, the harder grew his 
heart In the Latin letter which he wrote to the Pope from Dublin, 
26th Nov. 1689, and which Lord Melfort himself presented to the Pope, 
James expressly says, " The only source of the RebeUions against us is 
that we embraced the Catholic Faith, and we do not disown that to 
spread the same not only in our Three Kingdoms, hiU over all the dis- 
perted Colonies ofor^r Subjects in America was our determination."' 

12 1'. Aug. 1690. 
May it please your Majesty, 
All that concern, anxiety, joy, or fear can bring, 
being on me almost at once, at least by near succeeding 
fits, your Majesty cannot blame me if I long to be 
freed of them by a full confirmation of the success in 
Ireland and the death of the Prince of Orange, that 
the King is safe, and your Majesty once again happy 
in seeing and having so near a prospect of Whitehall. 

» " Unica turbarum contra nos cxcitatarum orifio est, qucxl Catholicam Fidcm 
atnplexi simus, et eamdem in trla Regna, et late sparsas per Amerlcam nostrorum 
sutxlitorum Colonias reduccre statuisse, nupcr neutrum negamus." The Letter is 
printed in Lord Somers's Tracts. 


It is not a time to trouble your Majesty with long 
Letters, yet not knowing where the King's impatience 
may have carried him, and knowing where his affairs 
require him, if assisted as he may well hope to be with 
some troops and the French fleet, I mean to England, 
least he be parted ere this come, I continue to inform 
your Majesty that as soon as the happy news of the 
Usurper's defeat and death was brought hither, I de- 
manded an audience, and in it saw all the expressions 
of a sincere joy in his Holiness for so important, so 
unexpected a success. What passed I shall not take 
up your Majesty's time now to repeat, least I might 
encroach on more necessary matters; only, in short, 
at the confirmation of the News he has promised to do 
for the King all he can do, and in the best manner he 
can, that is as to the owning of what he does, and this 
is an additional cause of my impatience for news from 
your Majesty. 

I have been with the Ministers too, and all of them 
rejoice and speak fair, and I am confident something 
more considerable will be done, as for the last time 
they are to be at charge in this matter. Pray Heaven 
it may be so, for it is a hard task to get any thing here. 

I need not put your Majesty in mind of the absent. 
I know your generosity too well to doubt it. For 
God's sake let me see the King once again, and then 
send me to the end of the World, and you shall find 
an obedience correspondent to the humble duty I owe» 



The Duke of Tyrconnel has, as we are informed, 
behaved himself on this occasion, that, were he my 
mortal enemy, in duty to the King I would forgive 
him and love him ; and I must say that Mr. de Lau- 
zun deserves whatever can be done for him, as do all 
others in that action proportionably to their part in it. 

Hoping this will be soon with your Majesty I can- 
not hinder myself from saying that the first steps in 
English ground are most dangerous, and that there- 
fore great care is to be had how they are made as to 
Treaty, if that be absolutely necessary, which I hope 
in God it shall not ; but if it is, all the rocks we have 
split upon must be minded, so as that in time coming 
we may not be in danger of the same fate. These 
rocks are obvious. Besides the Oaths and Penal 
Laws against dissenters from the Church of England, 
there is the standing Army of Foreigners, the power 
pf Money, the exorbitant Usurpations of Parliaments, 
the Trial of High Treason or other crimes against the 
Crown by Juries, the Habeas Corpus Act, and such 
like, which, if not regulated more advantageously for 
the Crown or quite abolished, I can see no comfort the 
King can have of his Crown, or safety the Subjects 
can have from their own follies. 

There is a great consideration of forming the Party 
the King will choose to govern by, for by a Party a 
factious State must still be mastered ; endeavouring to 
use all equally in it, being a certain way to lose all. 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. o 


And this, your Majesty may well remember, was an 
opinion I have had of a long time, and might have 
done good then, as experience shows now. 

This Party ought to be of men of tried loyalty ; 
for with our Countrymen there is no trusting to new 
men nor to probabilities, so corrupt our blood is grown 
by hereditary rebellion against God and the King. Of 
this Party greater care is yet to be had of forming the 
Court, both in regard to the King's and to your Ma^ 
jesty's servants, that the persons composing it may be 
such as dart back the beams of glory they receive; 
that is, do honour to your Majesty from whom they 
receive it ; that they be of the best blood, and pru- 
dentest, honestest, and loyalest principles ; such as may 
make others impatient and ambitious to -come into the 
number ; not such as we have seen in times past. 

Those amongst them who are in authority over 
others of them be men of Order, and have qualifica- 
tions as well as quality to get respect and to force 
obedience, that things may look with that regularity 
which becomes the service of so great a Monarch ; and 
it were to be wished that the way of serving were put 
into a more modern dress. Above all things care 
must be had that such as have been active in the King's 
service in his absence be well rewarded, and all Ad- 
vantages taken to punish such as have been the Authors 
or Promoters of this Rebellion ; and if the King be 
forced to pardon, let it be as few of the Rogues as he 


can, and with a watchful eye over them, remembering 
that King David pardoned Chimei at his return to 
Jerusalem, but took care that he should sooner or later 
feel the smart of his wickedness the first failing he 

Such as are excepted, no pardon should ever be al- 
lowed ; and amongst these should be as many of those 
families where father and son both are engaged, or such 
as have been hereditarily disloyal ; for from such there 
is no more loyalty to be expected than religion from 
the Devils. It is not in their nature, and Rebellion 
is like the sin of Witchcraft, neither can repent. 

One thing has brought another, and when I begin 
to consider, all this is plainly impertinent to your 
Majesties, who understand your affairs infinitely better 
than any other. But it is the nature of true concern 
to be anxious for every interest of the persons it re- 
gards ; and though I err, yet it is well meant, and I 
know your Majesty's goodness will pardon me, and 
though on this subject I have much more to add, yet 
respectfully I shall make my fault no greater at this 
time and at this distance. 

If this comes safe to your Majesty's hands before 
any new orders be sent me, it will be more than time 
to send them ; for as soon as the confirmation of this 
new Herod the Prince of Orange his death shall come, 
all that is to be expected from this will be immediately 
done, and my longer stay here will be needless, and I 



am afraid prejudicial on several accounts, of which at 
this distance I dare not speak nor write freely as I 
would. I am extremely sorry to see from several Let- 
ters that some of your Majesty's servants of our 
Country at St. Germains have been so indiscreet as 
to show their dislike that the French should beat the 
English at sea. Indeed I have pain to believe them 
so little concerned in your Majesty's happiness, but it 
is written to the Cardinal de Fourbin and to the Duke 
de Chaulnes. If it have made no noise, then it is 
well. If there be any thing in it, such are most un- 
worthy, be who they will, of the honour of serving 
your Majesty : but they name nobody, nor can I guess 
who the persons are. . 

The methods to be taken with that Court, if the 
King go into England as I hope he shall, are the nicest 
things I see in the whole matter ; but these your Ma- 
jesties will concert yourselves, and adjust so as that it 
may not be in the power of whispers and stories to 
alienate any part of the affection so necessary for your 
mutual interest. 

It is impossible to imagine the falsehoods spread 
abroad by the Allies-Ministers here, who go through 
the town offering great wagers that the French had 
greater losses at Fleury than the Allies, and that their 
fleet is totally defeated. But to us who are sure of 
the contrary, it is some joy to see the mean shifts they 
are put to. Would to God we were as sure of the 


Usurper''s death, and of the Victory in Ireland, of 
which with the utmost impatience we expect the con- 
firmation from Ireland, for from Versailles it seems to 
come directly enough hither. 

I have only the Letters of the 17'^ July, so that I 
want those of the 10-^. of that month, and those of the 
24^^i. and that, notwithstanding others have got Letters 
of that date which brought the News of the total de- 
feat in Ireland of the King'^s forces, and his flight, 
which had broken my heart if that of the death of 
Orange had not come before. 

Your Majesty*'s goodness has allowed me to write 
so long Letters, and therefore I hope you will pardon 
them and all the impertinencies they contain, which, 
however, are meant with the greatest sincerity and 
most unalterable concern that it is possible for any man 
to have for any earthly thing. 

May God Almighty bless your Majesties and the 
Prince, and may you be soon happy and in possession 
of your own, that God may be glorified in the mira- 
culous work, and your faithful servants happy in the 
thoughts that your Majesties are so. Amongst these 
there is none more unalterably, more humbly so, than, 
May it please your Majesty, 
Your Majesty's most humble, most faithful, 

and most obedient subject and servant, 


My Lady Melfort presents her most humble duty 
to your Majesty. 



The Earl of MeTfort to the Queen, from Rome ; still 
in suspense.. 

[ms. laksd. mus. BRIT. 1163. vol. ii. fol. 251.] 

19"'. Aug. 1690. 
May it please your Majesty, 
Never was any body so tossed with contrary pas- 
sions as I have been since the time I heard of his Ma- 
jesty's arrival into France, for then we had the fear 
that all was lost in Ireland. Immediately after we had 
an excess of joy, to hear that Orange and Schomberg 
were killed, and their troops beaten again. The rage 
to be triumphed over by the Spaniards, who affirm the 
Prince of Orange alive, Ireland his, and he returned 
in glory to London, with all the circumstances of the 
King's defeat, Orange's entry to Dublin, &c. And in 
all this time we have not one scrape of a pen to free ua 
of all these pains we suffer, nor the hopes of any, since 
I have none to that I sent by Venice, which, I am in- 
formed, was delivered into your Majesty's hands. But 
at all this I wonder not. I well consider the condition 
your Majesty is in, and from my heart I compassionate 
all you have suffered, but indeed somebody about your 
Majesty might have followed the way I shew them, 


since they would not think how to find one to send 
safely to us here what it is most necessary for your 
Majesty ""s affairs that we know; for as soon as the 
truth of these things comes, the Pope will declare his 
last pleasure in what I have to propose to him, and I 
am hopeful it will be somewhat more conform to the 
necessity of the King's affairs than what has yet been 

I hope your Majesty has got the last bill of 10,000 
Roman Crowns I sent, and will still believe that all 
that is possible for me to do shall be done, and that 
since I am so unhappy as to be out of any capacity of 
assisting the King at this time, I shall pray for him 
that God Almighty may do it, and re-establish your 
royal family in peace, and give addition to your hap- 
piness for the patience with which you have suffered. 

I have nothing to trouble the King with, not know- 
ing where he is, and knowing that your Majesty fully 
informs him of all, especially of that zeal with which 
he is and shall ever be served by, may it please your 

Your Majesty's most humble, 

most faithful, most obedient servant, 




The Earl of Melfort to King James the Second frmi 

[ms. lansd. 1163. vol. iii. fol. 14.] 

5^1'. Sept. 1690. 
May it please your Majesty, 

Your Majesty's Letter of the 30'h. of July from 
St. Germains I had not till Wednesday last, being the 
30*^. of August. I most humbly thank your Majesty 
for your goodness to me and mine. My services are 
due by many indispensable obligations, and I shall 
still endeavour by zeal to show the greatness of that 
most humble affection I have to your royal person and 

So soon as I had received the honour of your Letter 
and the other for his Holiness I demanded audience, 
but Thursday being appointed for singing the Te 
Deum for the taking of Napoli de Malvoisie, which the 
Pope was to perform in person at ^^\ Maria Major, I 
was put off till Friday at night. 

On Friday's night being admitted to audience of his 
Holiness, I delivered him your Majesty's Letter, which 
he received most kindly, asking if your Majesty, the 


Queen, and Prince were well. He said, * O how much 
do I compassionate their condition :"' and having opened 
the Letter, he gave it to me to read for him, which 
ended, he said he would answer it, and approve of all 
your Majesty had done ; but that he saw it was left 
to me to enlarge on what it contained. 

I told him that the first thing I had order to inform 
him of, was, the reason why your Majesty had quitted 
Ireland, which was the united request of all the Gene- 
ral Officers of your Army, who wisely considered that 
in your royal person consisted all their present hopes ; 
and that though Ireland might be lost the sooner, yet 
your Majesty would be more in a condition to act for 
the whole, being in France, where it was necessary to 
concert the whole matter ; that they well considered 
that none could have so much interest with the Most 
Christian King to procure them succours, or, by at- 
tacking England, draw the forces which oppressed 
them another way^ That these considerations had 
prevailed with your Majesty, and I hoped his Holiness 
would approve of what your Majesty had done. 

He said that it was perfectly well, for that your 
Majesty being safe your re-establishment was certain ; 
and that he approved extremely of your having come 
away, and would write so much to your Majesty himself. 
I told his Holiness that now your Majesty was 
come to France to demand succours from that King, 
the next thing I had commanded me was to beg of his 


Holiness what assistance it was possible for his Holi- 
ness to give. That the enterprize was great, and that 
though France should do all they could, yet that all 
would not be near what was sufficient, and that there- 
fore his Holiness of necessity must see this most just 
cause perish, to the reproach of all the Catholics who 
did not assist or help to support it. That there never 
was a time in which the Holy See had so much honour 
to gain or lose, and that the Eyes^ of all Europe was 
upon his Holiness to see if he would tamely suffer a 
Catholic Kingdom to fall into the hands of Heretics, 
unconcerned to see so many hundreds of thousands of 
Catholics under the grievousest persecution, and greatest 
temptation to lose their Religion. Thai by a timely 
and suitable assistance his Holiness might have had 
the glory in his Pontificate to have advanced the Ca- 
tholic Religion in England and Scotland, where it was 
not ; and as that would have been much to his honour, 
I was assured he would never give occasion to the 
contrary by suffering a Catholic Kingdom to be dis- 
membered from the Church in his time, without giving 
all the assistance he could to such as were endeavour- 
ing its defence. That a timely supply might do much, 
and I was not sure but 12 or 15,000 stand of Arms 
might have prevented these mischiefs if sent in time, 
since your Majesty wanted not Men but Arms to have 
out-numbered your enemies. That that was neglected, 
but that for the future I hoped his Holiness would 



turn his thoughts more intently on a thing in which 
he and the Church of God were so much concerned. 

His Holiness repeated all his former compliments of 
what he would do and suffer for your Majesty, but 
that he could not act against all the world, and he had 
not wherewithal to do as he would. That all the 
world was in war. That war was come into Italy. 
That there was scarcity at Rome. That the rents of 
the Ecclesiastic State were not paid. That he was in 
thousands of straits and difficulties. That the little he 
had given was borrowed : he had in it given his Entrails, 
so difficult is it now to find money. 

I thanked his Holiness for what he had done, it 
was a mark of his sense of what he was obliged to do, 
and at the same time one infallible proof of his Poverty 
being so very disproportioned to what it was designed 
for, that I did not insist for what was properly his 
Holiness's, but that some other fund might be em- 
ployed in so good, so pious, so necessary a work. That 
there were many sums employed for pious ends whereof 
his Holiness might dispose by changing the intention : 
and that there were many other ways of raising money 
if he had a mind : and that the assisting your Majesty 
was a hundred times a more pious work than building 
of Churches, especially where there are already too 
many : that by this speedy assistance he would not 
only do a work glorious for him, but absolutely neces- 



sary for his honour, and for the reputation if not safety 
of the Holy See. 

He considered a little without saying any thing ; he 
then asked if Orange was dead. I told him it was 
not yet certain; and he saw Letters from all parts 
bore contradictions, some say he was, others he was 

' It is doubtful,' said he, ' but however, I am fixed 

* in myself that England will throw off that Monster, 

* and call back their own King. I pray for it every 

* day, and would give my life to procure it.' He said 
he had thought of your Majesty ""s concerns and how to 
help you, that he would consider of it, and all that ever 
he could he would do; that, in the mean time, he 
would answer your Majesty's Letter. 

I humbly thanked him for the hopes he gave me, 
that I should inform your Majesties of his good inten- 
tions, and begged of him to consider how the season 
was advanced, and how precious time is to us. And 
whilst he considered how to help, I begged of him to 
reflect on the Triumph of the Heresy in Ireland, the 
altars overthrown, Churches profaned. Catholics per- 
secuted, the sacrileges committed on the persons of 
the rehgious, priests, and bishops; and I persuaded 
myself this view would quickly determine his Holiness 
to do something of importance. He repeated to me 
what he had said before ; that he would think, that he 


would consider, and do all that he could in the world 
for your Majesty's assistance. 

This repetition was a sign that he intended to finish 
this audience ; and so I shewed my desire to be licen- 
tiated, which his Holiness perceiving, began to inform 
me of Napoli di Malvoisie, what importance it was of 
to the Venetians, &c. I congratulated his Holiness on 
that Conquest as a christian and a catholic, and as a 
servant to your Majesty with whom the Venetians had 
preserved their Alliances : and this I did to show his 
Holiness the difference of the spirit which actuates us, 
and that of the House of Austria. W^e were glad 
that Christianity gained, though from those that fought 
against our enemies: whilst they sung the Te Deum 
for the Church's having lost a Kingdom, and a Here- 
tic's Victory. But I hoped that God, in his good time, 
would put a stop to these Impieties. His Holiness 
asked me if it was possible that any Cathedral had 
sung the Te Deum for Orange''s Victory ; I told him 
that I had their own printed News for it, at which his 
Holiness seemed horribly scandalized. 

Thus ended this Audience, by which your Majesty 
will see how far the warmth which appeared at the 
News of the Usurper's death is cooled now they think 
he is alive. And the truth of the matter is, they have 
but little mind to do any thing if they could hand- 
somely shun it. And if any thing considerable be 
done, it will be when your Majesty has almost certainty 


on your side, for they would help up the last steps, 
and care not for being at the expenses till they can 
say this helped immediately to set him on his Throne. 

At a distance it is impossible to judge, and I have 
that to say I dare not commit to cypher; but, in 
general, there is no hope of any thing considerable 
till your Majesty be just going for England, which I 
assert boldly you are ; but the French posts coming 
only once in fifteen days, they always wait for con- 
firmations, and so I am delayed. 

We are now in more uncertainty than ever, not 
knowing if Orange be dead or living, where the French 
fleet is, nor what may be their design ; nor are we less 
ignorant of what is doing in England and Scotland, 
whether any of their designs so much talked of be 
like to take effect, or if those inclinations believed to 
be in the people still continue. So that, as to that 
point, we are just as miserable as it is possible for us 
to be: God Almighty send us the comfort of some 
good news for your Majesty, and then we, like sea- 
sick travellers, soon forget our pains. 

I wish it were possible to get the remains of your 
Majesty's army, or a considerable part of them, brought 
from Ireland to England, so long as the French are 
masters of the Sea, and might hinder the rebel army 
from returning to England : for I am confident never 
nothing will turn the tide in England, but carrying 
the war thither. The fear of having a war within the 


Kingdom having infallibly been what made the de- 
fection of the people so universal as it was : but I hope 
all this comes too late, and therefore I shall not insist 
on it. 

As for myself, I entirely depend upon your Majesty 
to be employed as you shall think best for your royal 
service, as I have ever done, and having laid before 
your Majesty my humble thoughts I am secured on 
the side of conscience, and I know your Majesty's ge- 
nerosity, and if I may add justice, will have care of 
my reputation. Which, with all else I am master of, 
shall ever be employed to prove that I am, more than 
I can tell. 

May it please your Majesty, 
Your Majesty''s most humble, most faithful, 
and most obedient servant, 



The Earl of Melfbrt to Mr. Innes : introduces an 
Irish priest of the name of Richard Molony. 

[ms. lansd. 1163. vol. iii. p. 49.] 

•»• In a Letter to the Queen of the 11th Nov. Lord Melfort calls this 
person " Bishop Molony." He had written a Letter to Lord Melfort 
in which " the story of Ireland was set down." 


IS^K Sept. 1690. 

The Bearer hereof Richard Molony is an Irish 

Priest who has passed his studies at Rome, and returns 

now to the mission in Ireland. He is desirous to kiss 

the King and Queen ""s hands : so he being a very honest 

man, I intreat you to procure him that satisfaction or 

any other service that hes in your way, and what you 

do for him I will look upon as a favour done to 


Your most humble servant, 


A pass was given with this Letter to the aforesaid 
Molony, and another to James, who went along with 
him. There was a pass likewise given the same day 
to three English Gentlemen that went to Naples. 

In a Letter to the King of the 28th Oct. Lord Melfort details the 
particulars of another Interview with the Pope : 

" Yesterday was the soonest that I could deliver your Majesty's Letters 
to his Holiness, who received them with all the demonstrations of real 
affection it is possible to express. He cried so that I had extreme com- 
passion to see him ; he told me that his heart shed tears of blood to think 
of your condition, and that night and day he thought how to assist you ; 
that there was nothing in his power he would not do ; that his condition 
was to be lamented; he saw Europe in distress, the Church in danger, 
your Majesty in want, Italy threatened, himself not secure, and the 
Emperor in circumstances with him as not to permit him to be useful 
for remedying of the ills ; that he had made propositions of peace ; that 
the Most Christian King had answered favourably, that Spain had an- 
swered that it was not now the time to think of peace, that the Emperor 


had not answered and so he found would not hear of peace ; that all of 
them asked assistance who had war with the Turks, who were coming a 
second time into Hungary, and he knew not to what hand to turn him." 

The Audience being ended Lord Melfort went to the Cardinal Rubini, 
after the conference with whom he says, " I found out two objections, 
that the Turks' afTairs pressed harder than the danger of the heretics ; 
the second that what they could give the Emperor might signify, but 
what they can give your Majesty will not signify to the training of your 
Majesty's Kingdoms." 

Lord Melfort's anxiety to return was now great; after giving his 
reasons for demanding it of the King, he adds, " Indeed there is another 
thing I thought not to have ever mentioned, and that is my allowance, 
of which I have seen nothing in six months ; for three of which I drew 
bills, but since that time I have neither credit nor money, nor will any 
advance me one farthing ; and all this befalls me after I was informed 
the matter was adjusted. Hitherto I have had difficulties, but now I will 
swear I know not well what course to take." MS. Lansd. 1163. vol. iiu 
pp. 108, 169. 

Mr. TheopMlus Harrison to the Rev. John Strype. 

[ms. cole, mus. BRIT. vol. Ui. p. 39?.] 

Dublin, Aug. 23, 1690. 
Dear Sir, 
After some few days' stay at Liverpool for a wind, 
blessed be God, I had a good and quick passage. M'. 
Bonnell tells me he acquainted you with the transactions 
of King James's Government here, and how severely 
the poor Protestants were handled: their Churches, 

VOL. IV. SER, 2. P 


contrary to the royal word, seized and prophaned by 
idolatrous worship. The calamities under which they 
groaned were so great, that they cannot be conceived 
by any but those who were actual suiferers, or who 
beheld the cruel executioners perform their barbarous 
parts. All men are convinced that they ought to re- 
turn solemn thanks to Heaven for sending a Conqueror 
who gives new life to their drooping spirits, and cheer- 
fully submit to that Providence which has eased them 
from a burden under which it was impossible for them, 
in human probability, to have much longer subsisted ; 
they themselves, as well as their substance, being 
almost consumed, and without miracles must necessa- 
rily next winter be famished. A Jacobite is a monster 
here, and passive obedience an absurdity. The usage 
of Protestants here, they say, was sufficient to convince 
the most fierce Jacobite, had he been in the same un- 
happy circumstances. 

As to the present posture of affairs. Limerick is 
closely besieged, the out-works taken, and all the men 
in them put to the sword, though they cried for quarter. 
The occasion of this severity was Sarsfield's cruelty, 
who two days before surprised our guns, within seven 
miles of the Camp, and killed all the waggoners to- 
gether with their wives and innocent babes : so that 
when the Irish cried quarter, answer was made they 
should have the same quarter the waggoners had. 
The guns were re-taken, and though damaged, in good 


order again. It is reported, that Limerick hasofFeretl 
to parley. 

It is certain Tyrconnel and Berwick have left Lime- 
rick : so have the French, who are marched towards 
Galway, being a more convenient harbour for their re- 
turn homeward : but the Garrison of Galway has denied 
them admittance : so that they lie encamped between 
Limerick and Galway. It is said, that His Majesty 
has promised the soldiers the plunder of Limerick, 
which is thought to be very considerable, which ani- 
mates the Army to a very great degree. 

You heard, I suppose, that Douglas's men were 
drawn off from Athlone, at which several that ran 
away, at the rout of the Boyne, rallied, and made a 
body of about 3000 in the County of Westmeath, in 
which part of Athlone stands. They plundered all 
Protestants; burnt their houses, and forced them to 
fly to these parts for shelter : upon which Col. Wose- 
ley, with his Enniskilling men, who are really very 
formidable, was sent into the Country. About sixty 
of his men, not staying for the rest, set upon five hun- 
dred, killed about fifty, and took several prisoners, 
with the loss of three men only. They are now en- 
camped at MuUingar, the County Town, and so keep 
the Country in some order. 

I preached last Sunday in my own Church, where 
I found about thirty of my scattered flock ; my Church 
miserably defaced ; the seats were employed to wains- 

p 2 


cot a room for the Priest; but no Priest appeared, 
nor any of the considerable Popish inhabitants. Some 
with King James"'s army, some abscond, and Pro- 
testants not yet returned to their houses, which were 
all possessed by the Irish : so that the Country looks 
somewhat desolate. My pulpit cushion was dragooned ; 
the velvet made into a pair of breeches ; but chalice, 
&c. preserved. 

There is no want of com in the Country, nor of 
other provisions, but how it will be in winter God 
knows; for most are willing to part with what pro- 
visions they have at an easy rate, for fear of the Army 
on the one hand, and of the fugitive Irish, or Rapperies, 
who steal in the night on the other. 

It was my good fortune to leave a faithful servant 
behind me, who had lived with me above eleven years : 
his friends are all Papists : he an Irishman, but bred up 
in the Protestant Religion, to which and his Master, 
he had been stedfast. Notwithstanding very strict 
search, he has preserved most of my goods : he was 
forced to sacrifice some few things, to save the rest : 
bedsteads and chairs were my greatest loss. I found 
surplice and hood, and two good gowns and cassocks, 
as I left them. I did not know when I landed whe- 
ther this servant was alive ; but next day he came to 
me, and brought me two horses, which, in the rout, he 
took from men that owed me old debts, and picked up 
£5 in money, least I should want at my landing : he 


settled my tithes also before I came as well as he could : 
but what was set for ,^£'300 formerly, scarce amounts 
to .£150 now. But blessed be God it is as it is. As 
to my Deanry lying near Athlone, I must exj)ect no 
profit from thence this year. 

And now I beg you to present my service to all my 
good friends in Low Lay ton, particularly the good fa- 
mily at Ruckholts. My thanks to M"". Houblon for 
his Letter, as much as if I had occasion to make use 
of it ; for his correspondent was ready to do me any 
kindness. I will not forget my promise to M''. Hill, 
&c. I am sincerely, dear Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother, and humble servant, 


I am informed it was not Sarsfield that took the 
carriages ; but whoever it was, he burnt them, and 
threw the women and children alive into the fire ; one 
of the waggons excepted, in which was the Treasure 
to pay the Army, but that was re-taken. 

To M'. Strype, to be left at M'. 
John Hill's, Stationer in Change 
Alley, opposite the Royal Exchange. 



King William the Third to * 

His discontent with the Parliament. Changes pro- 
posed Jbr Ireland. 

fcMS. DONAT. 4748. fol. 15. Orig.l 

*,♦ The Donation Manuscript in the Museum, N". 4748, contains 
Nine original Letters of King William the Third, between Oct 18th, 
1697, and Aug. 15th, 1700, entirely in his Majesty's hand-writing. 
They have no address, but seem to have been written to Baron Ginkle, 
afterwards Earl of Athlone. 

The Letter here given is one of them ; and is presented as a specimen 
of King "William's French style. In the opening of it the King appears 
to allude to the Resolution of the House of Commons April 9th, 1700, 
" that an Address be made to his Majesty that no person who was not 
a native of his Dominions, except the Prince of Denmark, be admitted to 
his Majesty's Councils in England or Ireland" to prevent the presenting 
of which, the King went to the Hous^ on the 1 Jth of Ap^l ^^d pro- 
rogued the Parliament to the 23d of May. 

A Hampton-court ce ii*'. de May 1700. 
Il y a bien long temps que je ne vous ay point 
escrit, la raison est qu'estant tousjours incertain de 
Tissue de la derniere Session du Parlement; je n'ay 
voulu vous repondre a auqu'une de vos Lettres, vous 
pouves juge le chagrin que m'a cause toutte leur Pro- 
cedures extraordinaires, et je vous asseure que ce n'a 
pas este une des moindres de vous voir prive de ce que 
je vous avois donne avec tant de plaisir. J'espere 


pourtant que je ne seres pas hors d'estat de recognois- 
tre les bons services que vous m^aves randu, et j''en 
chercheres^ les occasions avec empressement surquoy 
vous pouves faire fons, c vous doit estre bien de la 
satisfaction dans le juste resentiment que vous deves 
avoir de ce qui vous regarde que personne n'a peu 
trouver a redire a vostre conduite, au contraire tous 
en ont paru satisfait, et le Vote qui a passe le dernier 
jour en furie ne vous regarde qu*" indirectement, et je 
vous puis asseure, que vous n'en aves este auqu'une- 
ment Toccasion, il y a eu tant d'intrigues dans cette 
demiere Session que sans avoir este sur les Lieus, et 
bien instruit de tout Ton n'y peut rien comprandre. II 
me sera impossible de continuer la Commission de 
L**. Justices en Irlande comme elle est presentement, 
ainsi j'ay resolu d*y envoier le Due de Shrewsburi 
comme Vice Roy, et que vous commandies TArmee 
sous luy. Ne croies pas que cela vous sera une d&. 
gradation, personne ne le comprandra icy comme cela, 
et je scai que tout le monde le souhaite, et le croient 
absolument necessaire pour mon service. J'en suis 
entierement convaincu, ainsi J'espere que vous ne vou- 
deres pas me refuse d'accepter ce commandement, n'y 
ne pas abandonner mon service. Je vous assure que 
je n'en ay jamais eu plus de besoin qu'a present, des 
gens de vostre capacite et fidelite. J'espere que je 
trouveres des occasions a vous donner des marques de 
mon estime et amitie, et je ne vouderes pas vous engage 


en cecy si je n'estois asseure qu'auqu'un mal ne poura 
vous en arriver, mais je scai que cela aura une aproba- 
tion generale, et je ne doute pas que vos amis ne vous 
en informeront de mesme, et je suis bien aise de vous 
dire que vous en aves beaucoup et parmi toutes partis. 


The Reader is, no doubt, aware that the preceding Letter affords 
no solitary instance of King William's discontent with his Parliament. 
There is a stronger one, however, preserved, which the Editor cannot 
persuade himself to leave unchronicled here. 

In the month of December 1698, when the Commons were so irritated 
at the King's presuming to maintain a greater number of Troops than 
their predecessors had voted, such was his Majesty's indignation that he 
threatened to abandon the Government. The Speech "which he penned 
and intended to have delivered upon that occasion, is still remaining 
in the King's own hand among the Manuscripts in the British 
Museum. We are not told by whom he was influenced to withhold it. 

The Countess of Suffolk, lady of the bedchamber to Queen Caroline, 
told the late Dr. Morton that She communicated this original Draft to 
the Queen, who chose to keep it, returning her only a Copy. After the 
Queen's death it came into the possession of the Princess Amelia, who 
gave it to Lord Berkeley of Stratton for the Museum. 

" M'. a Ge. 

" Je suis venu icy dans ce Royaume au desir de cette Nation pour la 
sauver de ruine, et pour preserver vostre Religion vostre Lois et Libertes, 
et pour ce subjet j'ay este oblige de soutenir une longue et tres onereuse 
geurre pour ce Royaume, laquelle par la grace de Dieu et la bravoure 
de cette Nation est a present terminee par une bonne Paix ; dans laquelle 
vous pouries vivre heureusement, et en repos, si vous voulies contribuer a 
vostre pro pre seurete, ainsi que je vous I'avois recommande a I'ouverture 
de cette Session ; mais voyent au contraire, que vous aves si peu de guard 
a mes ad vis, et que vous ne prenez auquun si peu » de soin de vostre seu- 
rete, et vous exposes a une ruine evidente, vous destituant des sules et 
uniques moiens que pouroit servir des moiens necessaire pour *> vostre 
defense. II ne seroit pas juste ou raisonable que je fusse temoin [de] 


vostre perte, ne pouvant rien faire de mon coste, pour I'eviter [sans vous 
pouvoir defendre et proteger]" ce que a este la seule veu que j'ai eu en 
venant en ce Paiis ; ainsi je dois vous requerir de choisir et me nommer 
telles personnes, que vous jugeres capable auquels je puisse laisse [I'ad- 
ininistration du] ^ gouvemement en mon absence, vous asseurant que 
quoyque je suis oblige" a present de 7)i€ retlrer HORS DU ROVAUME. 
Je concerveres toujours la mesmes inclination pour son adventage et pros- 
perite ; et que quandt je poures juger que ma presence y seroit necessaire 
pour vostre defense, et que je jugeres le pouvoir entrcprendre aux succes, 
vous vous me feres en cstat que je seres dont porte a y revenir et hasarde 
ma vie pour vostre seurete, comme je I'ay fait par le passe : priant le bon 
Dieu de benir vos deliberations, et de vous inspirer ce que est necessaire 
pour le bien et la seurete du Royaume." 

The words placed in the lower part of this and the preceding page 
with letters of reference, are King William's marginal Alterations. 


Charles Lyttelton to his Jatlier Sir Charles Lyttelton 
upon the conduct of Louis the XlVth. after the death 
of King James the Second, 


*^ The countenance given by Louis the Fourteenth to the son of 
James the Second, both before and after his father's death, was the cause 
not only of sarcasm, but of the circulation of scandalous anecdote. " TJie 
Great Bastard Protector of the Little One'^ was the title of an English 
Tract, affected to have been printed at Cologne in 1689, and reprinted in 
1701, near the time of the Interview mentioned in the present Letter. 
The English thought they could not better requite a sympathy which did 
Louis the Fourteenth more honor than his greatest Victories. 

The question of the legitimacy of the birth of King James's son Is 
now laid at rest. King William himself did not venture to go into it. 

• Estant hors d'estat de vous defendre et proteger. *> adminUtre le. 

• forc6. 


King James in his Memoirs, » says, that Count Bentinck " being asked 
why his Master made not appear the illegitimacy of the Prince of Wales, 
as he had promised ? he answered, that they neither questioned his legi- 
timacy, nor were concerned about it, for that his Master being now in 
possession of the Throne, was resolved to keep it while he lived, and 
cared not who it went to when he was gone." 

Paris, Sept. 27'^. 1701, N. S. 

We received yesterday my dear Father's of the 6*''. 
instant, and are glad to find you are all pretty well at 
Hagley, and no occasion to try the Bath waters, where 
I hear there is a mighty swarm of people. 

# # # # # 

I should be glad to stay at Paris as long as you 
think fit, both to mend my French and my Dancing, 
which I think I can do better here than in another 
place, as also to see a little more of the French world. 

I should be extremely glad to see Flanders and 
Holland before I come home; not but that I long 
mightily to see my dear friends at Hagley, but because 
I believe we may go now without any trouble as to the 
war. There be no likelihood of any, this season being 
so far advanced, but it is thought the next spring there 
will be some bustle in Flanders, some people not being 
plpased with the King of France's owning our young 
King, and treating him with all the respect and kind- 
ness imaginable. The moment King James was dead, 
the Prince of Conti went and complimented the Prince 
as King, as did all the rest of the Court at St. Ger- 

• Vol. ii. p. 312. 


maiqs. On the 20*^. the King of France went to St. 
Germains, after it had been hotly disputed in the 
Council whether he should or no : all the Princes of 
the blood were hotly for it, but some of the politicians 
were against it : but it was carried by a great majority 
of voices. When the King of France came to St. 
Germains, the King met him at the top of the stairs, 
and after they had embraced one another gave him the 
right hand, and conducted him into the room where 
the Queen » laid upon the bed to receive him. After 
the ceremonies finished the King conducted him back 
to the top of the stairs, always giving him the right 

The next day the young King went to Versailles 
to return the King of France"'s visit, who treated him 
with the same ceremony and respect that he was used 
to treat his father, but with a great deal more ten- 
derness, as considering he is very young. When he 
met him atop of the stairs, he took him in his arms 
and embraced him with as much kindness and tender- 
ness as if he had been his own son. He conducted 
him into a room where there were two armed-chairs 
for the two Kings : the King of France always gave 
him the right hand: when the visit was ended, the 
King of France conducted him back to the top of the 
stairs. They have given him the same guards that the 
late King had. 

• Mary of Estc. kd. 


The late King desired the young one in his Will 
that he would continue all his Servants as they were, 
and take care of all his faithful subjects that had suf- 
fered with him, especially the Protestants, and that 
whenever it should please God to restore him to his 
Throne, he advised him to govern his people without 
any regard to their being Papists or Protestants, and 
that he should by no means endeavour to alter the 
Religion established, but to govern according to the 
laws and customs of his country, without which he was 
sure no King of England could ever be happy, but 
withall charged him to be a true Son of the Church, 
and not to change upon any account whatsoever, quoting 
some Scripture sayings, as " what signified it to gain 
the whole world and lose his own Soul," and some more 
to the same purpose. 

He declared some new Honours. My Lord Perth 
is made Duke : Lord Middelton, Earl of Monmouth : 
Mr. Carrol, Lord Carrol. 

The King's body is here at the EngHsh Benedictines 
in deposit, there to be kept, as they say, till they can 
have an opportunity to send him to Westminster to be 
buried. The Queen is at a Convent called Shalio, 
within a league of Paris. 

* * * 1^ If 

I beg your and mother's blessing. 

I am your dutiful and obedient son 





Although the Letters of the Reign of Anne which the Editor has 
here produced are far from numerous, some amongst them will be found 
which have intrinsic interest Two from the Duke of Queensberry to 
the Queen at the opening of the Scotch Plot, Dr. D'Avenant's Letter 
to his Son after the News of the Victory of Blenheim had arrived in 
London, Lord Sunderland's three Letters, and the Correspondence with 
the Elector of Hanover, have strong claims upon the Reader's notice. 
The last consists of a few Specimens only out of a large Collection. 

To the Eye of Posterity, the Reign of Anne wiU ever appear to be one 
of the most prosperous in the English Annals : as successful in Arts as 
in Arms. But to those who lived under it there were inconveniences. 
The Nation had been oppressed for the greater part of a century by suc- 
cessive struggles, and though it had settled the contested limits between 
the King and People, the Court and the Country were yet torn by 
jealousy and faction. A claimant to the Crown, out of the Succession 
which the Law had settled, stood as a rallying point for all who were 
discontented. The dissensions of her Ministers impaired the health of 
Anne, who may, without figure, be said to have sunk under her anxieties. 



Sir George Rooke to Prince George of Denmark : 
after the taking of the Vigo Galleons by the English 
Fleet Oct. 12th, 1702. 

[from the Orig. FORMERLY IN THE POS8ES3IOK OF T. B. 

*,* The following is the character of Prince George of Denmark 
given in the Memoirs of the Secret Services of John Macky, Esq. 

" His Royal Highness Prince George of Denmark, husband to the 
Queen and Lord High Admiral of England, is brother to the late King 
of Denmark and uncle to the present He was chosen by King Charles 
the Second to be husband to his niece the Princess Anne, because having 
no dominions of his own to gratify, he would have nothing else in view 
but the interest of England. 

" In the reign of King Charles the Second, having little English and 
being naturally modest, he made no considerable figure, nor in the reign 
of King James, tUl the increase of Popery alarming the whole Nation, 
he concurred with the rest of the Protestant Nobility for the bringing 
over the Prince of Orange, and, with his Princess, left the Court to join 
that party. 

" During all King "William's reign he never went into the Admini. 
stration, yet came always to Parliament regularly, and often to Court, 
diverted himself with hunting ; and never openly declared himself of any 

" On the Queen's accession to the Throne he was made Lord High 
Admiral of England and Warden of the Cinque Ports. 

" He is a Prince of a familiar easy disposition with a good sound un> 
derstanding, but modest in shewing it : a great lover of the Church of 
England the nearer it comes to Lutheranism : this he often shows by 
his vote in the House of Peers, otherwise he does not much meddle with 
affairs out of his office. 

" He is very fat, loves news, his bottle, and the Queen, by whom he 
has had many diildren, but none alive. He has neither many friends 
nor enemies in England. On the Queen's accession to the Throne he 
was towards fifty years old." 


At a later period, as will hereafter be seen, Prince George of Den- 
mark had enemies. The character of him here quoted is from the Har- 
leian MS. 6760 : not from the printed edition of Macky's Memoirs. 

Royal Sovereign at Vigo, Oct. 16th, 170^. 
I think myself very happy in this opportunity of 
congratulating the Queen and your Royal Highness 
on the first action of her Majesty's Reign and your 
Administration in your Office of Lord High Admiral 
of England, which I hope will prove as glorious to 
her Majesty, and as advantageous to her Country and 
subjects as any thing that has been performed in the 
time of her's and your Royal Highness" predecessors. 
The action will tell its own story throughout the world, 
and therefore I shall not illustrate upon it. The in- 
closed Copy of my Letter to Sir Charles Hedges is as 
particular, as just, and as modest a relation as becomes 
me to give, who had the honour to be at the head of 
the service. I shall add no more to my most humble 
duty to her Majesty and your Royal Highness, but 
my prayers that God Almighty may preserve you long 
together and bless you with success in all your under- 
takings, which concludes me her Majesty's most duti- 
ful and loyal subject, and, royal Sir, 

Your Highness"* most obedient, most 

humble, and truly devoted servant, 
G. roob:e. 

His Royal Highness the Prince. 



Lord Tarbat to Queen Anne. He tenders his Re- 
signation as Secretary Jbr Scotland. 


May it please your Majesty, 

The matter of fact in what is past, since my last, I 
have put in my Lord Treasurer's hand ; I dare not 
write my private judgment on what is passed as law; 
and there being an act passed last day, declaring it 
High Treason to quarrel, impugn, or endeavour to 
alter or innovate the claim of right, or any article 
thereof, I will not adventure to give judgment on it, 
now your Majesty's authority is recognised in the first 
act, and touched by the Royal Scepter, and so is law. 
The last is passed in Parliament but not as yet touched, 
nor the other act ratifying Presbyterial Government, 
but wait your Majesty's Commissioner to give them 
the touch. I have sent several other acts to my Lord 
Treasurer, offered, but not yet voted. We are (and I 
believe truly) informed that there are several such acts 
to come in. 

It was the greatest honour that ever I did attain, to 
be chosen by your Majesty to be one of your Sec re- 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. (1 


taries. It was an extraordinary satisfaction and hap- 
piness for me to wait on your Majesty's person, I 
ever accounted it my greatest duty to serve your Ma- 
jesty, as I did your royal predecessors, with untainted 
fidelity and loyalty ; and, as I wish, so I hope to die 
in that course, whatever be my station. 

But with all possible fidelity and duty, be pleased 
graciously to allow me to represent to your Majesty that 
I am unfit on many accounts to serve your Majesty in 
this capacity of a Secretary, or in any public station. It 
were unpardonable indiscretion to trouble your Majesty 
with the particular reasons which bring me to this mis- 
fortune, since the circumstances wherein affairs are put, 
renders my service not only useless but perhaps hurt- 
ful to your Majesty. I assure your Majesty with all 
sincerity before God, that I am not relinquishing so 
honourable a post on any cause or occasion from what 
relates to your Majesty (allowing my unfitness to be 
one) nor does my age or infirmities, or any private 
motive make me thus to withdraw. This I do, un- 
known to any ; nor will I divulge it until I have your 
Majesty's allowance, and then I beg and hope for your 
Royal protection and continuance of your gracious 
favour in the capacity of your private subject ; though 
my age and some other obstructing impediments lie 
heavy on me, yet your Majesty's command shall bring 
me to give an account of this action, and of some other 
things to your Majesty if it be judged worth the while. 


This with no great joy, but with a faithful heart, is 
with all humble duty humbly offered by 
Your Majesty's 

Most humble, most faithful, 
most obedient subject and 


8th. May, 1703. 


The Duke of' Queensberri/ to Queen Anne, upon the 
debating" of the Act of Security/ in the Parliament 
of Scotland. 


May it please your Majesty, 
We were in hopes of finishing the tedious Act of 
Security, having added the clause that the successor 
should be a Protestant and of the Royal line, when we 
found several additions brought in to confound the 
Act ; one was calculated to catch the Bigots, that the 
Successor should be of the Kirk of Scotland as by law 
established ; this was thrown out by a great plurality : 
there was another clause offered on Friday by my 
Lord Roxborough, that whoever was King or Queen 



of England should never be King or Queen of Scotland, 
except upon such a multitude of limitations as rendered 
the matter impracticable, and these limitations to be 
enacted this very Session of Parliament. It was 
carried by a few to enter into the consideration of this 

Here I must regret to your Majesty that my Lord 
Privy Seal'- entered into both these clauses, though they 
are pretty opposite in themselves : and it is too plain 
that he generally joins in any motion that is brought 
in to break up this Parliament, without its coming to 
do those things which are necessary for your Majesty ""s 
service or securing the peace of the Kingdom. He 
seldom votes with your Majesty ""s other servants ; and 
when that happens, he never brings any body along 
with him, so that either he really has not the influence 
he pretended, or is not sincere in employing it for your 
service, and yet when he goes contrary to us, having 
the second vote and being an officer of state, he either 
takes off others, or gives them a pretence to divide 
from us. 

Your Majesty may remember that from the first 
meeting of your Parliament, I represented to your 
Majesty that the division among your servants was 
the greatest difficulty that I foresaw in your business, 
and if you are pleased to observe the accounts that 
your Majesty has received from time to time of the 

* The Marquess of Alhiil 


proceedings of your Parliament, you wil[ find that 
your servants succeeded in every thing wherein they 
were unanimous ; and I am sure that if they will yet 
concur, and act a sincere and vigorous part, that we 
are very well able to bring this Parliament to a happy 
conclusion ; but if it should break up in ill humour it 
would bring a suit of mischiefs and great animosities 
betwixt the two nations ; and it is strange that some 
do concur in the humour of speaking against the in- 
fluence that English Ministers are thought to have in 
Scots affairs, when at the same time they do value 
themselves and are considered by others as having a 
great share in your Majesty's favour by the means of 
these same Ministers against whom they encourage the 
clamour. I am bold to say, that if your Majesty will 
either make your servants of a piece, or let it be un- 
derstood that whoever will differ and divide from the 
rest shall be under your Majesty's displeasure, that we 
shall yet be able to bring matters to a right settlement. 
For my own part I am ready and resolved to ven- 
ture my life and fortune in your Majesty's service 
against all that shall presume to oppose you, and as I 
have used your Majesty"'s authority with faithfulness, 
so I have avoided all height and ostentation in the ho- 
nour I have to represent your sacred person ; yet there 
was a great noise made on Friday because I adjourned 
the House at eight o'clock at night, after most part of 
the members were gone out or wearied, so that many 
had intreated I might adjourn that meeting, the matter 


being of the last consequence, and not ripe for any 
vote. There is a memorial of this matter sent to Mr. 
Nairne to be laid before your Majesty, with the opinion 
of your servants, that it is your Majesty's undoubted 
prerogative to adjourn, which is done by your Com- 
missioner every day, and that I have not exceeded the 
ordinary course, nor transgressed any law, and that 
there is no occasion for any clamour, but only a fixed 
resolution to break up this Parliament, in which too 
many concur ; but that being a matter of so ill conse- 
quence, it shall be struggled against with all the pa- 
tience and appUcation in the power of, 
Your Majesty's most dutyful, 

most humble, and most obedient 
subject and servant, 


July the 18 1'. 1703. 


TlieDuke ofQueensberry to Queen Anne; again upon 
the Act of Security. A Plot to overturn the Govern- 
ment discovered. 

[from the Or%'. draft indorsed in the duke's HAND-WRITINe, 

" Copy of my Letter to the Q» August ll"-. 1703."J 

*^* This and the succeeding Letter from the Duke of Queensberry to 
Queen Anne, occasioned no slight commotion in England. The Reader 


who would acquaint himself with the general particulars of the Plot which 
the Duke discovered to the Queen, may consult Bishop Burnet's History 
of his own Time," Boyer's Life of Queen Anne, *> SmoUet's History," 
and the Journals of the House of Lords ; •' where as much as was suffered 
to be known of its detection may be found. 

The gentleman of " quality and integrity" mentioned by the Duke of 
Queensberry, by whom the Secret was disclosed, was Simon Fraser Lord 
Lovat, a man of desperate enterprize and abandoned morals, who, it is 
but right to say, had been outlawed for having ravished the Marquess of 
AthoPs sister, and who at last expiated this and all his crimes upon the 
scaffold in I747. 

That there were two sides to the Story is certain. Ferguson, an expe- 
rienced plotter, who had been known in the Duke of Monmouth's rebel- 
lion, asserted that the only secret design which existed at this time among 
the Jacobites was to make the Queen receive such terms as Henry the 
Second had agreed upon with Stephen, to reign during her life, and then 
to be succeeded by her brother. The rest, he said, was framed by the 
Duke of Queensberry, to decoy some of the Scottish Lords, who would 
not go every length which he went, into guilt. Burnet, to a certain extent, 
corroborates this by'his own testimony, as far as the Marquess of Athol 
is concerned. He says, " When I heard this, I could not but remember 
" what the Duke of Athol had said to myself, soon after the Queen's 
" coming to the Crown : I said, I hoped none in Scotland thought of the 
" Prince of Wales : he answered, he knew none that thought of him as 
" long as the Queen lived : I replied, that if any thought of him after 
" that, I was sure the Queen would live no longer than till they thought 
" their designs for him were well laid : but he seemed to have no appre- 
" hensions of that. I presently told the Queen of this, without naming 
*' the person, and she answered me very quick, there was no manner of 
*' doubt of that : but though I could not but reflect often on that dis- 
" course, yet since it was said to me in confidence, I never spoke of it to 
*' any one person during all the Inquiry that was now on foot : but I 
" think it too material not to set it down here." 

Burnet says, the Letter which the Duke of Queensberry sent, with the 
seal unbroken, to the Queen, in the hand of the Queen Dowager, was 
written in such general terms, that it might have been directed to any of 
the great nobility ; and probably he who was trusted with it, had power 
given him to direct it to any to whom he found it would be most accepta- 

» Edit. Oxf. 1828. vol. V. pp. 95, 128. 

'' Hist, of the Reign of Qu. Anne diRcslctl into Annals, Vear the Second. 8". 1T04. 
p. 244. 

•^ Edit.. 12". 1794. vol. ii. p. 213. 

* Journals of the House of Lords, vol. vil. 


ble s for there was nothing in the Letter that was particular to any one 
person or family ; it only mentioned the promises and assurances sent to 
her by that Lord. It was directed on the back by another hand, sup- 
posed Eraser's, to L. M. The Duke of Queensberry's Letter is dated 
August 1 1'h. 1703. Lord Murray had succeeded his father as IMarquess 
of Athol on the 7">, of May preceding : and on the SO"-, of July he had 
been advanced to the dignity of Duke of Athol. 

This Plot, added to general clamour, for a short time deprived the 
Duke of Queensberry of all his Offices except that of Lord of Session. 

May it please your Majesty, 

I HAVE sent full accounts to Mr. Nairne of the pro- 
ceedings of your Parliament, to lay before your Ma- 
jesty, and am very sorry that I am never able to give 
your Majesty better news from it. 

It is very uneasy to me, and cannot be pleasant to 
your Majesty, that I always complain of your own ser- 
vants, and especially my Lord Privy Seal, who leaves 
me, and concurs in almost all the humorous votes 
which tend to jealousies and division betwixt your two 
Kingdoms. We have had two votes lately, in which I 
presume your Majesty would have expected that I 
should have had the concurrence of those whom you are 
pleased to trust in your service. The first was, whether 
the Officers of State should be left out of that Parlia- 
ment, or meeting of Estates, which (long be it hence) 
should name the successor; and though it was fully 
and well argued, that they were essential Members of 
the Parliament, yet I could not prevail with my Lord 

OllItilNAL LETTERS. 233 

Privy Seal to vote for us : and next, this day a clause 
was brought in, ordaining the Kingdom to buy arms, 
and that the whole fencible men should be trained and 
exercised in arms, and the reason for this was very 
fairly given, that because what was done would cer- 
tainly oflPend England ; and therefore that this King- 
dom ought to be put into a posture of defence. It was 
as fairly argued by us, that to give an order or law for 
arming was both unseasonable, and undutiful to do any 
such thing during your Majesty''s reign, which might 
embroil business with England, and encourage the 
common enemy abroad ; yet in this I could not prevail 
with my Lord Privy Seal to give us his vote ; and some 
others of your Majesty's servants made a very cold 
appearance ; and it is hard that, though the plurality 
of the Parhament are very well inclined to your Ma- 
jesty's service, yet by the fault of ourselves (for I dare 
presume to say no worse) we are almost outdone in 
every thing. Yet I still hope, in what concerns your 
Majesty, your servants will not encourage any en- 
croachments to be made upon your prerogative ; and 
that they will concur to obtain the less at last ; but for 
the invasions that are to be made upon the Successor, 
though I have struggled all I can in every point, yet 
these will be crowded into this Act of Security, which 
was brought in by my Lord Privy Seal against my 
will, which I think will now be finished in a day or 
two. I shall send it to your Majesty, that you may 


consider whether you will allow it to be touched, 
though I am afraid that I shall not be able to hinder 
them to tack it to the Supply Act. 

I presumed lately to acquaint your Majesty that I 
had seen some letters from a Gentleman come from 
France, in which he spoke with some assurance of 
overturning the Government here. Since that time, 
those who received the letters asked liberty from me 
to meet with that (Gentleman, that they might try if 
they could learn any thing that might be useful to 
your Majesty's service, which I yielded to, and one 
of them had a long conference with him, of which I 
have given your Majesty an account in a memorial 
herewith transmitted, and I beg of your Majesty, that 
it may be kept as secret, and made known to as few, 
as may be. I am not yet allowed to name the persons, 
but if your Majesty commands me I must obey. 

God knows whether the story be true or false, but 
my author is a man of that quality and integrity that 
I dare assure your Majesty there is neither mistake 
nor trick on his part ; and this I must say further, that 
there are several points related in the Memorial, that 
are otherwise confirmed, for I have seen a letter to 
Brigadier Maitland from one of his officers, wherein 
he tells him that he had intelligence of a Highland 
hunting, where six hundred of the best of the Laird 
of Grant''s men were to be in arms, and the Duke of 
Hamilton, and the Marquis of Athol were to be there ; 


this letter I have sent to Mr. Nairne. Major General 
Buchan acknowledges that one Mackenzie was put 
into the Bastile before he came away, besides the total 
desertion of all the cavaliers, except my Lords Balcar- 
ras, Wigton, and Dunmore, at that instant when these 
last orders came from France, and their joining in all 
things contrary to the prerogative of the Crown, with 
the vote this day of arming of the Country, do mightily 
instruct this declaration ; and it agrees pretty well with 
the advertisement Mr. Stanhope had about money to 
be sent hither ; but whatever is in the matter, I thought 
it my duty to represent it to your Majesty. 

I must beg leave to know from your Majesty, if that 
person shall apply to me, and be willing to own what 
he has said, how I shall use him. It is strange enough 
that in his circumstances he should have said so much, 
and it can hardly be expected that he will forfeit 
what he may expect from France, without getting some 
terms from your Majesty. 

I apprehended, at first, that any opposition I met 
with here, was no further intended than to force them- 
selves into places, and though I value the honour of 
being in your Majesty's favour and service at the 
highest rate, yet when I considered that the conse- 
quences would only be as to me, and that it would be 
of less importance to your Majesty, who served you, 
I had far more ease in my mind. But now that I have 
too great ground to apprehend this opposition is sup- 


ported in order to attack or shake your Majesty *s 
Government, I shall be ready to expose my life and 
fortune in your service, and though I may not be suc- 
cessful in the trust with which your Majesty has ho- 
noured me here, yet I dare say, that I shall be found 
faithful, and that the failure has not been on my part, 
but for the want of assistance from your Majesty's 
other servants ; and at the worst I hope nothing shall 
be carried that concerns your Majesty immediately ; 
and a supply for some years may put your Majesty in 
condition to retrieve what was not to be hindered by. 

Your Majesty's most dutiful, most humble, 
and most obedient subject and servant. 
Holy rood House, 
August the ll'i'. 1703. 


Tlie Duke of Queensherry to the Queen, upon the 
Rising of the Parliament. Again upon the sup- 
posed Plot. 

[from the draft indorsed in the duke's hand-writing, 
" Copy of my Letter to the Q» Sep\ the 25'"'. 1703."] 

May it please your Majesty, 
I STAY here some days, that I may receive any 


orders your Majesty may be pleased to give, after the 
rising of the Parliament is known, which I expect may 
be on Sunday or Monday next, and I shall be ready 
to set out next morning. In the mean time I have 
endeavoured to confirm such members as have served 
your Majesty in the Parliament, and engage them to 
return in the same sentiments, and I found many so 
well satisfied with the touching of the Acts, that they 
were frank to have given the Sessions at the 12th of 
October, and so well pleased to see that your Majesty 
keeps matters on the foot of the Revolution, that I am 
sensible we should have been stronger in the Parlia- 
ment in October than perhaps we can be thereafter; 
and I was once resolved to have asked your Majesty's 
allowance for the Parliament to sit at, or about, the 
time to which it is adjourned, but I was afraid that 
your Majesty's other servants would not concur with 
me; and I find that many of them are resolved to go to 
Court, and give out that they have invitations to at- 
tend your Majesty, which made me forbear to insist 
for the Parliament's sitting two or three weeks in 

The President of the Session could not be well 
absent from the Session here, and my Lord Regis- 
ter's health did not allow him to travel. So I have 
with much difficulty prevailed with my Lord Stair 
tg come along with me, because he knew all my 


management and the proceedings of Parliament, in 
which he served your Majesty very heartily and 

I am glad to observe that there is a great calm at 
present here ; one sort of people are pleased, and the 
other have got no irritation, and they content them- 
selves that the Session was not obtained. 

I have seen that person of whom I formerly made 
mention to your Majesty ; he confirms all that he had 
said to these persons who had dealt betwixt us, and adds 
many things more; he says he was let into all the secrets 
of the correspondence of Scotsmen with St. Germains, 
and tells plainly that very many do correspond there. I 
am bound to tell your Majesty (though I ought not to 
believe him) that he says, he saw a letter last winter, 
written by my Lord Tarbat to my Lord Middleton, 
bearing that he was made Secretary of State, and that 
in a short time the Duke of Queensberry was to be 
shifted out, so as he was to be sole Secretary, and 
would have all the management of Scots business in 
his hands, that to secure their friends there would be 
a General Indemnity past, and the North country and 
Highlands would be made all of a piece; that the Duke 
of Queensberry had received five thousand pounds from 
the family of Hanover; that my Lord Middleton said, 
he knew the Duke of Hamilton was capable to be 
bribed, but did not believe the Duke of Queensberry 


would have taken money ; he declares that Mr. Ogilvie 
of Boyn had frequent correspondence, which he begun 
when he went over to France, about his marble (yet I 
must do this gentleman the right to tell your Majesty 
that he did behave himself fairly in the Parliament, 
and there was none of the Gentlemen who call them- 
selves Cavaliers that did keep their words so well to 
me as he did); he declares that there were three letters 
written by the late Queen at St. Germains, whereof 
one was directed to the Duke of Hamilton as Earl of 
Arran, which was delivered by one Captain James 
Murray, the other was committed to the person him- 
self to deliver to the Duke of Gordon, which he actually 
did before he had entered into any correspondence with 
me, and the third was directed to the Lord Murray 
now Marquis of Athol, which was not delivered when 
he began this correspondence, and that he found the 
way to be master of that letter before it was delivered, 
which he gave to me, and I have transmitted to your 
Majesty, without breaking the seal, which is clear the 
effigies of the King, your Majesty's father. This per- 
son is willing to come to London, and to give what 
accounts he knows, providing he may do it secretly, 
and he offers to return to France, and discover all the 
correspondence and designs, but says that if he fall 
under observation, or that he be discovered, he runs 
the risk to be broke on the wheel ; he says what money 


is transmitted yet from France, is only for the use of 
some particular persons, and that it comes by bills to 
London, and brought hither in specie. 

I confess it is hard to think how one should know, 
or be ready to reveal so much, yet the delivering of 
that principal letter, and the showing his own com- 
mission under the hand and seal of the Prince of 
Wales, as King James the Eighth and Third, which 
he says was the first paper sealed with his new Seal, 
these do give credit to what else could not have been 
so well trusted ; and he says that he has a commission 
as Major General from the French King which lies 
there, that it might give no offence, till once the forces 
designed were raised. I thought it necessary to enter- 
tain him with some money till your Majesty do signify 
your further pleasure about him. 

The Marquis of Athol's great failing in the Parlia- 
ment, with this letter, made me once very doubtful 
whether I should give him out his patent as Duke, 
which your Majesty had commanded to be done ; but 
the regard I have punctually to obey all your Majesty's 
commands determined me to give it out, and now many 
who were witnesses of his actings in Parliament, and 
who know that he stands upon a Jacobite foot, are 
mightily scandalized that he finds the first effects of 
your Majesty's great favour after the Parliament, and 
this I am afraid may discourage them, who have 


acted a contrary part for your Majesty's service 
in it. 

Having hopes shortly to attend your Majesty, I shall 
at present offer no more trouble from, 

Your Majesty's most dutiful, most faithful, 
and most obedient subject and servant. 

Holyrood House, 
Sept. the 25th. 1703. 


Dr. D'Avenant to his Son, after the News of the Bat- 
tle of Hochstet, otherwise called the Battle ofBlein- 
heim, had arrived in London. 

[M8. lamsd. 773. foL 61. Orig.} 

*^* Charles D'Avenant LL.D. was the eldest son of Sir William 
D'Avenant the poet. An Account of him will be found in the Biogra> 
phia Britannica. His works, as a political writer, are well known. 
Henry D'Avenant his son became the English Agent at Frankfort. 

Aug. 15ti'. 1704. 
I HAVE in effect five of yours to answer, viz. the 
four that came together, and the fifth which arrived 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. R 


on last Sunday night, but before that Mail arrived,-! 
had seen Colonel Parks, who with other good news 
brought me that of your being in perfect health. He 
got hither by Thursday the 10*. instant at two o'clock 
afternoon, notwithstanding he was kept two days and 
a half at sea by contrary winds, and landed 120 miles 
from London, so that the haste he made was very com- 
mendable, and I hope it has made his fortune. The 
Queen told him he had given her more joy than ever she 
had received in her life, and that very soon she would 
make him glad. The Duchess of Marlborough and 
my Lord Treasurer bid him be careful of his person, 
and that they would take care of his fortune. When 
he arrived there was a general damp upon the spirit 
of all those who understood business ; the Wednesday 
Mails gave us an account of the junction, and we be- 
gan to apprehend that the French and Bavarians were 
superior in Germany, or that at best the Duke would 
be able to do no more than to form some Siege, which 
as to the sum of affairs would have been of no import- 
ance, and 'tis visible enough what would have been the 
ejffects of a fruitless campaign. They who malign the 
Government, that is to say the high-flyers of both sides, 
would have triumphed beyond measure, taxes must 
have been augmented, and yet if nothing had been 
done the Queen's affairs would have gone on very 
heavily next Session of Pailiament, the Ministers 
would certainly have been attacked, as it generally 


happens in our government when the state labours 
under misfortunes or disappointments ; but, God be 
thanked, this is now all over, and I take the Queen's 
throne to be now securely fixed, and that her ministers 
are upon a foundation which nothing can shake. With- 
out this victory there are those who have malice enough 
perhaps to have accused the Duke of Marlborough for 
his march to the Danube, though 'tis evident nothing 
else could have saved the Empire from utter ruin. The 
Victory was so complete, and the whole action con- 
ducted with such wisdom, that there is no room left for 
envy or malice to detract from the Duke's honour. I 
look upon it as the greatest battle that has been fought 
for these last thousand years, considering that the 
flower of all Europe was at once engaged ; the battle 
of Pavia was in no degree so considerable, and yet the 
consequences of it lodged the power of Europe for a 
whole age in the hands of Spain. 'Tis such a blow to 
France that I am confident they will not recover it in 
many years, nor can I remember to have read in History 
of any country that did ever heal after it had received 
so deep a wound ; I mean under a monarchy. As 
Comenes says, " Perte de battaile a grande Que," 
which he said upon the battle the Duke of Burgundy 
lost by Nancy, by which the fate of that great Princi- 
pality was determined ; and upon the same ground we 
may hope that the blow France has received on the 
Danube will, however, for one age put a stop to the 

R 2 


designs they have been forming for Universal Empire. 
I have this post congratulated with the Duke of Marl- 
borough for his victory. Enclosed you have a copy 
of my letter. 

About three weeks ago Count Brian^on delivered 
me the medal from Princess Sophia, and I had pre- 
pared a very elaborate letter to Her Royal Highness, 
the design of which was to prepare her for the disap- 
pointment I have foreseen for some time she would 
receive as to the succession in Scotland ; indeed I did 
not think that matter would have been so soon deter- 
mined, but it seems they began the Parliament with it. 
They have granted the Queen a six months' tax, and 
she has passed their Security Act, whereby the Crown- 
Prerogative is very much diminished, and they have 
got their ends with the Queen's obtaining hers. How- 
ever, I am of opinion 'twas the wisest course Her Ma- 
jesty could take, for she has thereby reconciled to 
herself all those who opposed the Court upon any 
principle of the public good; for, having whatever they 
could in reason or justice desire, they who shall form 
Oppositions hereafter will be thought to be bribed by 
France, which upon this Victory will be but a cold 
game. Upon the whole matter I hope the Queen's 
hands are now so strengthened, and her enemies botli 
abroad and at home are so dispirited, that she will be 
able to obtain in any part of her dominion whatever 
fihe conceives to tend to the general welfare of her 


people, so that I believe in a little time the Succession 
will be settled, especially if England next Session of 
Parliament shows itself inclined to enter upon an 
Union, and to grant the Scots a free communication 
of our Trade, which I have ever thought just, and 
without which I am apt to think they will never ac- 
knowledge our Successor, unless by force we compel 
them to do it, 

I thank you for the copy of your letter to Mr. Har- 
ley : there was nothing in it against which there could 
be a reasonable objection, nor did your last to me con- 
tain any more melancholy reflections than the Duke 
himself made to my Lord Treasurer ; however, consi- 
dering the ^ood News which got hither before your 
last despatch, I am glad you were so fortunate as not 
to communicate your politics to Mr. Secretary. 

I desire you to look out sharp whether or no there is 
any likelihood of the Duke of Bavaria's entering into 
the Alliance before Christmas ; we think here he will be 
reduced to it, and that the Confederates will still give 
him terms. Sir Stephen Evans and I in partnership 
have laid two hundred guineas upon it ; if you believe 
him obstinate, or the thing impracticable, advise me 
of it, for I can edge it off, and with advantage. Your 
mother and grandmother send you their blessings, and 
sisters their love. I am 

Your most affectionate father, 




Prince George of Hanover , afterwards King George II., 
to Queen Anne, upon Ids 7'eceiving the Order of the 



J'ai regu avec une parfaite reconnoisance la Lettre 
dont il a plus a votre Majeste de charger Mr. le Baron 
de Halifax. Je suis penetre de la marque de distinc- 
tion dont elle a bien voulu m'honorer en me donnant 
rOrdre de la Jarretiere. Je supplie votre Majeste 
d'etre persuadee que je ne desire rien plus ardemment 
que de faire voir par mes actions que je ne suis pas 
indigne d'entrer dans un si illustre corps. My Lord 
Halifax n'a pas manque de me donner les assurances 
les plus obligeantes des sentimens pleins de bonte de 
votre Majeste a mon 6gard. Je me flatte qu'ii son 
retour en Angleterre il luy fera fidele rapport de mon 


parfait devouement pour elle, et du profond respect 
avec lequel je serai toute ma vie, 

de votre Majeste le tres humble 

et tres obeissant serviteur, 


Hannover, cc 20 , 
Juin, 1706. 

A sa Majesty 

La Reine de la Grand Bretagne. 


Prince George of Hanover to Queen Anne, upon re- 
ceiving his Patent as Duke of Cambridge. Com- 
plimentaiy upon the Union with Scotland, 

[ms. donat. bhit. mus. 4903. art. 25. Orig. entirely in the 
prince's hand-writing.] 

Mr. How n'a pas manque de me remettre la Lettre 
dont votre Majest6 m'a honor6 avec les patentes de 
Du*c de Cambridge, qu'elle a eu la bonte de m'accorder. 
Je la supplie tres humblement d'etre persuad^e que 
j'ai recu Tune et Tautrfi avec une extreme reconnois- 
sancc, et qu'on ne peut pas faire plus de cas que j'en 


fais de cette dignite, ny ^tre plus penetre que je le suis 
de la maniere obligeante dont votre Majeste me Ta 
conferee. Je tacherai d'y repondre par le plus parfait 
devouement, et par les sentimens les plus zelez et les 
plus respectueux. Je me flatte, que votre Majeste ne 
trouvera pas mauvais si je me sers d'une occasion si 
favorable pour lui tdmoigner la part que je prends au 
grand ouvrage qu'elle vient d'acheuer en donnant la 
derniere main -k TUnion des deux Royaumes. Cest 
un endroit si glorieux de son Regne, que qiioi qu'il 
n''ait 6te qu'une suite continuelle de merveilles et de 
grands 6venemens, il semble que celuicy fut necessaire 
pour mettre dans tout son jour le soin infatigable avec 
lequel votre Majeste s'aplique a aiFermir sur des fonde- 
mens inebranlables le bonheur de ses sujets. Je suis 
avec un tres profond respect, 

de votre Majeste, le tres humble 

et tres obeissant serviteur, 


Hannover, ce 8 Avril, 

A sa Majeste 

La Reyne de la Grand Bretagne. 



Lord Sunderland to the Duke of Newcastle. Proposes 
to make a stand in Parliament, or the Prince of 
Wales will be brought in. 

[MS, LANSD. 1236. fol. 236. Orig.^ 

Althorp, Aug. 9"'. 1708. 
My Lord, 
I BELIEVE Lord Sommers and Lord Halifax have 
acqumnted your Grace with the unlucky accidents 
that have prevented our waiting you at Welbeck ; 
however I should have done myself the honour to have 
gone alone, but that, since my coming here, I have had 
the ill luck to sprain ray foot, which has put me to a 
gi'eat deal of pain and trouble, but is now something 
easier. I own I am extremely concerned at this dis- 
appointment, for besides the pleasure of waiting upon 
your Grace, it would have been of use to have talked 
together of the present posture of our affairs, which 
though they are very fortunately and unexpectedly 
mended abroad, by our success in Flanders and in the 
West Indies, yet seem to grow worse and worse every 
day at home ; for without running over all the particu- 
lars, such as the villainous management of Scotland, 


the state of the Fleet, which is worse than ever, the 
condition of Ireland in which the Protestant interest 
is lower and the Popish higher than ever, their late 
management in relation to the Invasion, and in parti- 
cular the pardoning Lord Griffin, is a declaration to 
the whole world, as far as in them lies, for the Prince 
of Wales and against the Protestant succession. These 
are such proceedings, that, if there is not a just spirit 
shewn in Parliament, we had as good give up the 
game and submit to my Lord Treasurer and Lord 
Marlborough's bringing in the Prince of Wales. 

My reason of troubling your Grace with all this is to 
conjure you not to defer coming to town too long, till 
just the Parliament meets ; for whatever is proper to 
be done must be concerted beforehand, and that cannot 
be done without your presence and influence. I know 
you are very averse to coming to town before your 
time, but three weeks or a month sooner or later I hope 
will break no squares, and it is so absolutely necessary, 
that it is the joint request of your friends and humble 
servants; and indeed our all is at stake; for if next 
Sessions of Parliament does not redress the mischiefs, 
there's an end of the Revolution and the Protestant 

I have obeyed your commands in relation to Mr. 
Rayner ; as for Mr. Attwood, several merchants of the 
•other side have lodged a Petition against him, so that 
he has desired to have the matter put off till more of his 


friends are in Town. Your Grace may depend upon 
my doing him all the service I can. 

I hope your Grace has your health well in the 
country, and beg you to believe that I am with the 
greatest truth and respect, 

My Lord, 
Your Grace''s most obedient humble servant, 



Lord Sunderland to the Duke of Newcastle. The 

Resolution of certain Peers to declare against the 

Court. The Removal of Prince George of Den- 

marJi from his Office of Lord High Admiral pro- 


[MS. LANSD. 1236. fol. 238. Orxg.l 

My Lord, 
I GIVE your Grace this trouble at the desire of the 
Dnke of Devonshire, the Duke of Bolton, Lord Dor- 
chester, Lord Orford, Lord Wharton, Lord Towns- 
hend. Lord Sommers, and Lord Halifax, to give you 
an account of what has passed between them and Lord 
Treasurer in relation to the present posture of our 


affairs, in which they hope what steps they have made 
will meet with your approbation. They have upon 
the best consideration among themselves come to this 
resolution and opinion, that it was impossible for them, 
with any reputation to themselves or safety to the 
public, to go on any longer with the Court, upon the 
foot things are at present ; for that if one looks round 
every part of the Administration, the management of 
the Fleet, the condition of Ireland, the Proceedings in 
Scotland, the management of the late Invasion, the 
disposal of Church Preferments, &c. they are all of a 
piece, as much tory, and as wrong as if Lord Rochester 
and Lord Nottingham were at the head of every thing, 
under the disguise of some considerable Whigs in 
some considerable places, but with so little credit, or 
to so little purpose, that they can neither obtain any 
right thing to be done, nor prevent any wrong one. 
They considered that the management of the fleet, as 
it is of the greatest consequence, so it is under the most 
scandalous management of all, and that this is never to 
be cured but by the Prince's quitting; for that what- 
ever Council he has, George Churchill will in effect be 
always Lord High Admiral; so that they have in a 
body declared to Lord Treasurer, that if this is not 
immediately done, they must let the world and their 
friends see they have nothing more to do with the 
Court. The man they propose to be Lord High 
Admiral is Lord Pembroke (which would open a re- 



dress for Ireland, and, what is so much desired by all 
honest people, the President's place for Lord Sommers). 
My Lord Treasurer seemed to agree with them in 
opinion, (as his way always is in words,) but at the 
same time pretends great difficulties, and that when 
Lord Marlborough comes all will be set right, which 
by the way cannot be much before Christmas. To this 
the Lords told him that they could no longer rely upon 
promises and words, and that therefore they must take 
their measures, till this thing was actually done, as if 
it never was to be done ; and they told him therefore 
plainly that they would and must oppose the Court in 
the choice of a Speaker, that being the first point to 
come on, for that they had no other way left to let the 
world see, and all their friends, that they were upon a 
different foot to this. He was pleased to make a pro- 
posal, which was as ridiculous as it shewed the uncer- 
tainty of their intentions to do any thing that was right, 
and that was that there should be an Act of Parliament 
obtained to allow the Prince to continue Lord High 
Admiral, and to empower his Council to act for him. 
It would be tedious to repeat all the objections the 
Lords made to this proposal, as absurd, ridiculous, 
and ineffectual, and what no Parliament ever would 
hear of : I will only mention one particular, which is 
very remarkable and pretty extraordinary, that Lord 
Treasurer told them that he had mentioned this pro- 
posal to Lord Chancellor, and that he had entirely 


approved of it : Lord Chancellor since has been told 
what Lord Treasurer said, and he does positively affirm 
that he does not remember that ever Lord Treasurer 
spoke to him, or he to Lord Treasurer of any such pro- 
posal. This extraordinary proceeding has been a further 
confirmation to the I^ords of the reason they have to 
declare against the Court, which they are resolved to 
do in this first point of the Speaker, by setting up Sir 
Peter King ; and I am confident when the Court see 
this, that the Whigs will no longer be fooled ; they will 
then do all reasonable things, which they will never 
do whilst they hope that words and promises will pass. 
I must not forget telling you that this day, unex- 
pectedly, without any body knowing any thing of it, 
Sir James Mountague has been made Attorney Ge- 
neral and Mr. Eyres Solicitor, which, I believe, has 
been owing to the vigour with which those Lords spoke 
to Lord Treasurer, and confirms them in their opinion 
that if they go on in their resolution and stand toge- 
ther, the other more essential things will be also done. 
My Lord Steward, to-morrow, is to speak to Lord 
Chancellor to acquaint him with die resolutions they 
have taken, and to try to persuade him to act, with 
spirit and vigour, with the rest of his friends. 

I beg a thousand pardons for this long long Letter, 
but as I have been forced to omit a great many par- 
ticulars for fear of being too tedious, so I was very 
desirous myself, as well as at the command of these 


Lords, to explain this whole affair to your Grace as 
well as I could, hoping you will approve of what they 
have done ; for, in our present condition, all depends 
upon our acting of a piece and in concert ; and, if we 
do so, we must carry our point, and save our Country, 
which I think is in as great danger as ever I knew. 
I must add the request of all these Lords to your 
Grace, that you would let them have your company 
and assistance here in town as soon as may be. 
I am ever, with the greatest respect, 
My Lord, 

Your Grace's most obedient 
humble servant, 



Dr. WIdte JCennett, afterxvards Bishop of Peterborough, 

[ms. lansd. 825. fol. 7. Orlg.\ 

Dear Sir, 
On Thursday night I was pressed away by com- 
mand into service here the next mornnig, for want of 
ordinary Chaplains, which I wish it were in my power 
to supply, that you might see the duties of Waiting. 


I was under the sad apprehension of being hurried 
away to Newmarket, but her Majesty, resisting the 
advice of her physicians, was pleased yesterday to 
comply with a motion of the Prince, and declared her 
resolution of not going this season, which I see is a 
great joy to most of the good Courtiers, and gave the 
Ladies a new lesson, that she who governs the Nation 
can govern herself so well, as always to oblige her 

Dr. Atterbury preached the election Sermon Mich. 
Day for the Lord Mayor, correcting Mr. Hoadley 
for Sedition, and carrying up the old doctrines of 
Obed. so very high, that a majority of the Aldermen 
were much offended, and put a negative upon the mo- 
tion for printing his Sermon. 

We have yet no certain advices of taking Lisle, but 

we seem very much to depend upon it, and upon a 

happy end of the Campaign in every part of Europe ; 

-which I pray God grant. Due respects to you and 


Your affectionate kinsman, 


Octob. 2, 1708. 



The Earl of Sunderland to the DuTce of Newcastle. 
The Death of Prince George of Denmark. Official 

[ms. LANSD. 1236. foL 244. Orig.] 

London, Nov. 4'»\ 1708. 
My Lord, 
Since I wrote last to your Grace, and had the ho- 
nour of your answer, the death of the Prince has made 
so great an alteration in every thing, and particularly 
in what was most at every body's heart, the affair of 
the Admiralty, that as soon as it happened, those of 
our friends of the House of Commons that were in 
Town, and that were the most zealous with us in setting 
up Sir Peter King, begun to press us to accommodate 
the matter and not to make division, since by this ac- 
cident there was room to have every thing set right ; 
since that, my Lord Treasurer has acquainted us that 
the Queen had agreed to make Lord Pembroke Lord 
High Admiral, Lord Sommers President, and Lord 
Wharton Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Lord Sommers 
is out of Town, so that whether he will be persuaded 
to accept of it, or no, I cannot tell ; but he would be 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. s 


SO much in the wrong if he should not, that I won't 
doubt but he will. These Proposals are so great in 
themselves towards putting things upon a thorough 
right foot, that those Lords in whose names I wrote 
last to your Grace have desired me to acquaint you 
with it, and that their thoughts upon it are, that since 
these main things are like to be done, it would by no 
means be right to venture a division of our friends 
upon the first point of the Speaker, and therefore they 
have already spoke with Sir Peter King, in order to 
endeavour to make him easy in it ; so that if your 
Grace is of the same mind, and approves what they 
have done, you will please to let your friends of the 
House of Commons know it in the manner you shall 
judge properest. We are in expectation of seeing you 
here every day. However, these Lords directed me 
to acquaint you with it as soon as possible. I am ever, 
with the greatest truth and respect. 
My Lord, 
Your Grace's most obedient 
. . / . . humble servant, 




The Duke ofMailborough to The 

dismal aspect of affairs. 

[ms. sloak. 1407. fol. 104.] 

Aug. the 18th. 1710. 


Poor Mr. Cardonnel being sick, I must ask your 
pardon for writing in English : but I would not defer 
any longer returning you my thanks for your obliging 
Letter of the 5'^. and assuring you at the same time 
the satisfaction I take in the good choice the ElectcM* 
has made of Mons''. de Bothmer. Our conjuncture in 
England is so very extraordinary, that it will require 
not only his diligence but also his utmost prudence. 
I pray God every thing may end for the best ; but our 
dismal aspect seems rather favourable for France than 
for ourselves. 

I am with truth. 
Your faithful friend and servant, 





Robert Harley, Esq. to the Elector of Hanover. His 

devotion to the Elector's Person and Serene House. 

[MS. SLOAK. 4107. fol. 106.] 

*,* The Reader is now presented with a few Letters which show the 
manner in which the British Statesmen, when they thought the reign of 
Anne seemed drawing to its close, approached the heirs expectant The 
Princess Sophia was advanced in years. Their chief homage was to the 
Electoral Prince. 

Queen Anne's aversion to the presence of a Prince of the House of 
Hanover at her Court, wUl be seen in some other Letters. It probably 
was not the mere presence of a successor that was so hatefuL The 
Elector of Hanover, when Prince, in 1680, had expressly arrived on the 
shores of England as a suitor to the Queen, then the Lady Anne, but 
had quitted them to marry the Princess Sophia Dorothea of Zell. Anne 
too, in spite of the Protestant Succession, had moments of thought, if not 
of pity for her brother. 

May it please your Highness, 
I DO myself the honour to make this tender of my 
most humble duty to your Electoral Highness by the 
hands of Mrs. Cresset, who being my relation, and 
her affairs calling her into Germany, I was not willing 
to let her go without putting in your Highness's hands 
this testimony of my devotion to your Electoral High- 
ness''s person and your Serene House. I have hitherto 
chose, that this should appear rather by my actions 
than by bare words. But since the Queen has done 
me. the honour to bring me again into her service, I 
could not be a faithful or acceptable servant to her 



Majesty without studying to serve your Highness's 

I do not presume to give your Electoral Highness 
any account of the late changes here. I doubt not but 
that Earl Rivers has laid before you the grounds which 
necessitated the Queen to do what she has done ; which 
has also given the greater and better part of the Nation 
an opportunity to express their duty to your most 
Serene House. 

I have taken the liberty to write this in English, 
because I know your Electoral Highness has an En- 
glish heart ; that you may be assured it comes from 
a heart entirely devoted to your service. 
I am, with the profoundest duty, 

may it please your Highness, 
Your Electoral Highness's most dutiful, 
most humble, and most obedient servant, 


London, Novemb. Vt* I'TIO. 


The Elector's Answer to Mr. Harley. 

[MS. LANSD. 1236. foL 263. Orig.\ 

Hannover le 15T)ec. 1710. 

Madame Cresset m'a rendu la Lettre que vous 


avez pris la peine de m'ecrire. J'ay re9U avec beau- 
coup de plaisir les assurances qu'*elle contient de vostre 
attachement aux interets de ma Maison, et c'est avec 
beaucoup de joye que j'aprens que la Reyne honore de 
sa confiance un Ministre qui connoist si parfaitement 
les veritables interets de la Grand Bretagne, et qui a 
toujours marque tant de zele pour sa Patrie. 

Comme rien ne m'est plus precieux que cette bien- 
veillance dont sa Majeste m'a donne tant de marques, 
vous ne scauriez m'obliger plus sensiblement qu'en 
contribuant a me la conserver. Je la cultiveray de 
mon coste avec tout le soin imaginable, et je seray tou- 
jours fort aise de vous faire voir la consideration que 
j'ay pour vostre personne, et la sincerite avec laquelle 
je suis. 


Vostre tres affectionne, 


Mr. Robert Harlay. 


Robert Harley, Esq. to the Elector of Hmiovery in 
return to his Highness''s Answer. 

[MS. DONAT. 4107. art. 122.] 

May it please your Highness, 
I RECEIVED the great honour of your Electoral 



Highness's Letter of December 15th, with that pro- 
found respect and thankfulness which is due to so 
obliging a mark of your condescension and goodness. 
I beseech your Highness to accept the assurance of 
my utmost fidelity and inviolable attachment to the 
interest of your family, to which I am obliged, as well 
by duty to the Queen as by the common good of my 
Country. The Queen takes all occasions to express the 
great esteem she has for your Highness, and concern 
for your interest; and, as a further instance of her 
Majesty's desire on all occasions to improve that good 
correspondence which is so necessary, the Queen com- 
mands me to communicate to your Electoral Highness 
a change she has been obliged to make in her Court, 
by removing the Duchess of Marlborough. Last 
night the Duke brought the gold key, the ensign of 
one of his wife''s places ; the Queen having indulged 
him his choice to bring it or have it sent for. This is 
so far from hindering the Duke from continuing in his 
post, that he seems resolved to accommodate himself 
to the Queen's pleasure, and go on in her service. 
The causes of this lady's disgrace have been so public, 
and of so many years'* continuance, that it will be need- 
less to*trouble your Electoral Highness on that head. 
The places will be speedily disposed, and the chiefest 
will fall to the share of the Duchess of Somerset. I 
shall think myself extremely happy, if any occasion 
shall be ever offered me to manifest the great vene- 


ration and duty wherewith I am, may it please your 
Electoral Highness, 

Your Highness"'s most humble, most 

dutiful, and most obedient servant, 

no. HARLEY. 



The Duke of Buckingham to the Elector of Hanover, 
Offers his humble and zealous service. 

[MS. DONAT. 4007. fol. 132.] 

Windsor, Oct. 9*''. 1711. 
Not having received the honour of any commands 
from your Electoral Highness by Mons^. Bothemar, 
I have hitherto restrained myself from repeating the 
Offers of that humble and zealous service which I am 
sure your Electoral Highness can have no possible 
cause to doubt of, after my constant endeavours to 
show it on all occasions. But this late transaction be- 
tween Britain and France, of which the Earl of Rivers 
is sent to give you exact information, has given occa- 
sion, not only for the Queen herself, but for her 
Ministers also to show their timely care and uttermost 


concern for the Succession in your illustrious line ; and 
having myself not only an affectionate zeal, but even 
a jealous regard to the things relating to that matter, 
I can with all assurance give your Electoral Highness 
the satisfaction of my being a witness that no part of 
those overtures was so much at the heart of every body 
employed about it, as that which indeed deserved it 
most, the Protestant Succession ; and therefore what- 
ever happy occasion I had, some few years ago, to be a 
little remarkable in my concern for her Royal High- 
ness your Mother, I could not at this time, with all my 
zeal, outdo the faithful service which every Lord in- 
trusted has shown in this Affair. The business of the 
Medal also in Scotland, if not immediately prosecuted 
through the remissness of some who have been dis- 
placed there for that failing, is now to be strictly 
punished, as I am sure it ought to have been at first. 
I had some particular reason not to put this Letter 
into the hands of my Lord Rivers, and hope you will 
pardon this liberty in 

Your Electoral Highness*'s most humble, 
and most obedient servant, 




Mr. Harley, viozv Earl of Oxford^ to the Elector of 
Hanover. The Queen^s care of the Elector'' s interest. 

[ms. donat. 4107. art. 129.] 

May it please your Highness, 
The Queen sending Earl Rivers to communicate to 
your Electoral Highness an affair of great consequence, 
I presume to desire leave at the same time to make 
your Highness a tender of my most humble duty. 
My Lord will give your Electoral Highness the detail 
of what has passed here with relation to a Peace, and 
the care her Majesty has taken in the first place of the 
interest of your Highness and your Family. This the 
Queen has done without any reciprocal obligation or 
promise from her Majesty to France, notwithstanding 
the great need we have of peace, and that the nation 
is exhausted ; yet the Queen would not act without 
the concurrence of all her Allies ; and therefore your 
Highness will observe that all steps taken here are 
but provisional : though it would have been no difficult 
matter to have adjusted the interest of the several 
Allies, but that the Queen was resolved to give none 
of them any cause of jealousy, but leave each State to 


make their own demands at the general Treaty, which 
the Queen proposes to be opened immediately. I did 
myself the honour to acquaint your Electoral Highness 
with the Queen's compliance to your desires of having 
some of your cavalry return this Winter for a parti- 
cular occasion ; and I shall ever esteem it the greatest 
felicity of my life when I have any opportunity to show 
the inviolable attachment and great veneration where- 
with I am, 

May it please your Electoral Highness, 
Your Highness's most dutiful, most 

humble, and most obedient servant, 


Oct. the ^, 1711. 


Tlie Princess Caroline, afterwards Queen of England, 
to Queen Anne, 

[ms. DONAT. BEIT. MU8. 4903. art. 47. Orig. ENTIBELY IX THE 

princess's hand.] 


J'ay re9eu avec un tres profond respect la Lettre 

done il a plus a votre Majeste de m'honnorer par le 

S'. Harlais, on ne peu estre plus reconnoissonte que je 

la suis, Madame, pour toute les graces que votre Ma- 


jeste m'y temoigne la, supliant tres humblement de me 
les conserver comme aunepersonnequienconnois plaine- 
ment le prys,et qui est avec une tres parfaite soumission, 

de votre Majeste 

La tres humble et 

tres obeissante servante, 


Hanw. le 29 Sep. 1712. 


Secretary Bromley to the Princess Sophia. 
[ms. donat. 4107. art. 136.] 

Since my Son goes with Mr. Harley to Hanover 
I beg your Highness will permit me to do myself the 
honour to assure you of my sincere and unfeigned 
regards for your interests and those of your Serene 
Family, on which the future happiness of my country 
depends. This opinion will always engage me to be, 
with the most profound respect. 
Your Highnesses most obedient and 
most humble servant, 


Whitehall, Feb. 12, 17i|. 



Tfie Earl of Oxford to Baron Wassenaur Duyven- 
worde. Against any branch of the Elector''s For- 
mily coming over without the Queen''s consent. 

[MS. SLOAN. 4107. fol. 161.] 

April 1^, 1714. 
Right Honourable, 

This last past I received the honour of your Letter 
of the 17th of April, for which be pleased to accept 
my most humble thanks. 

I send you this Letter by an express messenger, who 
is going to Mr. Harley with my Letters to Hanover ; 
and if you please, he will carry any thing you think 
fit to write. But that I may answer that openness, 
wherewith you so obligingly treat me, I do in the most 
solemn manner assure you, that next to the Queen, I 
am entirely and unalterably devoted to the interest of 
his Electoral Highness of Hanover. This is not only 
from the conscience of my oaths, but out of profound 
respect tb the Elector's great virtues. I may without 
vanity say, that I had the greatest hand in settling the 
succession. I have ever preserved the same opinion, 
and it is owing to the declarations the Queen has so 
often made in their favour that the generality of the 


people are come to be for that Serene House. I am 
sure that Lady Masham, the Queen's favourite, is en- 
tirely for their Succession. I am also sure that the 
Queen is so ; and you may do me the justice to assure 
his Electoral Highness, that I am ready to give him 
all the proofs of my attachment to his interests and to 
set in a true light the state of this Country ; for it will 
be very unfortunate for so great a Prince to be only 
Prince over a party, which can never last long in 
England ; and let me in confidence tell you, Sir, that 
there is but one thing can be any way of prejudice to 
the Succession in that family, and that is the endea- 
vour to bring them, or any of them, over without the 
Queen's consent. Two Courts in this Country have 
been so fatal, and the factions are so high, that it must 
be very mischievous both to the Queen and to that 
Serene House, to have any such thing enterprised, that 
may create a difference between the Queen and that 
family, that will change the dispute to the Crown and 
the Successor ; whereas now it is between the House of 
Hanover and the Popish Pretender. 

I will add but this one word, that I will assure you, 
that upon any advances of kindness from the House of 
Hanover, I will pawn my life for it, they shall receive 
most essential proofs of the Queen's friendship ; and 
I am sure that is the best confirmation of their Suc- 


Be pleased to accept my most hearty thanks, and to 
believe me to be, with the greatest respect. 
Right Honourable, 
Your most humble and most obedient 



Archbishop Dawes to the Princess Sophia,. The zeal 
of himself and the Clergy for the Protestant suc- 

[MS. SLOAN. 4107. foi. 164] 

I WAXT words to express my deep sense of the great 
honour which your Royal Highness has done me in 
vouchsafing to take notice of, and kindly accept, my 
poor endeavours to serve your illustrious House, and 
in that the Protestant interest in general, and our own 
happy Constitution in Church and State in particular. 
It is so much both my duty and my interest to do all 
that I am able for this end, that I should be unpar- 
donable if I did it not. I hope your Royal Highness 
will every day more and more have the satisfaction of 
seeing, not only myself, but the whole body of our 
clergy are faithful and zealous as becomes us in this 
respect, and that the same good spirit is still amongst 


US, which SO laudably and, through the blessing of 
God, successfully opposed and got the better of the 
attempts of France and Popery in King James's reign. 
Madam, I daily and most ardently pray to God for 
the health, long life, and prosperity of yourself and 
every branch of your illustrious family ; and particu- 
larly that he would guard and maintain your right of 
succeeding to the Crown of these Realms, as now by 
law established. 

I am, with the most profound duty and respect. 
Your Royal Highnesses most obedient 
and most faithful servant, 


London, May the 
4th, 1714. 


Lord Chancellor Harcourt to Baron Schutz. The 
Writ of Siimmons Jbr the Duke of Cambridge. 

[MS. LANSD. 1226. fol. 25y. Orig.'[ 

When you came to me yesterday and told me that 
by order of the Princess Sophia you demanded a Writ 
of Summons for the Duke of Cambridge, I let you 


know that I thought it my duty to acquaint Her 
Majesty therewith. 

I have accordingly laid this matter before the Queen, 
who was pleased to say, that not having received the 
least intimation of this demand from you, or in any 
other manner whatsoever from the Court of Hanover, 
she could hardly persuade herself that you acted by 
direction from thence ; that she therefore did not think 
fit to give any other answer than this, that I should 
do what the law required. 

The Writ for the Duke of Cambridge was sealed of 
course, when the Writs of Summons to all the other 
Peers were sealed, and lies ready to be delivered to 
you whenever you call for it. I am. 

Your most humble servant, 



TJie Earl of Oxford to the Elector of Hanover^ ajier 
." the accident respecting the Writ.'''' 

[m8. DOKat. 4107. foL 142. Orig.] 

May it please your Royal Highness, 
Though I expect Mr. Harley every moment in re- 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. T 


turn from your Court, and thereby shall have another 
opportunity of doing myself the honour to present your 
Royal Highness with my most humble duty and the 
assurance of my utmost service, yet I profit of this 
occasion of the Queen's messengers attending your 
Royal Highness with her Majesty's letter, to lay my- 
self at your feet. I have no enemy who knows me, that 
is not just enough to allow me to be inviolably attached 
to your succession ; nothing comes in competition with 
that, because I know I please the Queen when I am 
zealous for the service of your Serene House. I hope 
therefore I shall find credit with your Royal Highness 
when I humbly lay my sincere opinion before you. I 
am sure the Queen is most hearty for your succession ; 
and if there be any thing which may render it more 
secure which is consistent with Her Majesty's safety, 
it will be accomplished. It is not the eager desires of 
some, or what flows from the advice of any whose dis- 
contents (perhaps) animate their zeal, can balance the 
security you have in the Queen's friendship, and the 
dutiful affection of all her faithful subjects ; for as I 
am sure your Royal Highness's great wisdom would 
not choose to rule by a party, so you will not let their 
narrow measures be the standard of your Government. 
I doubt not but this accident which hath happened 
about the Writ, may be improved to increase the most 
perfect friendship between the Queen and your Serene 
Family. I shall study to do every thing which may 


<lemoflstrate the profound veneration and respect where- 
with I am, 

May it please your Royal Highness, 

your Royal Highness''s most dutiful, 

most humble, and most obedient servant, 


May -!§, 1714 


T]ie Elector of Hanover to Queen Anne annmmcing 
the loss of his Mother. 

(MS. DONAT. 4903. aH. 56. Orig.] 

J' AY rc9eu la lettre du || de May dont il a plu A 
V? Maj'5 de m*honorer. Mais ayant eu le malheur 
deux jours apres sa reception de perdre Madame 
TElectricc ma Mere, par une mort subite, qui m'a 
rempli d'affliction, et que je ne manqueray pas dc 
notifier a V'.* Maj'f d'une maniere conforme au re- 
spect que je luy dois, je me trouve oblig^ par une si 
'uste douleur de differer de quelques jours a repondre 
au contenu de la lettre de V? Maj*^. Je la prie 
d'etre persuad^e du soin et de I'empressement que je 

T 2 


apporteray toujours a cultiver Thonneur de ses bonnes 

graces, et du respect avec le quel je suis, 


de votre Majeste le tres humble 

et tres obeissent serviteur, 

GEORGE LOUIS, Elccteur. 

lellJuin, 1714. 

A sa M? la Reine de la 
Gr. Bretagne. 


The Elector of Hanover to the Lord Treasurer Ox- 
Jbrd upon the same. 

[ms. lansd. 1236. fol. 285. Orig.] 

Herrenhausen, le 11 Juin 1714. 
My Lord, 
J' AY re^eu le 6 de ce Mois vostre Lettre du 80 de 
May, et ayant perdu, le 8, Madame TElectrice ma mere 
par une mort impreveue, qui m'a rerapli d'une tres 
grande affliction. Je ne suis pas encore en estat de 
repondre ^ son contenu. Je le feray au premier jour, 
et j'auray Thonneur de notifier ce triste evenement a sa 
Majeste d'une maniere conforme au respect que je luy 


dois. Je Vous prie de vouloir employer votre grand 
credit aupres d'Elle, pour qu'EUe me conserve Phon- 
neur de ses bonnes graces, et d^etre persuade que je 
suis tres sincerement. 

Vostre tres affection e 


A my Lord Grand Thresorier. 


The Prince Elector to Queen Anne : to be restored to 

[ms. donat. 4903. art. 5"}. Orig. entirely in the prince's 


C'est avec beaucoup de douleur que j''ai remarque 
par la Lettre du 30 de May dont votre Majeste m'a 
honore, qu''on a travaille a me rendre suspect aupres 
d"'elle, et a me representer comme capable d'exciter ^es 
troubles, etdVncouragerdes factions dans ses Royaumes. 
Comme ce sont la des desseins dont ie me pardonne- 
rois pas meme la pensee, ie souhaiterois ardemment 

» The Paper on which tliis Letter ie written is edged with black. 


d'etre a portee d'en pouvoir d6sabuser voire Majeste 
et d'etre connu d'elle de plus pr6s. Je suis persuade, 
que ma conduite I'engageroit bientot a me rendre jus- 
tice, et a m'accorder Fhonneur de ses bonnes graces, 
que ie rechercherai toujours avec le dernier empresse- 
ment, etant avec beaucoup de respect, 

de votre Majeste, 
le tres humble, et trcs obeissant serviteur, 


Hannover, ce 
15Juin, 1714. 


The Elector of Hanover to the Lord Treasurer Oocford, 
upon the necessity Jbr the presence of some Prince lyf 
his House in Engla/ndy to secure the Queen and her 
Dominions against the designs of the Pretender. 

[MS. LANSD. 1236. foL 287. Orig.'] 

*^* Lord Oxford resigned his staff of Lord High Treasurer of Great 
Britain into the Queen's hands, at Kensington, July the 27"". 1714 ; she 
dying upon the P', of August following. 

Upon the King's arrival at Greenwich, Lord Oxford went there and 
kissed his Majesty's hand, but no intercourse in any other respect took 

In Administration liis conduct had been equivocal. He had corrc. 


sponded at the same time with the dethroned family, and with the House 
of Hanover. As a tory also he was unacceptable. 

On June 10'-''. 1715, the House of Commons impeached Lord Oxford 
of high treason ; and on July IG"*. he was committed to the Tower by 
the House of Lords, where he suflFcred confinement till July 1''. 1717» 
when, after a public trial he was acquitted by his Peers. He now with- 
drew from public life, devoting himself chiefly to the accumulation of 
those literary treasures, from the manuscript portion of which so much 
has been drawn for these Volumes. He died May the 21". 1724. 

Hannover, le 15 de Juin, 1714. 
J'ay vu avec beaucoup de plaisir, dans vostre Lettre 
du 30 de May, les nouvelles assurences que vous me 
donnez de vostre zele pour la succession Protestante, 
et de vostre attachement pour mes interets. Ces bons 
sentiments n'ont jamais este plus necessaires qu'^ pre- 
sent, puisqu'il s'agit de dissiper les ombrages qu^on 
tache d''inspirer contre moy ct centre ma Maison, en 
nous imputant des dessins prejudiciables a Tauthorite 
de la Reyne ; et quoy que je me flatte que la Lettre 
que je me donne I'honneur d''ecrire a sa Majeste 
jx)ura contriblier a lui faire connoistre la sincerite de 
mes intentions, vous m''obligerez infiniment Mylord, 
si vous voulez bien y joindre vos bons offices. Vous 
aurez vfi par le Memoire que j'ay fait delivrer icy a 
vostre Parent combien je souhaite de concerter avec la 
Reyne tout ce qui paroist estre encore necessaire pour 
raff'ermissement de la Succession Protestante ; et vous 



ignorez pas que plusieurs personnes distinguees de run 
et de Tautre Party qui ont cette succession fort en coeur, 
et qui sont sujets fidelles et serviteurs zeles de la Reyne, 
ont juge que la presence d'un des Princes de ma Mai- 
son seroit le moyen le plus efficace pour mettre en 
seurete la Personne et les Royaumes de sa Majeste 
contre les desseins d'un Pretendant, qui se tient tou- 
jours a port^e malgre les instances de la Reyne, et qui 
a lieu de compter sur un puissant secours estranger. II 
paroist en effect Mylord, que quand mesme la Nation 
pouroit estre en seurete contre le Pretendant pendant 
la vie de Sa Majeste, il n'en seroit pas de mesme en 
cas qu'il plust k Dieu d'affliger la Grand Bretagne en 
retirant a luy une Reine, qui la gouverne avec tant de 
gloire, et qu'en ce dernier cas la presence d'un Prince 
de la ligne Protestante ne seroit pas de peu d'utilite 
pour empecher les desordres du dedans, et les invasions 
du dehors. Si vous savez quelque autre moyen de 
procurer k la Succession une seurete equivallente, vous 
m'obligerez fort de m'en faire part. Vous pouvez vous 
en ouvrir au Ministre de confiance que j''envoye k sa 
Majeste, et qui vous rendre cette Lettre, et comme vous 
avez est6 un des premiers promoteurs de la Succession 
Protestante, et que vous avez travaille en tant d'occa- 
sions pour Taffermir, je vous prie de continlier a le 
faire dans celle cy, et d'estre persuade que vous trou- 
verez en nu)y toute la reconnoissancc que vous en poU' 


vez attendre, et que je seray fort aise de me voir en 
estat de vous en donner des marques, estant tres sin- 


Vostre tres affectione, 

GEORGE LOUIS, Electeur. 

A SHORT time previous to the writing of this Letter a Memorial at- 
tested by the Seals of the Princess Sophia and the Elector, dated May 7"'' 
1714, had been presented to iVI^ Harley at Hanover. It dwelt upon the 
same topics with those which are here pressed by the Elector alone, making 
a request also that steps should be taken to drive the Pretender from the 
Court of Lorraine to Italy. " C'cst dans cctte confience que L. A. E'«». 
prenens la liberte de representer a S. Ma'«. la necessite qu'il y a d'obliger 
le Pretendant a se rctirer en Italic, et le danger qui pourroit resueter de 
son plus long sejour en Lorraine tant aux R'oyaumes de S. M"'. qu'a sa 
Personne Royale et a la Succession Protestante." 

This last sentence seems to fix tlie date of one of the best Songs 
written in the Pretender's favor, and which it is believed has never before 
appeared in Print. The Copy here given is from the Lansdowne MS.. 
852. p. 370. 

From Queen Anne's Proclamation of June 21". 1714, her Majesty's 
attempt to remove the Pretender from Lorraine appears to have been 


Bring in the Bowl, I '11 toast a Health 
To one that has neither land nor wealth : 
The bonniest lad you ever saw 
Is over the hills and far awaw : 
Over the hills, and over the dales : 
No lasting Peace till he prevails. 
. Pull up my lads with a loud Huzza, 
A Health to him that 's far awaw. 

By France, by Rome, likewise by Spain, 
By all forsook but Duke Lorrain ; 
The next remove appears most plain 
Will be to bring him back again. 


Over the hills and far awaw, 
Over the hills and far awaw, 
The bonniest lad you ever saw 
Is over the hills and far awaw. 

He knew no harm, he knew no guilt, 
No laws had broke, no blood had spilt ; 
If rogues his Father did betray, 
What 's that to him that 's far away. 
Over the hills and far awaw, 
Beyond those hills and far awaw 
The wind may change and fairly blaw, 
And blaw him back that 's blown awaw. 

Amongst Sir Hans Sloane's Manuscripts, as well as in the Library 
of the Society of Antiquaries, copies are preserved of several interesting 
Letters from Dr. Smith, one of Queen Anne's Physicians, to the Duke 
and Duchess of Shrewsbury, relating to her JMajesty's last illness. The 
Queen had been for some time declining in health, about the management 
of which the Physicians appear to have differed, particularly in the ex- 
hibition to their patient of the Jesuit's bark. About two months before 
the Queen's death, an impostliumation came in one of her legs, upon the 
subsiding of which, as Dr. Smith considered, the gouty humour translated 
itself upon the brain. Anxiety of mind was the disposing, gout the 
immediate cause of her Majesty's demise. 





The nearer we approach to our own times, the more important do the 
events of History appear. We combine what we read with the traditions 
of our fathers, and seem to half-live in the Century which went before us. 

With the reign of GEORGE the FIRST a milder sway began than 
was known under the Plantagenets, the Tudors, or the Stuarts ; the King 
was wise, benevolent, and merciful. The Nation was now harassed by 
the animosities of the Ministers ; who in some instances were as corrupt 
toward their Country as they were implacable toward each other. 

A remarkable proof of the finnness both of the King and Prince in 
this Reign, at an important moment, occurs in Letter CCCCXXVIII. 
" If my Lord Orford persist in declining the Sea-service," says Bishop 
Kcnnett, '^ the Prince himself wiU be Lord High Admiral : and if Mr. 
Wall be uneasy. King George has heard that King William once under- 
took to sit himself at the head of the Treasury board." 

Ix the former Series, the Letters of this Reign which concerned the 
Rebellion of 1715 were numerous. In the present Collection, those which 
relate to the King's expected arrival, the state of the Clergy in the Diocese 
of Tuam, the project for invading England by Charles the Twelfth of 
Sweden, Dr. Bentley's conduct at Cambridge when the King attended the 
Commencement, the effects of the South-Sea year, the panic in Ireland 
upon Wood's Halfpence, and the Duke of Wharton's Letter from Spain 
to extenuate his conduct, claim the reader's chief notice. 



Dr. White Kennett, afterwards Bishop ofPeterhorcmgh, 
to Dr. Samuel Blackwell. King George the First 
expected from Hanover. The Queen's Interment 
ordered. Divisions of Interest upon, and Applica- 
tions Jor Church Preferment. 

[MS. LANSD. 1013. fol. 198. Orig.'] 

Dear Sir, 

Since my last nothing of moment has occurred, but 
what you hear sufficiently by all the public papers. All 
things are quiet, and all persons seem to be under no 
other impatience but that of expecting the new King. 
The day of his setting out from Hanover was fixed to 
Wednesday last, but advices since have adjourned it 
sine die, upon occasion of interview with the Court of 
Prussia, of advising some affairs with the Emperor, of 
better ordering his Government and Family that he 
leaves behind, and of being himself a little indisposed 
by eating too freely of melons. 

Most agree in his motion at the beginning of next 
week, and expect to hear of his coming to the Hague 
about the end of it, and of his arrival here the week 
following. » 

The Lords Justices have agreed on a form or manner 
of Entry, of which we know no step but that lodgings 

• The King ami I'rincf arrived at the H.igue Sept. 12'k. n U. 


are preparing for the King and Court at Greenwich, 
by which it is presumed he will come up the river and 
land there, and after a night or two will go by barge 
to the Tower, or by land to St. George's Fields, and 
so in a very solemn procession through the City.*' 

The Queen's body is to be carried from Kensington 
this night to the Prince's Chamber, to be interred on 
Tuesday night, i' according to an Order this day pub- 
lished by the Earl Marshal. 

There is an unhappy division of interest and appli- 
cations for the vacant See of Ely. The first motion 
was by the Lord Treasurer for his kinsman the Bishop 
of Oxford : a second by the Lord Not. for his brother 
the Dean of York : some of the Regents (perhaps 
wisely) for translating the Bishop of London to that 
richer See, and filling the City with a man more 
agreeable to them and the Court : and, at last, many 
for Mr. Hill, and he in earnest for himself, though in 
the habit and life of a layman for about thirty years 
past. The Archbishop is too sensible of these contrasts, 
and complains of the ill impression of them upon his 
own mind : though with submission (as one told him) 
owing in great measure to his forbearing to declare his 
own judgment : for if he had pleased to tell the other 
justices at first, that he intended to recommend the 
Bishop of St. Asaph, I believe nobody would have set 
up any thought of competition. 

« The »oyal Entry from Greenwich through London, was on Sept. 20*. 
I" Seethe Solemnization of the Queen's Interment atWestminsterj August tlie wi>. 
in the Gazette. 


There is likewise great soliciting for the Canonry of 
Christ Church and Hebrew Professorship, vacant by 
the death of Dr. Altham. It is said the late Lord 
Treasurer had promised it to his chaplain Mr. Simon 
Ockley. The Christ Church men are said to be most 
desirous of Dr. Wells, and he has sent up a Letter to 
the Bishop of Lincoln which I know was laid before 
his Grace on Thursday last, but, I presume, no agree- 
able man. Dr. Felling, Chaplain to the Speaker, would 
have the best title to the Canonry if he understood 
Hebrew. The greatest master of that tongue, and 
other Orientals, is Mr. Clavering, one of his Grace"'s 
chaplains, lately by him preferred to the Deanery of 
Bocking, which has made way to Mr. Ibbetsou of 
Oriel to succeed him as Chaplain at Lambeth. 

The French King's rejecting the importunities of 
the Pretender is an argument of his good faith or great 
necessity. The barbarous dragooning of our merchants 
will extort satisfaction, at least, in a free Parliament. 
We long to hear of the fate of the brave Barcelonians. 
The last we heard (poor souls) was their hanging out 
a black flag with a deaths head upon it, to signify by 
that token that they would sooner die than surrender. 
We are afraid the French will take the ruins of that 
City by storm, before they can hear of our good inten- 
tions to relieve them. If a miracle of God's Providence 
preserve them, it may give a new turn to Sicily and 
the whole Kingdom of Spain. 

Stock is very high, and all people in good spirit. 


None to all appearance more sanguine than thoy wlio 
would be still called Tories. They, forsooth, adhered 
to the Protestant Succession. They are most forward 
to go out and meet the King. They, by their prin- 
ciples, have been always for the Church and the 
Crown. They are the surest friends of the Preroga- 
tive, and they, if we believe them, are the majority of 
the Nation, and can command a new Parliament. 

The pulpits in and about London have not been so 
modest as one would have expected at such a juncture. 
It is certain that Dr. Wells has preached ever since 
the demise with a double entendre^ and with an eye 
directly on another King. Dr. Sach.'"^ has vehemently 
reflected on the Duke of Marlborough's public entry, 
and called it an unparalleled insolence, and a vile 
trampling upon royal ashes, &c. Others of better figure 
have so bemoaned the Queen as if Monarchy and the 
Church had died with her. Nay, some have chal- 
lenged the faction (as they call them) to tell where is 
the Pretender, or where is the danger of him ! as if 
his not coming now were an argument that he never 
meant it. 

This day the Lord Chancellor read one Speech in 
the name of the Regents, and the Speaker made an- 
other very good one in the name of the Commons upon 
the money bill for the Civil List, and so both Houses 
adjourned to, I think, this day se'nnight. 

It is supposed the King will be inclined to commit 

» Sacheverell. 

oniGIKAL LETTERS. • 289 

ecclesiastical Preferments to a Commission of Arch- 
bishops and Bishops, to deliver himself from unrea- 
sonable importunities of that kind. My own concern, 
I think, will be to contract myself to a more private life, 
being abundantly satisfied that our public Affairs are 
upon a better bottom, and the Church and Nation more 
safe and flourishing, and hopes of a better balance of 
power in Europe and a better regard to the Pro- 
testant interest abroad. I pray God grant it. 
Your very affectionate friend, 


Aug. 21, 1714. 

To the Reverend Mr. Samuel Black- 
well, B. D. Rector of Brampton, in 
Northamptonshire, near Harborough. 


Archbishop King to Archbishop Wake. The Prince 
of Wales, afterwards King George II''. chosen 
Chancellor of the University of Dublin. 

[mS. DONAT. BRIT. MUS. fill?. ?• 2.] 

Dublin, Feb. 16^1'. 1715. 
May it please your Grace, 
I SHOULD have congratulated the Church and your 
VOL. IV. SER. 2. u 


Grace on your Trantslation to the See of Canterbury, 
but a severe fit of the gout, rheumatism, and cholic 
has disabled me near four months from writing. 

This is only to acquaint your Grace that the Uni- 
versity here are come to a very good temper, and, as an 
instance of it, they have this day unanimously elected 
his Highness the Prince for their Chancellor; which 
is not a matter of mere form, but of great influence, 
and gives him a very great power over them. 

I must entreat your Grace's favour in their behalf, 
and that you would use your interest with his High- 
ness to take this in good part, and prevail with him to 
receive them into his favour and protection. 

The University intend to send it over by some of 
their own Body in the most respectful manner, as soon 
as the Instrument is prepared.^ 

This had been done sooner, but could not well, by 
reason of the absence of two of the Fellows that were 
in England, and came over purposely to expedite the 

I hope this will have a good effect on the Church 
here and whole Kingdom. I add no more at present 
but my most hearty prayer for your Grace's health and 

» The Provost and Dr. Howard, one of the senior Fellows, were subsequently sent 
by their Body to pretest the Instnnnent of Election to the Princew 


success in your great charge in which God hath placed 
you, and that I am, with the utmost respect, 
My Lord, 
Your Grace's most humble servant, 



Archbishop King to Archbishop Wdke^ after the death 
of the Archbishop ofTuam. State of the Clergy in 
his Diocese. The " Quarta pars Eptscopalis."" 

[ms. donat. BRIT. MU8. 6117. page 5.] 

Dublin, March 29'^ 1716. 
May it please your Grace, 
Though I am disabled by a return of the gout in 
my right hand, yet I rather choose to make use of an- 
other's, than omit acquainting your Grace with what I 
think to be of moment to the Church. It has pleased 
God to make the Archbishoprick of Tuam vacant, by 
removing out of this world Dr. Vesey the Archbishop 
thereof, who died yesterday morning. The state of 
that Diocese is very lamentable, there not being a score 
of beneficed Clergymen in it. Several of them are 
non-resident, and all of them very ill provided ; which 

u 2 


proceeds from three causes. The first of which is 
Impropriations. The second is want of a legal settle- 
ment of the tithes and other dues of the Clergy. 
Before the Reformation they had a certain portion out 
of every thing which the people used for the support 
or conveniency of life ; as for example, a gallon out of 
every brewing of drink, and so on other occasions ; and 
for every such offering they had a peculiar name ; and 
these continued to be demanded and exacted, in a great 
measure, till the Restoration of the Royal Family. 
But in the 18 ^^ year of the reign of King Charles the 
Second, they were all taken away by act of parlia- 
ment under the notion of being barbarous customs, 
and an equivalent promised the Clergy for them ; but 
that equivalent was never yet given them ; nor do they 
pay tithe of any thing but grain and wool, and in 
some places of hay. Now that country being most of it 
a grazing country, and stocked with black cattle, it 
yields a clergyman but a small pittance. The third 
reason of the Clergy''s poverty in that Diocese proceeds 
from what they call Quarta Pais Episcopalis, by 
which the Bishop has the fourth part of all the tithes 
in roost parishes. The Impropriator then having in 
most places one half, and the Bishop one fourth, your 
Grace may easily imagine in what a miserable condition 
the Clergy must be, that have but a fourth part of the 
tithes, and the tithes so uncertain. 

I do find that in the North of Ireland the Bishops 


had a third part, the Clergy a third, aiid certain Lay 
Rectors or Farmers (called) another third part : but, 
on the forfeiture of Tyrone, King James the First, in 
the six Counties escheated by that rebellion to the 
Crown, gave the forfeited tithes to the clergy and the 
forfeited fee-farms of land to the Bishops, in lieu of the 
tithes, and likewise settled a Tithing Table, accord- 
ing to which tithes are paid to this day : and both 
Bishops and Clergy are well provided for in those 

But in Connaught things stood upon the old foot 
till the time that the Earl of Strafford chief Go- 
vernor of Ireland, who began to look into the state of 
the Church there, and found that the bishops had made 
away their lands in fee-farms ; and a very small pit- 
tance was left to maintain their successors. The Arch- 
bishoprick of Tuam was reduced to dC'lGO per annum. 
But upon farther inspection into the fee-farms, it was 
found that many of them were forfeited, or the pro- 
prietors'' title to them defective in law ; upon which the 
fee-farms were seized, and restored to their respective 
Sees, upon condition that the Bishops should give up 
the Quarta Pars of the tithes to the Clergy. This 
was an advantageous change to both : and accordingly 
the Bishops of Elphin and Killala made their resigna- 
tions, their Quarta Pars was settled upon their clergy, 
and they enjoy it to this day. The Archbishop of 
Tuam did the like; and his resignation was on the 


road to Dublin. But the wars broke out in 1641, and 
stopped it on the way ; for I do not find that it ever 
came to Dublin. 

On the Restoration, a very old man, and a great 
sufferer for the Royal Cause, being made Archbishop 
of Tuam, the Quarta Pars came into ponsideration : 
and on account of his great age and merit, it was 
agreed that he should hold it during his incumbency, 
which they concluded could^not be long. His next 
successor had the same plea, and was likewise suffered 
to enjoy it. 

In the year 1679, the then Archbishop being trans- 
lated to Dublin, Dr. Vesey, the now deceased arch- 
bishop, then Bishop of Limerick, was named for Tuam; 
upon which the Clergy bestirred themselves and peti- 
tioned the Chief Governor and Council for their equi- 
table right to it ; that the archbishop had resigned as 
well as the other bishops, and had his equivalent, which 
Mas much more valuable than the Quarta Pars ; that 
by the Act of Settlement the dispositions made in 
favour of the Clergy by the Earl of Strafford were con- 
firmed ; and that hitherto they had been debarred of 
the benefit thereof by the power of the Archbishops, 
and the favour shewed them by the Government. This 
Petition was very favourably received by the then 
Chief Governor and Council; for they had been several 
times promised that, on the first Remove, restitution 
should be made them. They were then well able to 


prove the resignation ; and the equivalent is still en- 
joyed by his successors. The Archbishop, finding that 
the Cause was like to go against him, made haste to 
his bishoprick ; and calling the clergy together, dealt 
so effectually with them, that he brought them to a 
compromise, and prevailed with them to recall their 
Agent, and let their Petition drop ; which was done 
on these terms to the best of my memory. The War- 
denship of Galway was in the hands of a vfry old man, 
one Dr. Vaughan, brother to the Lord Chief Justice 
Vaughan ; and the Archbishop did agree with the 
Clergy, that he would use his interest with the Govern- 
ment to procure that in Commendam when it fell, and 
then that he would give up the Qnarta Pars to them. 
The Wardenship soon fell, and he got it in com- 
mendam ; and then entered into a new treaty with the 
Clergy, and got them to consent that he should hold 
the Quarta Pars during his incumbency ; and by this 
agreement he has held it about thirty-four years. I 
am told there is some reference to this agreement in 
the Patent, but I have not yet got a sight of it. As 
soon as I do, I shall be able to give your Grace a more 
certain information. 

In the mean time I think it necessary to acquaint 
your Grace with the nature of this Wardenship. There 
was in Galway, before the Reformation, a Collegiate 
(yhurch with a Warden, and a certain number of vicars. 
The endowment, if I remember right, was nine appro- 


priated country parishes. On the Reformation this 
College was granted to the town of Galway, to whom 
the election of Warden was granted ; but is now looked 
upon to be in the Crown by the forfeiture of 1641. 
The value is reckoned to be less than c£200. The 
Care of the Town and the Parishes is to be supported 
out of this ; by which your Grace may perceive how 
improper a fund this was to support the cure of the 
town, and how much more improper such a cure is for 
a Commendam. The Town is populous ; most Papists 
in it ; several Nunneries and Frieries ; and we have not 
been able, with all our laws, to suppress them utterly. 

I have now laid the case as full as I can, at present, 
before your Grace. And, the favour I am to entreat 
of your Grace is, to interpose, and not to suffer the 
Archbishoprick to be disposed of till the matter of the 
Quarta Pars and Wardenship be settled ; the miserable 
state of that Diocese absolutely requiring it. 

TMie only objection that can be made against it is, 
the smallness of the revenue of the Archbishoprick. I 
have not yet got a rent-roll, but soon shall, and will 
transmit it to your Grace ; and I believe when the 
cheapness of the country is considered, and the differ- 
ence of the expenses attending the archbishoprick of 
Dublin, that the Archbishoprick of Tuam, with the 
Bishoprick of Kilfenora that goes along with it, may, 
in proportion, be very near as good (though perhaps 
not sufficient to tempt one of your clergy who despairs 



of preferment at home, to intrude into his poor Brother^s 
pittance, and defraud him of his expectation). 

We have but about six hundred beneficed Clergymen 
in Ireland ; and perhaps of these hardly two hundred 
have .£100 per annum : and for you to send your su- 
pernumeraries to be provided out of the best of these, 
does look too like the rich man in Nathan's parable. 

Your Grace's predecessor was well apprized of the 
state of the Poor Clergy of Ireland, and had great re- 
gard to them, particularly in this matter. And I hope 
when your Grace is fully apprized of the state of this 
Church, your Grace will be of his opinion. In the 
mean time, if your Grace will be pleased to look upon 
the life of Bishop Bramhall before his Works, it may 
be of some use to enable your Grace to frame some 
notion of our condition. 

I heartily pray for your Grace's health and happi- 
ness ; and am, with the greatest respect. 
My Lord, 

Your Grace's most humble servant, 


I am afraid an Act of Parliament may be necessary 
to settle the business of the Quarta Pars ; for, though 
thirty-six years ago the resignation could be proved, 
yet by the death of witnesses, and the burning of the 
records in the Council Chamber, I doubt whether we 
could now make legal proof upon a trial ; and perhaps 
an Archbishop, when once invested, may bring it to that. 



Bishop Kennett to Mr. Samuel Blackwell. The King's 
preparations to go to Hanover. 

[MS. LANSD. 1013. foL 213. Orig.] 

His Majesty's Voyage though not expressly yet de- 
clared, is, I think, sufficiently understood, and I sup- 
pose will be communicated to the two Houses this next 
week. The retinue is not fixed, but by common re- 
port his Majesty will be attended by three clergymen, 
Dr. Torriano as deputy clerk of the closet, and the 
dean of Winchester Dr. Wickart, and Dr. Menard 
or his brother, as chaplains, who have all been travel- 
lers, and are good masters of the French tongue. The 
Regency will be sole in the Prince, f* with an assisting 

June 9^\ 1716. 

' The Prince of Wales was constituted Guardian of the Kingdom and his Majesty's 
Lieutenant during his absence beyond sea, July 6<K it16. His Majesty embarked at 
Gravescnd, the same day, for Holland, where he landed on the a"-, and proceeded 
directly to Pyrmont in Germany. 



Dr, White Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. The Princess 
of Wales has a severe confinement. 

[MS. LANSD. 1013. fol. 202. Orig.\ 

Dear Sir, 
I RECEIVED yours this week, and thought to have 
sent you a large Letter by this post, but the melancholy 
impressions of fear and suspense for the good Princess 
take away all other thoughts at present. I am now in 
waiting at Court, and left it shut up on all sides this 
afternoon. The good Princess had the symptoms of 
labour on Sunday evening, and 'tis thought might 
haVe been safely delivered of a living son that night, 
or any time before Tuesday morning, if Sir David 
Hamilton or Dr. Chamberlayne, who attended without, 
might have been admitted to her; but the Hanover 
midwife kept up the aversion of the Princess to have 
any man about her, and so, notwithstanding the im- 
portunity of the English ladies and the declared advice 
of the Lords of the Council, she continued in pains till 
Friday morning between one and two,^ when the mid- 
wife alone delivered [her] of a dead male Child wounded 
in the head. She has since been extremely weak and 
subject to continual faintings, and 'tis said all things 

» Nov. a'h. IT16. 


are not alter the manner of women in that condition. 
This afternoon, about four, the Lord Belhaven, in 
waiting on the Prince, came out of the women's cham- 
ber, and told me the Princess had been asleep for about 
an hour, and was more easy after it, and had no return 
of her fainting fits. But we are every minute in sor- 
rowful apprehensions ; and God knows what may be 
the news before I seal up this. 

Your affectionate friend, 


Saturday, 6 at night, 1716. 

P.S. Nine at night. Sending frequently to St. James's, 
the last account is more comfortable, that her Royal 
Highness is somewhat better and if this night past 
well over, there will be great hopes of her doing well. 

To the Rev. Mr. Samuel Black- 
well, B. D. Rector of Brampton, 
near Harborough, Northampton- 



Bishop Kennett to the Rev. Mr. Blackwell. King 
George the First's intention to make a Progress to 
Yorkshire. Trials of the Rebels, 

[MS. LANSD. 1013. foL 204. Orig.\ 

If common report and general belief be good au- 
thority, the King has deferred his thoughts of going 
abroad, and intends to make a Progress to Yorkshire 
about the end of July; to stay awhile at the Lord 
Burlington's, and drink of the neighbouring Spau. It 
is most likely his road will lead through Northampton 
and Harborough, or at least Althorp and Bowden, &c. 
I presume the clergy of your diocese will in a body 
wait upon his Majesty with some Address * * 
« * * « ♦ 

It is said that Mr. Gascoyne, one of the Preston 
rebels now in Newgate, offers to make up such evidence 
as will be sufficient to bring some of the Tower Pri- 
soners to Twal. The other trials are, in course, de- 
pending, and, after all provocations, the examples of 
Mercy will very much exceed those of Justice. 

This is all I recollect at present, but that in general 
the King's interest and honour rise higher every day. 


and to pray for bis life includes all other public hap^ 

I am, Dear Sir, 
Your very affectionate friend and kinsman, 


To the Rev. Mr. Samuel Black- 
well, Brampton, near Harborough, 


The same to the same. The Princess recovered. 

[MS. LANSD. 1013. foL 208. Orig.] 

The Princess is in a very safe condition ; the long 
depending labour, and the loss of a line Prince upon 
it, made a great ruffle at Court. The persisting of the 
midwife that she wanted no other help, has put the 
English ladies out of all good opinion of her ; and the 
unwillingness of Sir David Hamilton to interpose with- 
out express command, brought on him severe expostu- 
lations and rebukes from the women, and particularly 
from good Mrs. Wake. He is most concerned that the 
Archbishop, in tenderness to the Princess, should tell 

him that he neglected his duty to the Public. 

* * * « *• 

Nov. 24, 1716. 



Dr. Kennett to the Rev. Mr. Blackwell. The King 

returned from Hanover. 

: I [ms. lansd. 1013. fol. 215. Orig.\ 

The noise of joy in the streets is just now so great, 
that I must be very short not to be interrupted by it. 
Other accounts by this post will tell you that the King 
landed last night safe at Margate, that the Prince and 
many Nobles are gone out to meet him on the Kentish 
road, and hope to conduct him this evening to St. 
James's. My account (if it fail not) would add that 
my Lord Townshend will be received with as good 
humour in himself, and as gracious a countenance from 
the King as any other subject whatsoever : and that no 
one change will be made in favour of the Tories, but 
still the same wise and steady administration. Only if 
any of the Whigs, so called, grow peevish and unrea- 
sonable, he will deal with them as with any Tories, 
give them their lives, that's all. So far as he been 
used abroad to govern by his own prudence and inte- 
grity, and so far will he apply those noble virtues here 
in the strictest regard to our Laws and Constitution, 
as well as to his own honour and true interest. 
Your affectionate friend. 

Sat. Jan. 19, 1716-17. wh. kennett. 



Dr. White Kennett to Dr. Blackwell. Project of 
Charles Xllth. of Sweden Jbr the Invasion of Eng- 
land. The Court quiet. 

[MS. LANSD. 1013. fol. 217. Orig.'\ 
*^* Much has been cut out front the original of this letter. 

» * * * * • 

We have been here under a new alarm. It is no 
longer a doubt that the Rebels have been driving at 
another push, and have concerted with another King 
to meet him in the North. He to invade with twenty 
thousand, and they, good folks, to join him with 
twenty thousand more: and so to restore King James, 
and so to return to Sweden, and so all things to be well. 
This project indeed has been swimming in the heads 
of the Jacobites a long while, and they made no great 
secret of their hopes and expectations. Yet we thought 
a mad party could never find so mad a Prince. But 
so 'tis, the desperate Cause has at last met with a 
suitable undertaker ; and the tables are really turned 
from a descent upon Schonen, « to a reverse upon 

# * # # # 

It will have one good influence upon great minds, 
and teach them not to draw and fight among themselves 

• Whither Charles XII'''. had retired from Stralsund. 


in the face of the enemy. That discretion appears 
already. The Court seems quiet, and the prime mi- 
nister is the King, and they are his only favourites 
who can and will be his best assistants : if not, they 
may go and help themselves. 

If my Lord Orford persist in declining the sea- 
service, the Prince himself will be Lord High Admiral : 
and if Mr. Wall be uneasy, King George has heard 
that King William once undertook to sit himself at 
the head of the Treasury board. My Lord Towns* 
hend has conquered others' humours and commanded 
his own resentments, and has not only submitted to 
accept the government of Ireland, in name and title, 
but begins to do business, and to keep his levees for 
that Kingdom. Lord Sunderland is thought to be at 
the head of all Councils, but with no distinguishing . . 

yet at least. What truth in the rumours of 

Grace, and Garter, and young Lady, I don''t know. 

The worst consequences are, no reducing the Army 
nor the Taxes in the present juncture. Necessity 
must be the superior law. Otherwise, I dare say, the 
event of things will be, that the Jacobite faction rebel 
against the Providence of God, and by his wisdom 
and goodness are bringing about their own destruction 
and our only safety. 

# * # • * 

Your faithful friend and kinsman, 
Febr. 2, 1716-17. wh. kennett. 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. X 



The same to the same, 

[ibid. fol. 220. Orig.^^ 

We have had uneasy convulsions and strange at- 
tempts toward a confusion among us, nor can our 
greatest men yet agree among themselves who shall be 
and shall not be the Prime Ministers. And yet amidst 
these divisions at home we are daily threatened with 
invasion from abroad, though certainly we are so well 
prepared against it, that the King of Sweden, who was 
so desperate to project it, must have much more en- 
thusiasm in him to put it in execution. 


March 16, 1716-17. 


Dr. Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. The King of Sweeten 
a less bugbear. 

[ibid. foL 222. OHg.'\ 

The King of Sweden is every day a less bugbear to 
us ; not that we have any advice of his letting fall the 


intended expedition, or diverting it elsewhere. And I 
think we are so well prepared, that he had better come 
once than be always a-coming. 

« # ■ # 4( « 


Dr. Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. Bangorian Controversy. 
King George the First. 

[ibid. fol. 224. Orig."] 

* * * * # 

I CAN send you no news but that the paper war 
about the Bishop of Bangor draws a dreadful deal of 
ink, black and bitter. The cry is more than the wool 
on either side. I wish the first word had been spared, 
for I do not know when the last will be given. 

As to Parliament, after some convulsions, the Session 
seems to be drawing to a quiet end. The trial I 
suppose to be reserved to another meeting. Amidst 
all disputes and personal piques of Ministers, new and 
old, I am fixed in this opinion, that King George is 
one of the honestest men, and one of the wisest Princes 
in the world. And such a Prince, at the head of a 
good cause, will support it and be supported by it. 

# * # . « « 

June S'K 1717. 

X 2 



Dr, Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. General Nexos. 

[ibid. fol. 228. Orig.\ 

4K ^ # « 4( 

Your Physician Sir David Hamilton is gone to the 
Bath for some weeks; to be down again before the 
expectation of the Princess, who returns to St. James's 
about the end of September to lie-in there. 

• « 4K « «- 

This place is empty of all people of fashion ; and I 
have very little conversation with men that know any 
thing of the Court, where all things are said to be well 
and easy, and to promise peace and happiness ; but let 
things be never so well administered, there will be dis- 
contents and murmurs among those people that want 
places, and especially among those that want the Pre- 

The glorious Victory of Prince Eugene over the 
Turks, and the taking of Belgrade, and the extending 
of conquests farther, is a just cause of joy to all good 
people ; and, amongst other good effects, will hasten a 
Peace in the North if the King of Sweden will listen 
to any reasonable terms; and will be an immediate 
check to the perfidious attempts of some Catholic 
Powers to disturb the Emperor while engaged against 


the common enemy ; and will prevent our being drawn 

into another war. 

# # • • * 

James-Street, Westminster, 
Aug. 31, 1717. 


Dr. Kennett to Mr. Blackwell. The Princess near 
her Confinement. 

[ibid. fol. 232. Orig.'\ 

Sir David Hamilton was called to Hampton Court, 
and is now set upon the watch in St. James's Palace, 

for every minute of call or question from the Princess. 

« « » « « 

Octob. 5, 1717. 


Tfi£ same to the same. 

[ibid. fol. 236. Orig.] 

Your Physician Sir David Hamilton has very much 


improved his interest at Court upon occasion of the 
good Princess''s delivery of a son: for though he did 
not assist in the immediate moments, yet, by the igno- 
rance or humour of the same midwife, her Royal High- 
ness was so slow in the calls of Nature, and. so far 
going into convulsive faintings, that there was great 
danger of her life and the child's, if Sir David had 
not prescribed some raising medicines that brought on 
regular and effectual pains, and a speedy safe delivery. 
I congratulate with you the public blessing. 

The last fortnight of October I spent at Hampton 
Court, as called to wait there a little out of time. I 
saw as much Royal goodness and noble hospitality as 
an honest heart could wish. But Courts and Crowns 
have so many cares and troubles appendant to them, 
that I begin to affect privacy, and to love my own 
studies more and more. 

Parties are struggling to meet the next Session, and 
to contend, as the custom is, for places, rather than for 
any other cause. But the King is so gracious and 
wise, that he will if possible reconcile enemies without 
forsaking friends. ;^ 

* * * # # 

Your very affectionate 

friend and kinsman, 


James-Street, Westminster, 
Novemb. 16, 1717. 



Dr. Thomas Tudwcuy to Mr. Humphry Wanley, Lord 
Oxford's Librarian. Dr. Bentley''s behaviour when 
the King went to Cambridge. 

[MS. HAat. 3779. foL 69. Orig.^ 

I GAVE you an account before of Bentley's baulks 
and blunders about the King's reception here; since 
which he has met with two pretty remarkable ones. 
The first was wherein I was concerned. There was a 
grace put up for a gratification for me, for my care 
and pains at the reception of the King in King's 
College Chapel ; this Bentley maliciously opposed, in 
spite, because we had wrested that solemnity out of 
his hands, who would have had it at his own Chapel ; 
but this was carried against him and the whiggish crew, 
by a sufficient majority. The Monday following (the 
day that the Masters were at Wimple,'* and Mr. Jef- 
ferys staid there, and Mr. Prior who had been at Cam- 
bridge but for them) being the day that we choose a 
Vice-Chanqellor, Bentley, with a reinforcement of 
devils, almost as wicked as himself, returned to the 
charge. The two heads pricked were Dr. Gooch, 
and Dr. Bradford commonly called Tadpole ; but the 

« WiiiUMilc. 


Master of Caius carried it by a greater majority than 

Nov. 9*1717. 


The same to the same. Still upwi Dr. Bentley, 
[ibid. foL 77-) 

« * « # « 

You know Bentley and his communicationj and 
therefore there needs nothing n>ore to be said on that 
head. You have heard already the noise his exaction 
made at King George's Commencement of Four Guineas 
for every Doctor of Divinity which he created, other- 
wise he refused to create them. They all paid it but a 
few, but with great reluctance, and thereupon he pro- 
mised that if that matter ever came to be determined 
against him he would refund. The Chancellor gave 
it against him. So has the Vice-Chancellor, and the 
Heads. Hereupon Dr. Middleton, one of the aggrieved, 
and lately one of the fellows of Trinity College, de- 
mands of him his four Guineas, which he refusing to 
repay. Dr. Middleton sues him in the Vice-Chancellor's 
Court. He making no appearance to the Suit, the 



Vice-Chancellor sends a decree to arrest him, which is 
executed always by one of the beadles. He went to 
his lodge and told him his business, and showed him 
his authority. He desired Mr. Clark the beadle to let 
him see it, which he refused to do out of his own hand ; 
but making protestations upon honour to restore it, he 
gave it him, which he like a true Bentleian, and like 
his bond fide, put into his pocket, and added, like an 
overgrown school-boy, which is his just character, " I 
told you I would give it you again, but I did not say 
when." Hereupon the Vice-Chancellor, who has be- 
haved with great courage and resolution, granted an- 
other decree; but my gentleman would not then be 
found ; and while the beadle waited in one of his rooms 
for him, he sent Ashenhurst and others of his creatures, 
who mocked and insulted, and asked him what he did 
there. He told them that he must speak with the 
Master. They told him the Master could not be 
spoke with, and bid him come out, which he refused 
to do till he had delivered his message. Hereupon 
they locked him in, and made him a prisoner two or 
three hours. This insult upon the authority of the 
University, with a thousand other insolent speeches, 
defying the Vice-Chancellor and Heads, and at all 
times and occasions behaving himself with the greatest 
contempt, and speaking reproachfully of every body 
that he had any concern with ; the' Vice-Chancellor, 
like a brave magistrate, those things being all drawn 


up into kind of articles, and affidavit being made of 
them, summoned a Court, and all these insolences being 
again read and repeated and swore to, the Vice-Chan- 
cellor pronounced him suspended from all his Degrees, 
and sent him word further, that if he did not, on the 
next Court-day, appear and make his submission, and 
acknowledge his offence, he would deprive him of his 
Professorship and declare it void. What a struggle 
must there needs be now betwixt Bentley's pride and 
his interest ! Some say one will make him submit, and 
others are of the mind that he will risk all. However, 
Monday or Tuesday the Vice-Chancellor designs to 
have a Court, and then we shall see the devil pluck in 
his horns. - 

Your affectionate and obliged 

friend and servant, 


I forgot to tell you that six or eight of the Heads 
were the Vice-Chancellor"'s Assessors upon the Bench, 
and assenting to this execution of Bentley's. 




ArcJihlshop King to Archbishop Wake. The Differ- 
ences at Court. 

[MS. DONAT. 61 17. p- 99-] 

Dublin, Jan. ll*''. 1717. 

# # # * * 

I AM perfectly at a loss as to any knowledge of what 
passes at Court, and am heartily sorry to find your 
Grace seems so much a stranger there. I am afraid 
your Grace is only Bishop of Canterbury. If the 
whole world had consulted together to find an effec- 
tual way to make a faction irreconcilable, I cannot 
imagine they could have invented a more infallible, 
than to hinder all conversation or common civilities 
among partisans. And whoever invented or advised 
that prohibition was surely his crafts-master. How 
can it be expected that ever persons should come to a 
good understanding between themselves, when common 
friends are not allowed to be common friends, but all 
obliged to deplare themselves mutual enemies. 

I pity your Grace and others that are sincere to his 
Majesty, who, I fear, are neither at liberty to speak 
your minds, nor do your duties. For aught I find, we 
generally arc of one mind here as to that afiair, and 


speak the same way, bemoaning the fatal circumstances, 
and pleasing ourselves only in this, that we are at a 
distance from it. 

But, as your Grace observes, the mischief will cer- 
tainly in the event reach us if it continue, and I doubt 
it will all Europe. Pray God prevent the effects of it. 
But is there nobody that dares deal with the parties as 
Joab did with David, when he found him engaged in 
a practice that disgusted and shamed all his friends .'' I 
pray God that there be not the same necessity for such 
a freedom of advice in this exigent as there was in that 
affair ; and that there may not want those that will 
give it with the same boldness. 

* Mk * * * 

Your Grace's most humble and 
obedient servant, 



Archbishop Xing' to Archbishop Wake. Still upoti 
the Court differences. 
[ms. DONAT. 6I17. p. lOL] 

Dublin, Feb. 6"'. 1717. 

I DO not know any body that has a more difficult 


game to play than your Grace in the present circum- 
stances : and I think 'tis rather more difficult by reason 
the liberty is allowed you to visit the Princess. More 
may be expected from your Grace by both parties 
than is in your power ; and every thing you do or say 
will be inquired into; and ten to one but misre- 

I am of opinion this breach will be made up ; but I 
doubt "'twill be with great slaughter of favourites on 
both sides. 

Your Grace's most obedient servant 
and brother, 



Bishop Nicolson to Archbishop Wake: details his 
Journey to take possession i)fthe See ofDerry. 

[ms. donat. mus. bhit. 611C. p. 121.] 

Londonderry, June 24, 1718. 

My very good Lord, 

I HAD the honour of your Grace's letter of the 10 ''. 

just as I was leaving Dublin this day se'nnight, and 

about an hour after I had sent to the post my last letter 

for Lambeth. The Archbishop of Dublin did not 


come home whilst I staid in town, which bereft me 
of the opportunity of getting his particular informa- 
tions concerning the state of his quondam diocese of 
Derry, which his singular courtesy would not have suf- 
fered him to withhold. I was also forced to come away 
without personal assent to my licence of return to my 
family, and of continuing in England till May next ; 
which favour I readily obtained from the other two 
Lords Justices. 

They were also pleased to grant me a guard of dra- 
goons, with whom I travelled in great security through 
a country said to be much infested with a set of barba- 
rous and pilfering Tories. I saw no danger of losing 
the little money I had ; but was under some appre- 
hensions of being starved : having never beheld even 
in Picardy, Westphalia, or Scotland, such dismal marks 
of hunger and want as appeared in the countenances of 
most of the poor creatures that I met with on the road. 
The wretches lie in reeky sod-hovels ; and have gene- 
rally no more than a rag of coarse blanket to cover a 
small part of their nakedness. Upon the strictest in- 
quiry, I could not find that they are better clad or 
lodged in the winter season. These sorry slaves plough 
the ground to the very top of their mountains, for the 
service of their lords ; who spend truly rack rents, as 
somebody supposed those of this diocese would be spent, 
in London. A ridge or two of potatoes is all the poor 
tenant has for the support of himself, a wife, and com- 


raonly ten or twelve bare-legged children. To com- 
plete their misery, these animals are bigoted Papists ; 
and we frequently met them trudging to some ruined 
church or chapel, either to mass, a funeral, or a wedding, 
with a priest in the same habit with themselves. 

I was pretty curious, my Lord, in inquiring after 
the temporal state of my Metropolitan, our Primate ; 
but had not the satisfaction of finding that his revenue 
was so great as it had been represented to your Grace. 
I went through all the apartments of his chief Palace 
at Drogheda ; which is so far from meriting a compa- 
rison with Lambeth, that I can modestly aver my suc- 
cessor will find a better house in Rose Castle. His 
Grace comes so seldom there, and so little fuel has 
been spent in it of late, that I should be as much afraid 
of living there as I am of bringing my family into one 
somewhat better in this town. 

Hither I came in much more pomp than I wish for, 
last Saturday in the evening. The Chancellor of the 
diocese (Dr. Jenkins, cotemporary with my Lord of 
York at St. John's in Oxford) brought me to his 
house on the road, at ten miles' distance ; where I was 
met by the neighbouring clergy, the two citizens in 
Parhament, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, &c. 
who all accompanied me to my lodging. The next 
morning I was enthroned by the Dean ; and have been 
every day since regaled and feasted by some great man 
or other. Yesterday the Bishop of Raphoe and I were 


complimented with the dignity of Freemen ; and after 
he left us, the Corporation gave a splendid entertain- 
ment, in their Guildhall, to me and all the clergy in 

These joys are exceedingly damped by the account 
your Grace gives of your continuing indisposed. 
# # * * * 

I am ever your Grace''s most obliged 
and dutiful servant, 



Jos. Wilcocks to Bishop Kennett^Jrom Hanover. An 
Account of xohat was passing there during the 
King''s Visit in 1720. 

[MS. LANSD. 1038. fol. 81. Orig.\ 

My Lord, 
I BECKON this will have the honour to wait on you 
in the country, and I flatter myself that a visitor from 
Hanover, which is at present the great theme of con- 
sultation, will not be unwelcome to your Lordship. It 
was some time before we had any occurrences here 
worth communicating ; his Majesty being gone to Pyr- 
mont and my Lord Stanhope to Berlin, here was for 
several weeks but a very thin Court at Herrenhausen. 



Since the King's return from the waters, which 
agreed very well with him, we have had a great ap- 
pearance of strangers, especially foreign ministers. 
The King of Prussia has paid a visit here of about 
ten days: he has a brisk enterprising look, wears a 
short waistcoat, narrow hat, and broad sword, and has 
his own hair tied back, and obliges all his soldiers and 
the officers of his army to do the like ; and because his 
army is clothed in blue, he generally wears the same 
colour himself 

The Duke of York ^ came hither soon after his Ma-' 
jesty's return from Pyrniont, and designs to stay with 
him till he goes to the Gohre ; he is a very obliging 
affable Prince ; I have the honour sometimes of dis- 
coursing with him, and he has asked me a great many 
questions about his nieces, the young Princesses, and 
their education. His revenue, as Bishop of Osnabruck, 
is about 100,000 crowns per annum. 

Prince Frederick was for some months indisposed, 
he had a trembling on his nerves, which put him much 
out of order, but it is now above six weeks that he has 
had no return of it, so that 'tis hoped it has quite left 
him. His behaviour is very manly ; he speaks English 
pretty well ; J have the honour often to dine and sup 
with his Highness, and can assure your Lordship that 
he is in all respects a well accomplished, and very fine 

• Ernest Augustus Prince of Brunswick Luncnburgh, the brother of King George 
the First, was created Duke of York and Albany, anid Earl of Ulster, June SOh. ITlfi. 
Me was also bishop of Osnaburgh. 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. Y 


I have the pleasure to acquaint your Lordship, as 
I am told by very good hands I may, that the affair of 
Religion is likely to take a good turn in the Empire 
and be amicably accommodated. My Lord Stanhope"'s 
concern for the Protestant interest in general, is ac- 
companied with a very exemplary behaviour at Hano- 
ver, we have a Chapel in the Court, where his Lord- 
ship has never yet failed of coming on Sundays with 
his family, and my congregation is now pretty con- 

I do not find there is any thing considerable printing 
either at Leipsic or Helmstadt, except Keppler's works 
in the former, in several volumes folio, by the Emperor's 
encouragement, they talk of collecting Mr. Leibnitz's 
pieces, but it is not certain when they will be published. 
The quality and gentry of this country taking to the 
sword, learning is in no great credit ; the superin- 
tendants have generally but small incomes, but the 
Abbot of Lockum, who is the first ecclesiastic in the 
Duchy of Hanover, has about ^£'1500 sterling per 
annum : he is near ninety years old, but holds as fast 
as the Bishop of Durham. '■ 

Sir G. Byng, his two sons, and Captain Saunders 
arrived here the other day from Italy, and have been 
very graciously received. The King is mightily pleased 
with a new jette d'eau in Herrenhausen gardens made 
by one Andrews an Englishman, and which throws 

» Nathaniel Lord Crew became bishop of Durham in IfiT4. He <licd 55cpt. I8't>. 
1721, .igeil eighty-eight. 


up a great quantity of water about sixty feet high. 
The Palace at Hanover is better than St. James's, and 
the Gardens at Herrenhausen larger than those at 
Kensington. Here is a public Library but not extra- 
ordinary, the best in this country is that of Wolfen- 
buttel, where it is said there are abundance of Manu- 
scripts relating to the Government of Britain. 

The Lutherans here, though they hold a real pre- 
sence in the Eucharist, disclaim the term consubstan- 
tiation, and say it is a word of reproach thrown upon 
them by the reformed : however it be, as they draw no 
consequences of adoration or any thing like it, if it be 
a speculative error, it seems to be a very innocent one. 
The Churches of the Lutherans are adorned with 
pictures and images, but they use no surplice. 

His Majesty continues in very good health, and I 

hope about two months hence to have the honour of 

waiting on your Lordship in London ; in the mean 

time with respects to your good Lady and family, I am 

My Lord, 

Your most obedient servant, 


Hanover, Sept. 5, 1720. N. S. 

Dr. Wilcocks, the writer of this Letter, was made Bishop of Glou- 
cester in 1721, and in 1731 was translated to the See of Rochester, which 
he held with the Deanry of Westminster. He afterwards refused great 
preferment, even the archbishoprick of York ; and died March O"". 176(5, 
aged eighty-three. 

1 /V 



Dr. Nicolson, Bishop of Derry, to Archbishop Wake, 
The effects of the Smith Sea Scheme upon Ireland. 

[mS. DOKAT. 6116, p. 197.] 

Londonderry, Dec. 6^''. 1720. 
My very good Lord, 
The last Letter wherewith your Grace honoured me 
was dated November the 3''. and came regularly about 
the 13*. From that day we have not had one word 
of Advice out of England till this morning, when nine 
Packets arrived together, and brought us the first sure 
notice of his Majesty's safe return, for which we are 
this minute giving solemn thanks in ringing of bells, 
bonfires, &c. This is a cheerful scene when compared 
with the gloominess which has been upon all our faces 
for some months past : and I am afraid the darkness 
will yet thicken. Our trade of all kinds is at a stand, 
insomuch that our most eminent merchants who used 
to pay bills of d£*1000 at sight, are hardly able to raise 
J*100 in so many days. Spindles of yarn (our daily 
bread) are fallen from half a crown to fifteen pence; 
and every thing else in proportion. Our best beef (as 
good as I ever eat in England) is sold under three 


ferthings a pound. And all this not from any extra- 
ordinary plenty of commodities, but from a perfect 
dearth of money. 

If Mr. Walpole, or any other wise man, will bring 
the two Kingdoms out of the present plunge, he will 
be a meritorious patriot. 

We feel the poverty of the town and neighbourhood 
of Manchester (whence we used to have an annual de- 
mand for all the yarn we could spin) as much as the 
inhabitants of the place can do. 

* * # » ♦ ' 

Your Grace's most obliged, 
obedient and dutiful servant, 

w. DERUr. 


Dr. Kitigj Archbishop of Dublin, to ArchbisJtop Wake. 
Still upon the Affair of the South Sea Company. 

[MS. DONAT. (JI17. p. 126.] 

Dublin, Feb. 9^^. 17^0. 
# ♦ ♦ * ♦ 

As to your South Sea Affair I told the fate of it last 
April, when it was at three hundred for one hundred, 


and the event has in every particular answered my pre- 
diction, which I set down in a few queries which I 
shewed to my friends but would not suffer them to be 
printed, because I understood that whoever said any 
thing against the South-Sea was looked on as disaffected 
to the Government and Ministry, which is an accusa- 
tion I would by no means lie under. I find both 
Houses are pretty smart on the Directors ; but I hear 
nothing said concerning those whose office it was to 
prevent the ruin of the Nation. If they did see that, 
and suffered it when it was so very easy to prevent it, it 
is no hard matter to determine what they deserve. If 
they did not see it, they were the only blind set of men 
in the Kingdom, and for the future ought never to be 
trusted in any public business ; and, beside that, chas- 
tised for meddling in the matters of which they were 
absolutely incapable : for surely such ought not to go 
unpunished. But it is now no new thing to hang little 
rogues and let the great escape. 

. * * # * * 

Your Grace's 

most obedient servant and brother, 




The Archbishop of Dublin to Archbishop Wake^ upon 
the same. 

[ms. donat. 6117. p. 127.] 

Dublin, March 23, 1720. 

# * * # # 

I WILL say no more to your South Sea, but it lias 
surely made us miserable to the highest degree, if 
starving be a misery. I lately had a petition from 
three hundred families concerned in the linen, silk, and 
woollen trade. I laid it before the Government, with 
another to the Justices and Council ; u^wn which I was 
ordered to inquire into the truth of the matter, and 
thereupon I procured the several ministers, church- 
wardens, and other substantial citizens to go through 
the parishes, and to inquire and see the circumstances 
of the petitioners. They have done so in most parishes, 
and returned the names of above thirteen hundred, 
beside wives and children, who are all out of employ- 
ment and starving, having sold every thing to get them 
bread. I was of opinion before, that one-third of this 
City needed charity ; but this and other inquiries have 
assured me that at least one half are in this lamentable 
.state. I have ordered a collection in every Church for 


them, and engaged the Clergy to represent their case 
in the most effectual manner to their people, but alas ! 
this, and all the subscriptions I can get for them, is 
nothing in respect of their wants. Most of our gentry 
and officers, civil and military, are in England. Those 
that are here, cannot get their rents from their tenants. 
The merchants have no trade; shop-keepers need 
charity ; and the cry of the whole people is loud for 
bread. God knows what will be the consequence. 
Many are starved, and I am afraid many more will. 

This is an effect in a great measure of the public 
management. And all the satisfaction I yet see the 
nation are to expect, are some hard votes on some few 
Directors ; and not one word against those that stood 
by and saw them do the mischief, when they might 
and ought to have prevented it. And if the account 
we have here be true, no industry is wanting to screen 
the criminals ; and the inquirers are discouraged. 
Whether there be truth in this your Grace knows. 
I am sure, however, it is no service to the Government 
to have it reported. 

We were in a miserable condition in King James''s 
time; but we generally had meat an4 drink, though 
with insufferable slavery and oppression : but now we 
have nothing of those but what we bring on ourselves, 
yet the poor are in danger of starving, and many have 
perished. The Gaols are full, not of State prisoners, 
as then, but of debtors. 


Your Grace will pardon my giving you this trouble. 
The truth is, it is so great a grief to me to see so many 
miserable, and not to be able to relieve them, that I 
can hardly think, speak, or write of any thing. 
Your Grace''s most obedient 

servant and brother, 



Dr. King, Archbishop of Dublin, to Archbishop Wake. 
The effect of the South Sea Failure still continues 
in Ireland. 

[mS. DONAT. 6II7. p. 135.] 

Dublin, May 15"'. 1722. 

« # * * » 

The present bustle gives us great uneasiness, and 
will help to sink this Kingdom, by putting a stop to all 
trade and business. Nobody will part with a farthing 
of money, if he can help it, till it be over. We are 
the more uneasy, because we know the bottom or rea- 
son of it ; and^ people entertain wild and strange sur- 
mises concerning it, which are fed and heightened by 
private letters from England. We are sending off 
Six Regiments to assist you. One would think, con- 
sidering the number of Papists wc have here, that our 


gentry are for the most part in England, and all our 
money goes there, that we should rather expect help 
from you in any distress, than send you Forces to pro- 
tect you. Yet this is the third time we have done so 
since His Majesty's accession to the Throne; and 
withal preserved the Kingdom from any Insurrection 
or Rebellion ; which is more than can be said for Eng- 
land or Scotland. 


Dr. Nicolson, Bishop ofDerry, to Arclihishoj) Wake. 
The new Irish Halfpence. 

[ms. donat. 6116. p. 237.] 

*^ The Reader need hardly be informed that, in 1722, the want of 
small money in Ireland had grown to such a height that even considerable 
manufacturers were obliged to pay their workmen with tallies or tokens 
of card signed upon the back, to be afterwards exchanged for money. 
Counterfeit coins too, called Raps, were in common use, made of such 
bad metal, that what passed for a halfpenny was really not worth half a 
Farthing. In order to remedy these evils, the King granted a patent to 
William Wood, Esq. the chief lessee of the mines on the crown lands, 
for coining and uttering Halfpence and Farthings in that Kingdom. The 
privilege was for the term of fourteen years, the quantity to be coined 
limited, and the issues to be under the inspection of a Comptroller ap- 
pointed by the Crown. A rent of 800Z. per annum was reserved to the 
King, and 200/. a year to the Comptroller. Notwithstanding these re- 
strictions, and though the coins in weight, fineness, and execution, ex- 
ceeded any which had been previously made for Ireland, the measure 


became unpopular, and the prejudices of the people were so worked upon 
by Swift and others, that \^''ood was finally induced to surrender his 

The Reader who would know all that passed upon the subject of this 
and some succeeding Letters, may consult Simon's Essay on Irish Coins, 
pp. 69, 70, 171 ; Swift's Works, vol, xv ; Ruding's Annals of the 
Coinage of Britain, S-^.tdit. voL iii. p. 472— 486 ; and Coxe's Blemoirs 
of Sir Robert Walpole. 

Dublin, Sept. 21^^ 1722. 
My very good Lord, 
This day the Bishop of Elphin and I had the fa- 
vour of being admitted to hear the Debates of our 
House of Commons on (their only subject of contro- 
versy) the new Irish Halfpence. They have loaded 
the Patentee (W. Wood) with heavy censures; but 
treated His Majesty, the Lord Lieutenant, and the 
English Ministry, with decency. The Report from 
the Committee of the whole House is to be made on 
Monday, when an Address will be made on their 
several Resolutions, wherein they unanimously agree 
that this Kingdom would have suffered a loss of 150 
per Cent by the Patentee's execution of his powers, if 
he had performed the conditions of his grant, and 
much more by his abuse of it. Dining very late with 
the Lord Chancellor will not admit of a fuller report 

Your Grace's most dutiful, 




Dr. Nicolson, Bishop ofDerry, to Archbishop Wake. 
Apprehension of losing all the Gold and Silver in 
Ireland in exchange for Halfpence and Farthings. 
Debates upon it in the Commons of that Kingdom. 

[ms. donat. 6116. p. 241.] 

DubUn, Sept. 10^1'. 1723. 
My very good Lord, 
By the last post I promised your Grace our Ad- 
dresses to His Majesty and the Lord Lieutenant, not 
considering that the former cannot be pubhshed till 
the King's Answer is received. 

What most alarms us is a general apprehension of 
losing all our Gold and Silver in exchange for Half- 
pence and Farthings of an adulterated metal ; which 
(as is computed) will carry oiF above Seventy per Cent, 
if they are allowed to pass current. 

On this topic the Commons were very warm yester- 
day ; and their Debates ended in a Call of their Mem- 
bers, and the appointing a day (Friday se'nnight) for 
the consideration of that particular. 

I am, my Lord, 
Your Grace's ever faithful, 




The same to the same. The panic in Ireland increases. 
Dean Sxoift prints his Letters on the subject. 

[MS, DONAT. 6116. p. 264.] 

London Derry, August ^l''*. 1724. 
My very good Lord, 
'Tis an inexpressible Ferment wherein this distracted 
Kingdom is at this present, on account of a panic 
fear which we are under of being ruined by Wood''s 
Halfpence. This Morning's Packet has brought us 
printed Copies of the late Report of the Committee of 
your Council upon this subject ; which shows us what 
course is like to be taken. As an Antidote against 
this we have had two printed Letters, generally sup- 
posed to be penned by Dean Jonathan, animating all 
our Farmers, Shop-keepers, &c, peremptorily to refuse 
the acceptance of this Brass-money, by what authority 
soever countenanced ; and (in plain terms) to shoot 
Mr. Wood or his accomplices through the head, when- 
ever any of them shall dare to offer their Trash in 
payment here. Nay, since the coming over of the 
Report, most of the several Companies of Merchants, 
Drapers, and other Tradesmen in Dublin, have sub- 
scribed a sort of Association to this purpose. And, 


since I began to write this Letter, I am told that the 
Merchants in this Town are, at this very time, copy- 
ing after their betters. I have ventured (and a bold 
venture it is) to caution some of them against engaging 
in such a warm enterprize. 

My Lord, I cannot but vehemently suspect, that 
this evil spirit is raised by those that hope for more 
considerable outrages amongst us ; especially when the 
Insolence of our Popish Priests increases so visibly 

every where. 


Your Grace''s most dutiful servant, 



The same to the same. Leagues and Declarations 
among the Shopheepers, ^c. of Ireland^ against 
Wood''s Halfpence. 

[MS. DONAT. 6116. p. 286.] 

London Derry, Oct. 2<1. 1 724. 


* « * # « 

I AM not surprised at your Grace''s wondering at 
our unaccountable Warmth about Wood's Halfpence. 
The matter seemed as strange to me ; and I freely ex- 
pressed my thoughts as long as I durst. By degrees 



we are now come into a general conflagration. All our 
pedlers and petit merchants are confederating into 
solemn Leagues and Covenants against the currency 
of them. In one of the little borough towns of this 
Diocese the shop-keepers a,nd ale-drapers have sub- 
scribed a formal engagement, wherein they abhor, de- 
test, and abjure Mr. Wood and his Copper, in the 
same words wherein their ringleaders have bid a de- 
fiance to the Pretender and his false Money. 

This frenzy (which is indeed epidemical throughout 
the whole Kingdom) had seized several of my neigh- 
bours in this town : but upon the application of some 
of the chief of them for my opinion, a stop (I hope a 
final one) is put to the progress of the infection here. 

I am told that some Hot-spurs among our Justices 
of the Peace have drawn up a declaration, in the 
fashionable way, which they design to offer to their 
brethren (and the Grand Jury) at their Quarter Ses- 
sions on Tuesday next. But half of the Bench being 
Clergymen, I hope to suppress that also. 

The Lord Lieutenant's coming (unless some comfort 
about the Half-pence be his forerunner) will be a little 
dreaded by 

Your Grace's 
ever dutiful, grateful, and 

faithful servant, 




The same to the same. Further Associations against 
the Currency of Woocfs Money. 

[ms. DONAT, 6116. p. 122.] 

London Derry, Oct. 30*. 1724. 
My very good Lord, 

My last acquainted your Grace that our Justices of 
the Peace and Grand Juries were threatening to enter 
into Covenants and Associations against the Currency 
of these Halfpence and farthings, according to the pre- 
cedent given them by the three Estates of the County 
of Dublin. 

This great example was accordingly followed, as I 
am credibly informed, by all the Counties of the Pro- 
vince of Ulster ; this of London-Derry only excepted. 
We had not one word said of the matter : but some 
of our good neighbours abundantly supplied this defect. 
They not only covenanted (after the common form) 
" never on any pretence whatever to receive or pay 
any of that coin," but that they would " prosecute to 
the utmost all others that should give any countenance 
to its currency." 

To complete our security, our Spiritual Draper 
wrote a fourth Letter on this fruitful subject, directed 


to the whole people of Ireland ; wherein he exhorts 
the Kingdom most stedfastly to adhere to that glorious 
combination whereunto they have thus bound them- 
selves. » This advice he thinks necessary at this junc- 
ture, because of a report spread abroad that the Lord 
Lieutenant is coming over to settle Wood''s Halfpence. 
In a sneering manner he represents this as a groundless 
falsehood, and proves it to be so by (as sneering) 
panegyrics on his Excellency, Mr. Walpole, &c. Care 
was taken to publish this satire the very day before 
the Lord Lieutenant landed, and within two days 
after it had a second edition. This gallant patriot 
asserts, in words at length, that Ireland no more de- 
pends on England than England does upon Ireland ; 
that they who assert the contrary, talk without any 
ground of law, reason, or common-sense ; that the Par- 
liaments of England have sometimes assumed a power 
of binding this Kingdom by laws enacted there ; but 
this has been opposed by invincible arguments, from 
truth, justice, and reason, &c. 

Thus, my Lord, we are come to the highest round 
in our ladder ; and if no mark be set on this insolent 

• When a reward was offered for the discovery of the Author of the Drapier's 
Fourth Letter, a Note was sent to Swift with the following text from l Sam. 
chap. xiv. V. 4S. " And the people said unto Saul, shall Jonathan die, who hath 
wrought this great salvation in Israel ? God forbid. As the Lord liveth, there shall 
not one hair of his head fall to the ground ; for he wrought with God this day. So 
the people rescued Jonathan that he died not." U was said to have been written by 
a Quaker. 

VOL. IV. SEU. 2. Z 


writer, little safety will be expected (but in your 
prayers) by 

Your Grace's ever dutiful servant, 



The same to the same. The Address of the Irish Par- 
liament upon his Majesty' s favour in the matter of 
Wood'^s Patent. 

[MS. DONAT. 6116. p. 284.] 

Dublin, Sept. 21st. 1725. 
My very good Lord, 
Upon this day's delivery of the enclosed Speech 
from the Throne (which was done with as graceful an 
emphasis as I ever heard) Addresses to his Majesty 
and the Lord Lieutenant were immediately resolved 
on, in terms as dutiful and respectful as could be de- 
sired : but upon appointment of Committees to draw 
up those, instructions were offered which look per- 
plexing, and occasioned long debates. His Majesty's 
Royal favour and condescension in the matter of 
Wood's Patent was not thought to be sufficient to bear 
the whole weight of our acknowledgments, unless his 


Wisdom was also allowed its share. The meaning 
of that word on this occasion was plainly discernible. 
However, a majority carried the Amendment : but, we 
hope, that either the Committee or the House itself (on 
second thoughts) will throw it out.* 

This struggle has kept us so late, that I am hardly 
able to subscribe myself 

Your Grace''s most dutiful servant, 



The Duke of Wharton to Lady Jane Holt Ms sister. 
Endeavours to extenuate his conduct. 

[hs. sovat. 6416. foL 5. Orig.] 

*(,* Philip second IVIarquesa of Wharton, was created Duke of 
Wharton by King George the First. The life of this distinguished 
nobleman was a continued scene of eccentricity. 

Salmon, in his Chronological Historian, vol. ii. p. 166, says, *' 1726, 
June 10"". A Messenger having been sent to Madrid with a Letter 
under the privy seal, from his IMajesty to the Duke of M'^harton, com- 
manding the Duke to return to England, his Grace, being in a coach 
when it was delivered to him, contemptuously threw it into the street 
without opening it, and soon after, it is said, declared himself a Roman 
Catholic." The latter part of this statement is disproved by the fol- 
lowing Letter. 

Pope says, He died 

" sad outcast of each Church and State." 

At his death in 1731, the title became extinct 

• It was afterwards thrown out by a majority in the Lords of twenty-one to twelve. 


340 original letters. 

Dear Sister, 

My name has been so often mentioned in the public 
Prints, and consequently become the subject of private 
conversation, that my personal friends (you particu- 
larly) may with reason expect to know from myself 
what steps I have taken or intend to take, and 
the true reasons of my present resolution. As to 
the reasons of my conduct I do not think it proper 
to write them directly to You, I must refer you to 
some papers you will soon see published through all 
Europe; I will not trust the good manners, or the 
good nature of my enemies by writing any thing to 
you that might expose you to trouble, for it would 
sharpen the prosecutions begun against me, if you 
should suffer the least inconvenience from tenderness 
to me. Whatever relates to myself gives me no un- 
easiness. Every virulent vote, every passionate re- 
proach, and every malicious calumny against me, are 
so many real commendations of my conduct, and while 
you and my sister Lucy are permitted to live quietly 
and securely, I shall think our Family has met with no 
misfortune, and has therefore no claim to the com- 
passion of its truest friends. 

I know your tender concern and affection for me, 
and write chiefly to give you comfort, not to receive 
any from You ; for I thank God that I have an easy 
contented mind, and that I want no comfort. I have 


some hopes, I have no fears ; which is more than some 
of your Norfolk neighbours can say of themselves. 

I desire your prayers for the success of my wishes 
and prosperity of our Family ; I scorn the false pre- 
tended compassion of my enemies, and it would grieve 
me much more to receive the real pity of my friends. 

I shall not wonder if, at first, you should be affected 
with the warmth of the Proceeding against me, and 
should shew some concern at the attempts to strip our 
family of its title, and to rob them of their estates ; but 
you will soon change your mind, when you consider 
that my real honour does not depend on Walpole or 
his master's pleasure, that a faction may attaint a man 
without corrupting his blood, and that an estate seized 
by violence and arbitrary [power] is not irrecoverably 
lost. The word late is now become the most honour- 
able epithet of the Peerage, it is a higher title than 
that of Grace, and whenever you hear me spoke of in 
that manner, I beg you to think as I do, that I have 
received a new marlc of honour, a mark dignified by 
the Duke of Ormond, Earl Marischal,=> and others. 

You that have often read Clarendon''s History must 
know that during the reign of Cromwell and the Rump 
Parliament, the. whole Peerage of England was styled 
THE LATE HousE OF LoRDS ; there was then no want 
of late DuJces, late Earls, and late Bishops, and wliy 
should that be reckoned a reproach to a single Peer, 

• of the Uarl Marischall a further incnlioii will cx:cur hereafter, 


which was then the distinguishing title to the whole 
body ? Was that usurper Cromwell the fountain of 
honour ? Had he who murdered one King any more 
power to taint the blood of his fellow subjects, than his 
illustrious successor who has fixed a price on the Head 
of another ? For as Lord Harcourt finely observes in 
his Speech on Dr. Sacheverel, there is little or no dif- 
ference between a wet Martyrdom or a dry one. Can 
a High Commission Court at present, or a Secret Com- 
mittee, tarnish the honour of a family? Is it a real 
disgrace to be condemned by Macclesfield, Harcourt, 
Townshend, or Trevor ? Is it a dishonour to be robbed 
of a private fortune by those who have stript the widow 
and the fatherless .'' who have sold their Country ? who 
have plundered the public? No, my dear Sister, 
assure yourself that this unjust Prosecution is a lasting 
monument erected to the honour of our family ; it will 
serve to render it illustrious to after ages, to atone for 
the unhappy mistakes of any of our misguided ances- 
tors. If it should end with me, it will, however, have 
outlived the Liberties of England. 

Those honours which we received at first from the 
Crown, can never be more gloriously interred than in 
the defence of the injured rights of the Crown ; than 
in the cause of the rightful Monarch of Britain, the 
greatest of Princes and the best of Masters. 

But I forget myself by enlarging too far on a sub- 
ject that may not be so conveniently mentioned in a 


Letter to you ; my zeal for my Country, my duty to 
my Sovereign, my affection to You, and my respect to 
my Family and its true honour, have carried on my pen 
farther than I intended. I will only add that no change 
in my circumstances ever shall lessen my tender con- 
cern for you or my sister Lucy, to whom I desire you 
would present my love, and charge her as she values 
my friendship never to marry without my consent. Be 
assured that no distance of place, nor length of time, shall 
abate my affection for you, and my enemies shall find 
whenever I return to England, it shall be with honour 
to myself and with joy to my friends ; to all those I 
mean who wish well to the Church of England, and to 
their native Country. Neither shall any thing tempt 
me to abandon that cause which I have so deliberately 
embraced, or to forsake that Religion in which I was 
educated. Wherever I am, I shall be always, dear 

Your sincere friend and brother, 


Madrid, June the 17"'. N. S. 

To Lady Jane Holt. 





In this as in some preceding Reigns, the topics on which the Letters 
treat are few, and they relate chiefly to the latter part only of Kino 
George the Second's time. 

The murder of Capt. Porteus in 1736, the Rebellion of 1745, the 
robbery of the English Courier at the Gate of Berlin, and the Fate of 
Byng, are the most prominent subjects. 

Next to these, the Letters of Mr. Pitt, afterwards Earl of Chatham, 
the pardon of the Lord Marischall, and the proof that Voltaire drew 
secrets from the King of Prussia for the Court of France, are perhaps 
the most attractive. Frederick the Great's laconic character of Voltaire 
will not be overlooked. 



M(v)or General Moyle to the Duke of Newc^tle, 
the Seizure and Execution of Captain Fvrteous by 
the Mob at Edinburgh. 

[hS. HARL. MUS. BRIT. 7187-] 

*^» The Case of Captain Porteous was one of extraordinary interest 
at its time. As Captain Lieutenant of the City Guard of Edinbui^h he 
was charged with, and adjudged guilty of firing upon the populace 
without order from the M^istrates, upon an attempt of the mob to seize 
the body of a culprit whose execution had just taken place, April IS"". 
1736. On July the 20">. he was sentenced to die. Circumstances which 
were subsequently brought to light, appeared to lessen his guilt, and 
Queen Caroline, who was then Guardian of the Realm, sent a reprieve 
for six weeks, which it was thought would be followed by a change of 
the sentence to transportation. His execution stood fixed, upon the 
expiration of the reprieve, for the 8"". of September. Upon the night of 
the 7"'. as will be seen in the following Letter, the populace seized the 
Toll-booth by surprise, found the prisoner, and hurried him by torch- 
light to the Grass-market, where throwing a rope over a sign-post twenty 
feet high, belonging to a dyer, near the ordinary place of execution, they 
pulled him up, but his hands being loose, he fixed them between his neck 
and the rope, so that the mob were obliged to let him down again. 
Having on two shirts, they wrapped one about his face, tied his arms 
with the night-gown he had on, pulled him up again, and completed 
his execution. 

. Edinburgh, 9'''. September, 1736. 
My Loud, 
I THINK it my duty to acquaint your Grace with 
what happened here last Tuesday night, about a quar- 
ter of an hour after ten. Being then hi my bed, Colonel 


Pears, who commands General Sabine's regiment in 
the Canongate, came and told me he heard there 
was a great disturbance in the City, on which I imme- 
diately ordered him to assemble the six Companies 
quartered here, and to parade them near the Guard in 
the Canongate, and to send for the three Companies 
from Leith, which was done with as much expedition 
as possible, for some of the Companies are quartered 
at a great distance from the Canongate. I 'dressed 
myself as soon as possible, in order to join the regiment. 
I was scarce dressed when Mr. Lindesay came to me, 
and told me there was a great mob in the City. It then 
wanted about fourteen minutes of eleven ; he assured 
me they had got possession of the City gates, and that 
with much difficulty he got out by a small wicket, 
and was obliged to come round by the King's Park. 
He made no demand of a guard to assist them, but I 
told him I had ordered the regiment to be under arms, 
but that I could not force any of the Town gates, 
or give orders for attacking the mob, without legal 
authority from the Lord Justice-Clerk, or some other 
of the Lords of the Justiciary ; for it was from one of 
them I had received all orders relating to the military 
since I came into the Country. I then asked Mi'. 
Lindesay if Lord Justice-Clerk, or any other of the 
Lords of the Justiciary were in town ? His answer was 
that neither the Justice-Clerk nor Lord Royston was in 
town ; but Lord Newhall was, but there was no getting 


to him. On which, knowing the Justice-Clerk lived 
but two miles and an half off the town, I desired Mr. 
Lindesay to write immediately to him for his directions, 
what he would have the Troops do ; and sent the letter 
by my own servant, who gallopped all the way. My 
Lord being in bed, he got no answer from him till neat- 
one o'clock : the letter was directed to Mr. Lindesay, 
so I never saw the answer ; and long before it came, the 
poor man was hanged by the mob. By what I since 
hear, he was executed before Mr. Lindesay came to 
my house ; for they got him out of prison a little after 
ten. It was a great oversight that the poor man was 
not put into the Castle as soon as his reprieve came for 
him ; that being the only place to secure him from the 
rage of the mob. This unheard-of barbarity had 
been concerting several days, and I am surprized the 
Magistrates were not more on their guard. The 
Town-soldiers, instead of resisting, delivered their 
arms to the mob ; the Turnkey of the Prison owned 
he had a hint given him in the morning, that the Pri- 
son would be attempted to be broke open that night, 
and that he acquainted the Gaoler of it, and desired 
him to make it known to the Lord Provost, that care 
might be taken to prevent it. The Magistrates were 
drinking together in the Parliament-close when the 
mob first assembled, but did not care to read the pro- 
clamation, which was a very great neglect in them. 


On their suspecting the mob would rise that night, 
the care of the Port next to the Canongate, ought to 
have been immediately put under the guard of the 
King's forces, and then the communication between 
the City and Suburbs would have been kept open. I 
have to add, that had the Troops forced their way into 
the town by demolishing one of the gates, without a 
egal authority, your Grace would soon have had a 
terrible complaint from the Magistrates. The regiment 
here are much fatigued, having lain two nights on 
their arms. I cannot but mention to your Grace 
that this is the third prisoner, within the memory of 
man, that has been taken out of the Tolbooth here, 
and barbarously murdered by the mob. They charge 
me with procuring Porteous's reprieve, and threaten 
to murder me in my bed or set fire to my house; but I 
despise them all. I don't hear that any of the crimi- 
nals are yet apprehended, though well known by many 
of the inhabitants of the town. 

. I am, &c. ^ 




Dr. Edward Chandler ^ Bishop of Durham, apparently 
to the Archdeacon of Northumberland. The Rebels 
approaching ^om the North, The spirit of the 
different Counties. 

[us. DONAT. 6484. Orig.'] 

15* Oct. 174.5. 
Mr. Archdeacon, 

In answer to yours concerning Mr. Brown''s Ordi- 
nation, I am to acquaint you that his Instruments that 
he sent up are right. 

# # # # ' # 

You have surely done your part in contributing 
largely in two Counties, and it is a commendable cau- 
tion to remove your family to Durham, for fear of a 
sui-prize. A single man can upon a little notice scam- 
per off. But to tell you my opinion, I believe if the 
Rebels be not already advanced to the South, they 
will have no stomach hereafter to such an expedition. 
For Mr. Wade with his forces will be to-morrow at 
North Allerton, and then he will be too near the bor- 
ders of Scotland for them to look him in the face. It 
is said Lockheart hath detached his Clan from the Pre- 
tender, and is himself on the road to London to claim 


the benefit of His Majesty's Proclamation. Others are 
said to be gone home also with their plunder. 

We hear E. Marshall is one of the persons con- 
cealed in the Spanish ship taken by the Bristol pri- 
vateer, and that the Plot begins to be unravelled, 
wherein Papists of rank are said to be concerned. I 
hear of no others. General Cope and Col. Fowke are 
sent for up, to be tried by a Court Martial, and it is 
thought this is to lead the way to some Impeachment. 
We hear the English forces from Williamstadt are 
landed about Newcastle ; if so I hope both Northum- 
berland and Durham will be more than sufficiently 
secured : and the burden of the Associations be soon 
ended. It is a noble spirit that reigns in all the Coun- 
ties, but unless the troops can be put under a proper 
regulation and discipline, they cannot stand before a 
body of Highlanders. They have, however, their use 
to prevent plundering by parties. 

I doubt not but Providence will protect you where- 
ever you stay, or go : nor need you be too scrupulous 
about leaving your Parish, when your stated time and 
business call you elsewhere. I hope you will attend 
the Ordination, and am. 

Your affectionate brother and servant, 




Duncan Forbes Lord President of the Court of Session 
in Scotland^ to Mr. Mitchell. The State of Edin- 
burgh after the Successes of the Rebels there and at 
Preston Pans. 


*0* Andrew Mitchell, Esq. afterwards Sir Andrew Mitchell, K. B. 
from whose Correspondence this and numerous other lietters have been 
copied for the present Series, was Under Secretary, from 1743 to 1745, 
to the Marquess of Tweedale then Secretary of State for Scotland, whose 
Office was suppressed in the latter year. In 1750 Mr. Mitchell became 
Member of Parliament for Aberdeenshire; and in 175G went as His 
Britannick Majesty's Envoy extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the 
Court of Berlin, where he remained, with a short interval, till his death, 
Jan. 28"'. 1771. 

Few readers need to be told wlio was Duncan Forbes. " I knew 
and venerated the man," says Bishop Warburton, " one of the greatest 
that ever Scotland bred, both as a judge, a patriot, and a christian." He 
was bom at Culloden in 1G85, was appointed Solicitor-general of Scot- 
land in 1717, member for Inverness in 1722, Lord Advocate in 1726, and 
in 1742 liord President of the Court of Session. In the rebellion of 1745 
he mortgaged his estate to support the Government. The refusal of the 
English ftlinistry to repay the expenses he had incurred is said to have 
shortened his life. He died in 1747, at the age of sixty-two. 

Culloden, 13'''. November, 1 745. 
My Dear Andrew, 
I AM mortally tired with writing a Letter to the 
Marquis of an immoderate length, and in a hand so 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. A A 


like Arabic, that I doubt your help will be wanted to 
decypher it. But it was impossible to make it shorter, 
and I am but a bad scribe : besides that, I have much 
more business on my hands at present to disturb my 
attention than I should have had, if the Rebels had 
permitted me to go through the course of the Session 
at Edinburgh. 

When I came first to this Country, though I was 
not just treading in the path of a Chief Justice, the 
prospect was very flattering, and the errand I came on 
had no appearance of difficulty ; but the rebels' suc- 
cesses at Edinburgh and Preston Pans soon changed 
the scene. All Jacobites, how prudent soever, became 
mad ; all doubtful people became Jacobites ; and all 
bankrupts became Heroes, and talked of nothing but 
of hereditary right and victory : and what was more 
grievous to those of gallantry, and if you will believe 
me much more mischievous to the public, all the fine 
Ladies, if you will except one or two, became pas- 
sionately fond of the young Adventurer, and used all 
their arts and industry for him in the most intemperate 
manner. Under these circumstances I found myself 
almost alone ; without troops, without arms, without 
money or credit ; provided with no means to prevent 
extreme folly, except pen and ink, a tongue, and some 
reputation ; and, if you will except Macleod, whom I 
sent for from the Isle of Skye, supported by nobody of 
common sense or courage. Had Arms and Money 


come when they were first called for, before these 
unexpected successes blew up folly into madness, I 
could have answered it with my head, that no man 
from the North should have joined the original flock 
of Rebels that crossed the Forth ; and even as it has 
happened, it is no small consolation to me, that except 
Macpherson of Cluny, whose force does not exceed three 
hundred, none from the North have reached theni in 
time to march along with them Southward from Edin- 
burgh ; that no more than about two hundred of the 
Clan Chattan^ have marched, who had got as last Satur- 
day no farther than Perth, and that notwithstanding 
the restless endeavours of the Earl of "Cromarty, the 
Master of Lovat, and others, no more than a hundred 
and fifty or a hundred and sixty of the Mackenzies 
have been debouched, and that even those have not as 
yet passed the Corryarcck, no more than the Erasers, 
who to the number of five or six hundred have flocked 
to arms, and who possibly may think better, if the 
weather permit the force which we hourly expect 
from the Isle of Skye to join us quickly, before they 
leave their country exposed. By this diversion, his 
Majesty ""s army will have a much smaller body of 
Highlanders to deal with to the Southward than other- 
wise they should have had; and, if a small number of 
troops could be spared from it to take possession of 

* The Clan Chattan consisted of Sixteen Tribes, each havin;; their own chief- 
tain, but all voluntarily united under the government of one leader, tlie Laird of 
Mat kintosli. Sec the ."Statist. Ace. of Si-otl. vol. viii. p. io(>. 

A A Je 


Edinburgh, and to secure the fords of the Firth, as, 
on the one hand, the small numbers of Highlanders 
that are marching towards Edinburgh could not join 
their brethren, so, on the other, the retreat of those that 
have marched towards England would be cut off. 
But this, if practicable, has doubtless been done before 
this time. 

As to the Independent Companies, I have disposed 
of such of them as are hitherto given with the greatest 
discretion I was master of, following this rule, to be- 
stow them on such as could be trusted and could the 
most quickly bring the men together for the service. 
I shall have a dozen of them together soOn, and some 
more in a little time ; and in this operation I should 
have succeeded better, but for the folly and roguery 
of mankind, which finds many ways of exerting itself. 
You will naturally observe that the cutting off the 
communication with the rest of Scotland, confined the 
nomination of the officers of those companies to the 
North. E. Loudon's arrival has been a vast relief to 
me; his skill and diligence joined to patience and a very 
obliging behaviour, must be of very great service to 
the public at this juncture, when those talents are so 
much wanted and so scarce. 

As I am pretty much fatigued with wielding the 
pen, give me leave to conclude ; but before I do so, to 
put you in mind that I have hardly seen a common 
London Print for a month; that I know nothing of 


what is, or has been doing in the world for these three 
months past; and that any thing that you may be 
pleased to entertain me with in my Lord Marquis's 
packet will come probably safe. I dare say you will- 
put his Lordship in mind of despatching what in mine 
to him is suggested, if he should stand in need of a 
monitor, which I am confident he will not. 
I am, my dear Andrew, 
truly yours, 



Duncan Forbes, Lord President, to Mr. Mitchell. 
Mr. Gordon. The want of supplies wherewith to 
oppose the Rebels. 


Cullodcn, 22 Dec. 1745. 

* * # * # 

As to Mr. Grordon, who seems to be a pretty young 

man, he may be sure of my best offices. Though upon 

the plan which the necessity of the service obliged me 

to pursue, in raising the Independent Companies, which 


was to give the nomination of the officers to the well 
affected Chiefs who could instantly produce the Com- 
panies, it was not possible to give him a commission ; 
I have, however, recommended him in the strongest 
manner to E. Loudon, whom he will attend in the 
remainder of this ill-favoured campaign; and what 
service I can do him shall not be wanting. 

I am obliged to you for yours of the 7'^ which 
came by a sloop from Leith, despatched by the Soli- 
citor, because it gives me notice that what I wrote by 
the Salbach is come to hand, and hopes that some time 
or another the siipplies sought may come under con- 
sideration and be ordered. Though give me leave to 
tell you, my dear Andrew, it is somewhat mortifying, 
that when men are exposing themselves as we are doing 
in this Country, and thereby doing what we know to 
be very essential to the Government, our safety, if no 
more were in the question, is so slightly treated, and 
this Country left unguarded, to be possibly the seat 
for some months of a War that may cost Britain im- 
mense sums and very great danger, when small atten- 
tion and the timely supply of a few thousand stand of 
arms, and a few thousand pounds, would in all human 
appearance prevent such fatal consequence. It sur- 
prized me, I own, to find in neither of the packets to 
me any letter from my Lord Marquis, though there 
was one to the Moderator of the Synod of Murray, in 


answer to a letter with an address which was trans- 
mitted along with my last despatch. 

This must have been owing wholly to some acci- 
dental mistake in mislaying the Letter, if any such was 
written, or more probably to the hurry the ministers 
may have been in, which prevented their taking time 
to come to resolutions, and give directions on the de- 
mands I made ; the nearness of the danger, which at 
that time was approaching London, may have been the 
cause why they overlooked one that was more remote. 
But as that alarm must have worn off' in a day or two 
at farthest after the date of your last, I am hopeful 
they have before this time thought in good earnest of 
our case, and sent us the supply desired ; if they have 
not, the consequences will, I am afraid, be severely 
felt ; as, besides the want of arms, our money is almost 
spent. But if this have a quick passage, and if upon the 
receipt of it the supplies are immediately despatched, 
they may happen to come before it is too late ; especially 
if the Rebels choose to make a stand for any time at 

To understand distinctly what I write, with the 
reason for writing so, you must consider my letter to 
my Lord Marquis of this date, which I presume you 
will sec, and my reason for writing to you so urgently 
on this subject in terms which might possibly be not 
altogether so proper to put in a letter to his Lordship, 
which may be seen by other eyes, is, that my Lord may 
know and be able to express to the Ministers who must 


cooperate with him, the sense I have, and which I fear 
all those who act along with me generously in this 
Country will soon have, of the neglect with which we 
are treated, if what I complain of is not speedily re- 
medied. I have nothing further to say, my dear An- 
drew, but that 

I am sincerely yours, 


Br the kindness of his friend Edward Hawkins, Esq. the Editor is 
here enabled to lay before the Reader a List of the various IMedals, 
struck in England and elsewhere, connected ■with the History o/"King 
James the Second's Aldication, the Birth of his Son, and tJie Efforts 
and Sufferings of his Family till their extinction : including various 
Medals of Louis the XIV"". K. William the IIP. Queen Anne, and 
William Duke of Cumberland, bearing upon the same subjects. The 
Reader will observe that upon the ]\Iedals of the Son of James the II''. 
the date of his birth on those struck in England is the 10"". upon the 
Foreign Medals 20"' of June : being occasioned by the difference of the 
stiles then In use. 

1. An infant, reclining upon a state cradle, strangles a serpent in each hand; 
the ground strewed with fragments of slaughtered serpents. Leg. MONSTRIS . 
DANT . FVNERA . CVN.E. Rev. The Prince's Plume. Leg. FVLTA . TRIBVS . 
METVENDA . CORONA. Ex. 1688. Diam. 1^. Cabinets. Royal. B. Mus. 
Dr. Hunter. Edw. Hawkins, Esq. arg. 

2. Armorial shield of the P»ince of Wales, crowned, supported by four infant genii, 
one of whom holds the Prince's plume, another the ducal shield of Cornwall. Leg. 
HONOR. PRIN. MAG. BRIT. FRA. ET. HIB. NAT. 10. IVN. 1688. Rev. the 
ijifant Prince reclining on a cushion : above, two infant genii with trumpets hold a 
crown and palm branch, and support a band inscribed, VENIAT . CENTESIMVS . 
HiERES. Diam. 1^^. Cab. Dr. Hunter, arg. 

3. Busts, to the right, of James H. and Q. Mary ; shoulders mantled ; the King lau- 
reate. Leg. lACOBVS.lI. M. BRIT. REX. MARIA. M. BRIT. REG. Rev. a Map 
of ANGLI A, SCOTIA, HIBERNI A, whence storms are retiring westward, as theSun 
ABL. EXT. C. C. MDCLXXXVIII. Diam. if. Cab. Bodley. atir. Trattle. 
Hawkins. &c. arg. 

4. The King's bust to the left, laureate, hair long, mantle over breast. Leg, 
The Queen, in a canopied bed, holding the infant Prince. Leg. FELICITAS 
ABLEG.EXT. C. C. DJam. 2|. Ca6. Royal. Hunter. Trattle, &c. &c. org-. 


i. Bust to the left, laureate, mantle over shoulders. Leg. GIVE THE KINO 
THY IVDGMENTS : O GOD. Rev. An angel guarding the iufaut Prince in a cradle 
SON. Psal. 72. 1. Jir.' The Prince of Wales bom June 10, 1688.' Diaml\. Cab. 
Reeve. Hawkins. H. VA\is, pewter. Thedeviceof this medal is stampt in imitation of 
engraving, and the workmanship is very rude. 

6. Truth trampling upon the serpent of deceit, and opening the door of a cabinet 
inscribed, lAC. FRANC. EDVARD SVPPOSIT. 20 JVNII 1688. Within appears 
a Jesuit pushing through the top a cushion, upon which is seated an infant holding a 
chalice in one hand and crowning himself with the other. Leg. SIC NON HERE- 
OES DEERVNT. In the distance appears the Dutch Fleet advancing under 
favourable breezes from heaven. Rev. The Trojan horse with his trappings, in- 
QVAM TU CREDE BRITANNE. Diam. 3^ Cab. Royal, arg. an. B. Mus. 
Hunter. Trattle, &,c. &c. arg. 

7. Aglauros opens a basket, placed amid roses and thistles, whence Erichthonius 
escapes. In the distance are females alarmed at the sight. Ijeg. INFANTEMQUE 
VIDENT, APPORRECTUMQUE DRACONEM. Rev. A withered rose-bush, 
bearing two decayed flowers ; at a little distance springs up a small sucker with 
Cab. Royal. B. Mus. Hunter. Hawkins, iic. arg. 

8. Will. III. habited as a Roman Emperor, trampling upon a serpent, and support- 
ing Mary wearing the crowns of her triple kingdom ; her shield is suspended from an 
Orange tree, entwined with roses and thistles. In the distance appear James II. aixl 
Father Petre bearing away the young Prince, who is playing with a windmill, 
(alluding to the report that the young Prince was the son of a miller). P. A. F. the 
initiaLt of the arUst's name. Leg. DEO VINDICE lUSTlTIA COMITE. iUv. 
BoaU landing troops near a castle. Leg. CONTRA INFANTEM PERDITIONIS. 
Diam. ij. Cab. Hunter. Hawkins, atg. In the Royal Cabinet is a variety of 
this medal, in which Father Petre carries the Pix, instead of the young Prince ; 
a monk carrying a crucifix accompanies him instead of tlie King. 

0. King William, bust to the right, laureate ; hair long ; mantle. Leg. 
Ark of the Covenant; above is EMANVEL hurling thunder against French soldiers, 
and beaming rays upon Britannia and Belgia. In front, Father Petre and a monk 
with the young Prince, and the emblems of the Papacy, tumbling. I)iatn. 3. Cab. 
Hunter. Trattle. arg. 

10. A French ship; Father Petre upon a lobster holds the young Prince playing 
CHEMIN. Ri. lAC. EDVARD SUPPOSEE iO JUIN. 1688. Rev. The Pro- 
tender's Arms; a shield, bearing a windmill ; above, a Jesuit's cap, whence depends a 
double rosary, enclosing the motto HONI SOIT QVI BON Y PENSE : a lobster is 
suspended instead of the George. Leg. LES ARMES ET L'ORDRE DU PRE- 
TENDU PRINCE DES GALLES. Diam.l\. Cab. Royai. arg. aad ten. Tho- 
mas, arg. 

11. Britannia greeting the approach of Belgia. Leg. M. BRIT. EXP. NAV. 
BAT. LIB. REST. ASSERTA. Rev. An eagle casting a young bird from the nest 
upon a rock ; another Eagle hovers above. In the di.slaiicc a Fleet. EJICIT 
INDIGNVM. See Vanloon, vol. iii. p. 807. 

13. Bust of Louis XIV. to the righu Leg. LVDUVICVS MACNVS REX. 


Rev. The Belgic Lion, supporting itself by the staff of Liberty and tlic labaruln, 
drives toward the coast, where a French ship waits for them, K. James U. with his 
sword broken. Father Petre holding the young Prince with his windmill, and the 
snakes of discord. Leg. AVT REX AVT NIHIL. Kx. HEGIFVGIVM lAC. 
AD LVD. XIV. Diam.l^. Ca6. Hawkins. H. ElUs. pewt. 

13. Bust of James II. to the left, laureate, long hair, mantle. Leg. lACOBVS II. 
D. G. BRITANNIARUM IMPERATOR. Rev. A fox setting fire to a tree, 
whereon are an Eagle and nest; at a distance an Eagle carrying off a cub. Leg. 
LIAM. APPVLIT. Ex. 4 IAN. 1689. S. N. Diam. 2^ Cab. Royal. B. Mus. 
Hunter, &c &c. arg. 

14. Louis the XIV. ; bust to the right. Leg. LVDOVICVS. MAGNVS. REX. 
CHRISTIANISSIMVS. Rev. Gallia welcoming the arrival of James II., his 
Queen, and the young Prince. Leg. PERFVGIVM REGIBVS. Ex. lAC. II. M. 
MDCLXXXIX. Diam. if. Cab. Hawkins, an. &c. &c. 

15. Same bust to the right. Leg. LVDOVICUS MAGNVS R. CHRIST. F. P. 
SEMP. VICT. Rev. a wreath of roses and pomegranates entwined, with a band in- 
scribed LVDOVICO MAGNO, enclosing the Inscription, OB REGEM REGINAM 
Royal, arg. 

16. Busts of King William and Queen Mary, to the right. Leg. GULIELM. R. 
MARIA REGINA F. D. P. A. Rev. An Eagle ejects a young one from the 
MDCLXXXIX. Diam.i^- Cat. Royal. B. Mus. arg. The obverse of this medal 
gives sometimes a different representation of the King and Queen. 

17. King William*s bust to the right, laureate. Leg. GULIELM. III. D. G. 
entwined with roses and thistles, and having the shield of Britain attached, rears its 
head amid the clouds, where are the words ITE MISSA EST, and whence lightning 
is directed against James II. on one side, with his crown and sceptre falling from his 
grasp, and Father Petre on the other, going off with the Fix and the young Prince 
carrying his windmill. Snakes of discord accompany their flight. £r. INAUGURATIS 
FELIX. 1689. Diam. 2. Cab. Royal. B. Mus. Hunter. Trattle. Hawkins, arg. 
Another obverse representing the busts of King William and Queen Mary sometimes 
occurs to this medal. 

18. Queen Mary, bust to the left, mant. on shoulder. Leg. MARIA. D. G. MAGN. 
BRIT. FRANC. ET. HIB. REGINA. Rev. An Eagle flying toward the sun, 
holds one eaglet, and drops another. Leg. NON PATITVR SVPPOSITITIOS. 
SVPPOSITITIO. MDCLXXXIX. Diam. 2. Cat. Royal. Hunter, ar^. 

19. The attainted Prince of Wales's bust to the left, in armour. Leg. lACOBVS 
WALLIM PRINCEPS. n. b. Rev. A vessel dismasted in a storm. Leg. 169T. 
lACTATVR NON MERGITVR VNDIS. Diam. if. Cab. B. Mus. Hunter. 
Bodleian. Hawkins, ten, 

20. Another bust of the Prince to the left; no drapery. Leg. lAC. WALLLE 
PRINCEPS. N. R. Hew. The Sun partly eclipsetl. Leg^. CLARIOR E TENE- 
BRIS. Ex. 160T. Diam. 1. Cab. Hunter. Hawkins, an. 

31. Bust, same as preceding. Rev, A mine exploding near a bastion. Leg. QVO 


COMPRESSA MAGIS. £jr. 169T. Diam.l. CM>. Royal. aur. Hunter. B. Muf. 
Hawking. H. Ellis. «n. 

22. Bust, same as preceding. Rev. Sun-rise, sea-coast Leg. OMNIA. FACIT. 
U'SE. SERENA. Ez. 16S7. Diam. 1. Cat}. Hunter. Hawkins. H. Ellis, ten. 

23. Same bust. Rev. A dove and olive branch, sea-coast. Leg. MANSVR/G 
NVNTIA PACIS. Ex.1601. Diam.l. Cab. Roydi. aur. arg. B. Mus. Hunter. 
Hawkins. H. Ellis, een. 

24. K. James H. bust to right, laureate, in armour and mantle. Leg. lACOBVS : 
II:D:G:M:B:R: n. R. iict>. The Prince's bust to the left, hair long and tied, 
in armour. L«^. lAC. WALLIjE PRINCEPS. n. R. Diam.i.^ CM). B. Mus. 
Hunter. Hawkins, ar^. 

25. Another. Obv. nearly the same as last. Leg. of obverse, lACO. H. DEI. 
GRATIA. Diam. 1^^. Cab. Bo<Ueian. Trattle. org. 

26. Bust to left, same as Rev. of two preceding. Rev. Sun rising disperses demons ; 
sea-coast and ships. Leg. SOLA LUCE FVGAT. Ex. 1609. Diam. l^ Cab. 
B. Mus. Hunter. Trattle. Hawkins, arg. 

it. Buit, same as preceding. Rev. a Cornucopia. Leg. PAX VOBIS. Ex. 16W. 
Diam.i\. Cab. Hunter. Bodleian. Hawkins, arg. 

28. Bust to right, Uureate. Leg. lACOBVS. II. D. G. M. B. F. ET. H. REX. 
N.R. 1699. Rffv.The Prince's bust to left, in armour and mantle. Leg. I. KCWALLIM. 
PRINCEPS. Diam. 1-j^ Cab. B. Mus. Hunter. Bodl. Hawkins. &c. arg. 

30. Busts of James II. and Mary; he laureate, and clothed with ample mantle. 
Rev. Bust to left, in armour and manUe. Leg. lACOBVS. HI. D. G. M. B. F. ET. 
H. REX. Diam. 2. Cab. Trattle. Hawkins, chased and gilt. 

30. Bust to left. Leg. lAC. HI. D. G. MAG. BRIT. REX. i*. R. Rev. The 
meridian sun dispelling clouds. Leg-. VIRTVS MOX NVBILA PELLET. Ex. 1T04. 
XMam. l|. Cob. Hawkins, ar^. 

SI. Bust of Prince James to the left, laureate, in mantle. Leu. CVIVS EST. 
N. R. Rev. Map of BRIT. SCOT. HIB. Leg. REDDITE. Diam. i.^ Cab. 
B. Mus. Hunter. Bodl. Hawkins. H. Ellis, arg. ten. 

32. Bust of Prince James to left, laureate, no drapery. Leg. CUIUS EST. n. r. 
Rev. Similar to preceding. Diam. 1^^ Cab. Royal. B. Mus. Hunter. Bodl. 
Hawkins. H. Ellis. <m. 

S3. Bust of Prince James to left, in armour and mantle. J>g. CUIUS EST. 
N. R. Rev. Map of ANGLIA. SCOT. HIB. Leg. inscribed on band, REDDITE 
IGITUR. Diam. 2. Cab. B. Mus. an. cast. Bodl. an. Trattle. arg. 

34. Ship; sails set, wind fair. Leg. lAC. 3. D. G, M. B. F. ET. H. REX. Rei: 
St. Michael and Dragon. Leg. SOLI DEO GLORIA. Diam. |. Cab. Trattle. 
Hawkins, arg. 

36. Ship; sails set, wind adverse. J^g. lAC. III. D. G. M. B. F. ET. H. R. Rc¥. 
St. Michael and Dragon. Leg. SOLI DEO GLORIA. Diam. J. Cab. B. Mus. aur. 
Bodl. Trattle. Hawkins, arg. 

These two pieces were struck to present to such persons as came to the nominal 
king to be cured of scrophulous afTections by his touch. 

36. Queen Anne's bust to the left, crowned, in mantle. Leg. ANNA D. G. MAG. 


J)«aOT. l|. Ca6. Hunter, ar^. 

37. Bust, same as preceding. Rev. HENRICVS ROSAS lACOBVS NOMINA 
WALLIS MDCCVIIL i. g. i. Dtam. if. Ca6. Hunter ajg-. 

38. The Queen's bust, to left, laureate, in mantle. Leg. ANNA. D. G. MAGN. 
BRIT. FRANC. ET HIB. REGINA. s. Rev. Sceptre entwined by the Rose and 
Thistle. At a distance. Rebels conducting to the Tower, and the SALISBURI cap- 
Diam. 1^. Cab. Hunter. Trattle. arg. 

3D. Bust of Prince James, to left, laureate, no drapery. Leg. DOMINVM 
1710. Diam. l-^. Cab. B. Mus. Hawkins, (en. 

40. Bust, to left, in mantle, lACOBVS III. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. REX. Ret'. 
Bust to left. Leg. PRINCEPS LVD. SER. M. B. REGIS SOROR. n. r. 
17ia. Diam. 2-Jg-. Cab. B. Mus. Hunter. Trattle. Hawkins, an. arg. 

A copy of this medal, highly chased and gilt, sometimes, though rarely, occurs. 
One is in the collection of Mr. Hawkins. 

41. Bust to left, laureate, no drapery. lACOBVS III. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. REX. 
N. R. Rev. Bust to left. Leg. PRINCEPS LVD. SER. MAG. BRI. REGIS 
SOROR. N. R. Diam. 1-^. Ca6. Hunter, ar^. Trattle. «n. Hawkins, arg^. 

42. Busts of Prince James and the Princess Louisa, facing, each in an oval border; 
the field between decorated with scroll ornaments. He, in armour and mantle ; she, 
•with her hair fllletted, her mantle broached in front and on shoulder. Diatn. 2. Cab. 
B. Mus. arg. Struck only on a thin plate of silver. 

48. Queen Anne's bust to left, laureate, rich gown and mantle. Leg. ANNA 
AVGVSTA. Rev. Bust of Prince James to left, in armour, and mantle. Leg. CVIVS 
EST. Diam. 1 3- Ca6. Trattle. chased, gilt. 

This and two or three others of similar workmanship were executed by desire of 
.«orae partisans of the exiled family, to form a series of medallic portraits of its 

44. K. Geo. the I«. bust to right, laureate, in armour and mantle. Leg.GEORGIVS 
L>. G.MAG. BR. FR.ET HIB. REX. F.D. i.e. Rev. An angel with sword and palm 
.pursues cavalry. Leg-.PERJURII ULTRIX. £r. AD. DUNBLAINUM. 13Nov. 
1715. Diam. ]g. Cab. Royal, arg. an. B. Mus. Uuntei. arg. &c. &.C. 

45. Bust same as preceding. Rev. A trophy of arms, on a pedestal decorated with 
united hands; two captives chained to the base. Leg. FIDES MILITVM. Ex. 
REBELL. AD PRESTON CAPT. 13 Nov. 1715. Diam. if. Cab. Royal. arg. an. 
S. Mus. ten. Hunter, arg. &c. &c. 

46. Bust to the right, of Prince James, laureate, in armour and mantle. Leg. NIHIL 
4708. M. MART. Middle of Scotland. 1716. M. FEBR. Leg-. BIS VENIT VIDIT 
NON VICIT FLENSQVE RECESSIT. Diam. l{. Cab. Hunter. Hawkins, arg. 

47. Busts to right ; he, in armour, and mantle; she, with her hair decorated with 
•tiara and beads. Leg. lACOB. III. R. CLEMENTINA. R. hameran. Rev. 


Hercules leaning on his club, takes the hand of Venus: Cupid near her holds a 
Diam.\^. CoA. B. Mus. ar/^. Hunter. Bodl. Hawkins. <cn. &c. 

48. Bust to left, in rich gown, mantle, &c. Leg. CLEMENTINA. M. BRITAN. 
FR. ET. HIB. REGINA. OTTO HAMERANI F. Rev. Clementina in a car; 
Rome, in the distance. Leg. FORTVNAM CAVSAMQVE SEQVOR. jE». 
DECEPTIS CVSTODIBVS MDCCXIX. Diam, ij. Cab. B. Mus. Hunter. 
Bodl. Hawkins, arg. &c. 

49. Bust to right, in armour and mantle. Leg. lACOBVS. HI. D. G. M. B. F. ET. 
H. REX. Rev. Bust to left, in a rich gown and mantle. Leg. CLEMENTIN.\ 
MAGNi£ BRITANNIA ET C. REG. otto hamkrani. Diam. ig. Cab. 
Hunter, ten. Bodl. <en. &c. Sec. 

50. Busts, same as last but two. Rev. A female, leaning against a column, holds aa 
infant; poinU to Great Britain on a Globe. Leg. PROVIDENTIA OBSTETRIX. 
Cab, Hunter, an. Bodl. arg, ten. Trattle. arg. Hawkins, ten, dec. 

61. Busts to right: he, laureate, in armour and mantle. Leg. I AC. III. ET. 
CLEM. D. G. MAG. BRIT. REG. Rev. A female holding an infant on one arm. 
l^g. SPES BRITANNI>T;. Ex. car. wall. PR. NATVS DIE VLT. A. 1T30. 
Diam. 1^. Cab. Hunter, lead. Hawkins. Ret;, onli/, lead, 

62. Bust of Prince James, to the right, in armour and mantle. Leg. VNICA 
SAL VS. Rev. The Hanoverian Horse trampling on a Lion and Unicom; beyond 
appears Britannia weeping; a family emigrating; London in the distance. Leg, 
QVIDGRAVIVS CAPTA. £r. MDCCXXI. Diam.2. Cab. B. Mui. arg. Hunter. 
arg, Bodl. H. Ellis, an. Hawkins, arg. &c. 

68. Bust of Prince Charles, to the right, in armour and ermine mantle. Leg. M IC AT 
INTER OMNES. Rev. Bust of Prince Henry to right, in armour. Leg. ALTER 
COELO. Diam. 11^ Cab. B. Mus. aur. RoyaL Hunter. Bodl. 

54. Bust of Prince Charles, to right, armour and mantle. Leg. HVNC SALTEM 
EVERSO IVVENEM. Rev, Bust of Prince Henry, in armour and mantle. Leg. 
TRIPLICIS SPES TERTIA GENTIS. Diam. l|. Cab. Hunter. Bodl. 
Hawkins, an, 

65. Bust, to right, in pontifical robes. J^g. BENED. XIV. PONT. M. A. IIL 
Rev. Monument. Leg. MEMORI*. M. CLEM. M. BRIT. REGINiE. Diam. 1 1. 
Cab. Hunter. Hawkins, an. Sec, Sec, 

58. Bust of Prince Charles to right, no drapery. J^g. CAROLVS WALLI^ 
PRINCEPS. 1745. R(>r. Britannia standing u|)on the shore, holds a spear, rests one 
hand on a shield, watching the approach of ships. Leg. AMOR ET SPES. Ex, 
BRITANNIA. Diam. 1^ Oib. B. Mus. Hunter. Bobl. Trattle. Hawkins. «n. 

Another of the same type, but of silver, and a snuiller size (l-^), occurs In the 
CabineU of B. Mus. Trattle. Willett. Hawkins. 

07. Bustof Prince Charles, same as preceding, but without Le^-. or Rw. -^by-^. 
Cab. Hawkins, aur. 

This was evidently intended to have been set in a ting or brooch. 

68. Prince Charles in the Highland dress, sword in hand, holds a shield, inscribed 
AGITUR. Diam, 1-jJy. Cab, Hunter. Hawkins, an. 


59. Prince Charles in Highland dress; in the distance, a man leaning upon hi* 
shield. Leg- CAROLUS PRINCEPS. Reu. Fame, flying above a city, holds a 
crown, and proclaims from a trumpet the Leg. SUUM CUIQUE. Diam. l.Jg-. Cab. 
Hawkins. «n. 

60. Bust of the Duke of Cumb. to the right, in armour. Leg. GVLIELMVS DVX 
CVMBRIjE. Rev. Prince Charles in a plaid dress, hat in hand, kneeling before a 
Lion rampant, crowned. &. 1T46. Diam. 1^. Cab. Hawkins, ten. 

61. Duke of Cumberland on horseback, sword drawn. L,eg. DUKE. OF. CUMBER. 
Rev. Prince Charles, attempting to take a crown upon a column, is seized by the cap 
by the Duke of Cumberland, who strikes him with a sword. Leg. COME BACK 
AGAIN. Ex. PRETENTER. Diam. if. Cab. Hawkins, ten. 

62. Duke of Cumberland on horseback, sword drawn. Leg. DUKE. OF. CUM- 
BER. Rev. A rebel hanging on a gallows; two, suppliant. Leg. MORE REBELS 
A COMEING. Diam. I5. Cab. Hawkins, an. 

63. Bust of Prince Charles, to the right. Reu. A sapling rising from the root of an 
old withered trunk. Leg. REVIRESCIT. Ex. 1T50. Diam. if. Cab. Hunter. 
arg. Trattle. arg. Hawkins, ten. 

64. A Thistle. Leg. FLORESCAT ET PUNGAT. Rev. A trophy of Arms. Leg- 

CON. R. C. S. HOC. NVM. D. EX. PRjE. IAC. 1750. Diam. l^. Cab. 
Hawkins, cen. 

65. Bust of Prince Charles, to the right. Lsg^.REDEAT MAGNUS ILLE GENIUS 
BRITANNIjE. Rev. Britannia stands on the shore watching the approach of ships. 
MDCCLII. Diam.l^. Gift. Hunter. Bodl. Trattle. Hawkins, wv?- 

66. Bust to right, in cardinal's robes and cap. Leg. HENRICVS. M. D. EP. 
TVSC. CARD. DVX. EBOR. S. R. E. V. CANC filippo. cropanesb. p 
Rev. Religion holding a bible, and supporting the cross ; at her feet lie a Lion, a ducal 
coronet, and a cardinal's hat ; above, are heavenly rays ; St. Peter's Church in the 
Ex. AN. MDCCLXVI. Diam. 2. Cab. Hawkins, arg. &c. &c. 

67. Bust to left, in mantle. Leg. CAROLVS. III. N. 1720. M. B. F. ET. H. REX. 
1T66. Reu. Bust to left, in mantle, hair drawn up tight behind, in formal curls at the 
sides. Leg. LVDOVICA. U. B. F. ET. H. REGINA. 1772. Diam. 1^. Cab. 
Hawkins, ten. &c. &c 

68. A female bust to the left, hair drawn up tight behind, disposed at the sides in 
formal curls ; slight drapery on the shoulders. Leg. LVDOVICA. CAR. III. M. B. 
F.ET. H.REG, i^^byii. Ca6. Hunter. Trattle. ar^. This medal is always 
chased, and without reverse. 

69. The Royal Arms of Great Britain, surmounted by a ducal coronet and a cardinal's 
RIVS SEDE VACAN. 1774. Diam. 1|.. Cab. B. Mus. pewt. Hawkins, arg. In 
the Brit. Mus. is another of these pieces, also of pewter, with the date 1709. 

70. Bust to right, in cardinal's robes and cap. Leg. HEN. IX. MAG. BRIT. 
FR. ET. HIB. REX. FID. DEF. CARD. EP. TVSC— o. ham. f. Rev. Religion 
holding a bible, supporting the cross ; at her feet lie a Lion, the British Crown, and a 
Cardinal's Hat. In the distance, St. Peter's Church and a Bridge. Leg. NON. DE- 
Diam. 2. Cab. Hawkins, an. &c. &c. 

71. The Editor has seen a Medallion in plaister, apparently the obverse of a Medal, 
bearing the same head of Prince Charles as N°. 55. with the words, look, love, anj> 




Andrew Mitchell Esq. to the Earl of Holdemesse, 
CollinSy the courier Jirr England^ robbed of his 
Despatches at the Gate of Berlin. 


•»* With Mr. Mitchell's Jlission to the Court of Berlin the Reader 
is acquainted. He left England April the 18'''. and arrived at Berlin 
May 8"'. 1756. In this and some accompanying Letters it wiU be seen 
that the patience and address of the new Ambassador were very soon put 
to a severe trial. 

Berlin, Saturday 9Q^\ May, 1756. 
My Lord, 

The anxiety I have felt for these last eight and 
forty hours cannot be expressed. The cause of it was 
this ; on Thursday the 27'^''. I despatched Collins with 
Letters to your Lordship, wrote with that freedom 
which the security of the conveyance justified. He 
received from my own hand the Packet, about half an 
hour after eleven at night, and he set out from the 
Inn where I am still lodged, a quarter past midnight 
in a post waggon. In about an hour afterwards, he 
returned, and gave me an account of what had hap- 
pened to him as follows. 

That he had put up the Despatches in his port- 


mantle, which together with his saddle was put upon 
a post waggon ; that he had several times felt for the 
portmantle, as he was agoing from my house towards 
the Gate of the Town, and found every thing right ; 
that at a very small distance from the Gate, he per- 
ceived the portmantle was gone ; that he immediately 
stopped the postilion, got a candle and searched all the 
way back to my house, but found nothing. I instantly 
wrote to Count Podewils to acquaint him with what 
had happened to the Courier, desiring the aid of the 
Magistrate and of the military upon so extraordinary 
an occasion. Orders were forthwith given, and I sent 
Letters to the Commandant of the Town and to the 
Lieutenant of the Police. All this was done before 
day -break. 

Unhappily there was a grand review of the troops 
that Morning, and it was impracticable to get at the 
King, as he was to be on horseback by five in the 
Morning. I went to the review, hoping to have an 
opportunity to tell his Majesty what had happened, 
but found it impossible to speak with him in the field. 
I told my story to his first Aide-de-Camp, and I with- 
drew before the review was quite over in order to be 
early at Court. 

So soon as his Majesty came, he expressed to me in 
a very gracious manner his concern for what had hap- 
pened, and immediately gave Orders to his Generals and 
to his Officers of Justice to make the strictest search 



possible, and to be sure to do every thing pour eclaircir 
cette affaire^ which he had very much at heai't. 

His Majesty, at my request, was pleased to promise 
an indemnity, and I desired Count Podewils, Count 
Finkenstein and the Lieutenant de Police to offer any 
reward they pleased, which I should pay forthwith. 
They have fixed this at fifty Ducats : and the same 
was proclaimed by beat of drum all over the Town 
instantly. The Courier has given a specification of 
every thing contained in his Portmantle, which the 
Lieutenant of Police gave notice of to the principal 
Jews in this Town. The military are very active to 
make the discovery, and though there arc twenty 
thousand soldiers now in Berlin, I confess I have little 
suspicion of them, such is their discipline and regularity. 

Notwithstanding all these precautions (and more I 
could not think of) nothing has yet appeared ; and I 
write this by post to acquaint your Lordship with 
what has happened, in case I should not be able to 
despatch Collins, so as to reach the Packet of this day 
sevennight. My intention is to send him off early on 
Monday morning, and I am now preparing Copies of 
my Despatches of last Thursday, to be transmitted to 
your Lordship ; and I hope, at the same time, to be 
able to send a Copy of the Proces verbal that has been 
taken concerning tliis unlucky affair. 

I say publicly that I suspect nobody ; and indeed it 
would be injurious to mention the reports and con- 

VOL. IV. SER. 2.' B B 


jectures that this robbery, or more properly theft, has 
occasioned at Berhn. But I trust to the King's justice, 
and to the cordiahty with which he acts, for a full 

I have the honour to be, &c. 



Mr. Mitchell to the Earl ofHoldernesse. His Inters 
view with the King of Prussia respecting the lost 

[ibid. fol. 20 b. MK. Mitchell's own copy.] 

(Most secret.) 

Berlin, Thursday 3<i. June, 1756. 
My Lord, 
Last Sunday morning the 30''>. May, the King sent 
for me privately. After expressing his concern for what 
had happened, and assuring me that every thing should 
be done to facilitate the discovery, he asked what I 
had wrote concerning Russia, &c. I told him fairly 
the contents of my Letters, and offered, if his Majesty 
pleased, to bring the rough draughts of my Letters 
and translate them to him myself. He said there was 
nb occasion. Heivas satisfied ; and owned that I had 



not mistaken his meaning ; but he seemed uneasy that 
the Letters were not yet found, notwithstanding the 
orders he had given. 

When I told the King what I had wrote concerning 
the Prince of Hesse, he said I will deny that I ever 
said such things, and lay it upon You. I will tell him 
that you are an enthusiast, and so zealous a Protestant 
that you cannot think with candor of one that has 
changed his religion. » To this I agreed. 

I likewise owned to him what I had wrote to your 
Lordship about the communication of intelligence. 
He seemed pleased with my openness, and said the 
Cypher must be used for the future with any thing 
that I tell you. I gave him my word that it should. 

The King then read to me a private Letter of In- 
telligence dated from Paris the 21'*^ of May. It was 
wrote in Cypher. 

* # « » # 

I must now acquaint your Lordsiiip with two things 
that give me real pain, as they come through my chan- 
nel ; but the King's service must and ever shall take 
place of every other considei'ation. 

Count Podewils told me that some secret Letters 
from Petersburgh bear that Sir Charles Williams, 
having rendered himself very obnoxious by his inso- 

• The Hereditary Prince of Hesse Cassci who had married a daughter of King 
George the Second, had about this time been prevailed upon to embrace the Roman 
Catholic Religion. Great doubts were entertained whether this change would not 
exclude him from the succession to the Landgraviatc. He hownrer succeeded to it 
in 1700; nnd died in 1TS5. 

R B 2 


lent behaviour, had every thing to fear, not only for 
his own person, but with regard to his dignity as Am- 
bassador, which he feared might be affronted. He 
concluded by saying that Russia was of the utmost 
importance. He wished we had a wise man there. 

Another thing he mentioned to me was that Mr. 
Cressener had made himself disagreeable to the Elector 
of Cologne by his indiscreet manner of talking, and 
that he should not have been accredited to the Circle. 
I told him Cressener was not, and that he had only a 
Letter to the Senate of Cologne. He told me I was 
mistaken, and desired me to write about it ; for says 
he, " Though the Elector cannot be gained, he ought 
not to be affronted." 


I have the honour, &c. 



Mr. Mitchell to the Earl of Holdernesse. The 

discovery of the Thief. 
. ' ; [ibid. fol. 18 b.] 

Berlin, Thursday 3^^ June, 1756. 
My Lord, 
I TAKE the liberty to send your Lordship a Copy of 


my Letter of the 29''". May, and I shall now give your 
Lordship an account of the success of our inquiries 
into that affair. 

I saw the King on Sunday morning. He appeared 
to me resolved to be at the bottom of the affair, as 
there were some circumstances that gave ground for 
suspicion, which your Lordship will find in the Paper 
marked A.^ For this reason I suppose, as well as on 
account of what is contained in my most secret Letter 
of this date, his Majesty was pleased to renew his offer 
of pardon, and to promise a reward of Two Hundred 
Ducats for the discovery ; but all this had no effect. 

President Kirkhaisen, Lieutenant of Police, had given 
to the Jewish Elders a Copy of the Specification of the 
Things contained in the Messengcr^'s Portmantle ; this 
was read in the Synagogue on Saturday, and notice 
was given at the house of every Jew of the theft com- 
mitted. . 

Sunday, about three in the afternoon, a Jewish wo- 
man brought three guineas to the house of the Lieute- 

• •• A. 

" As the ReporU spread about here are very injurious to the French and Austrian 
Ministers, and some people were wild enough to name Monsieur de Valori, I openly 
and loiully declared that I believed Him, and every other Minister here incapable of 
being concerned in such an affair. 

" Monsieur de Peubla wanted to send a Courier to Vienna. He sent several times 
on Saturday for an Order for post horses (which here must be signc<l by the Secretary 
of State and the Governor or Commandant of the Town). This was shifted off till 
Sunday morning ; but the impatience he shewed on thisocciision increasc<l the sus- 
picion against him, and, I found, made an impression on the Kiiif; and his Ministers. 
I still said that I believed him innocent, and that only some low thief was concerned, 
and that this Courier was despatched to inform the Court of Vienna of the Prince of 
Hesse's having entered into the Prussian Service. I am of opinion that this incident 
inereasetl his Majesty's keenness to make the discovery." 


nant of Police, which she said she had received of a 
joiner and his daughter that came to buy linen of her on 
Friday about ten o'clock in the morning. The house 
where the joiner lodged was immediately searched. 
He denied every thing; but the daughter being in- 
timidated, confessed " that the theft had been com- 
mitted by her brother, that he brought the Portmantle 
home about one o'clock on Friday morning, that it was 
not opened till eight o'clock, that her brother gave her 
three guineas, and at the same time gave one guinea 
and four ducats to the father, and kept the rest to 
himself," (there were in the Portmantle twenty-five 
ducats, four guineas, and four half-guineas) " and that 
all the other things" (the Messenger's frock only ex- 
cepted, which had been produced and sworn to) " and 
the Despatches were immediately burnt." She added, 
that if he, Lieutenant of Police, " would go to the 
house, he would find the ashes in the poil or furnace 
where they were burnt :" this he immediately did, and 
he has shewn me the cake of ashes, about which still is 
to be seen the remains of the wax cloth in which the 
Messenger had wrapped the Despatch. The father, 
after some very severe floggings, has confessed and 
confirmed what his daughter had said ; but the son 
who committed the theft is not yet found. I think it 
hardly possible he can escape, as every body here are 
upon their mettle, the King having signified his plea- 
sure in so explicit a manner. 


Upon the whole, I think it highly probable, every 
circumstance considered, the papers have been destroyed 
without being seen by any body. 

So soon as the enquiry is finished, I shall send your 
Lordship a Copy of the Proces verbal ; in the mean- 
time, I despatch Collins, and I beg leave to recommend 
him to your Lordship's clemency, as he has behaved 
very well during his stay here.a Had you seen him 
after the misfortune he would have greatly moved your 

The King went to Potsdam last Monday afternoon. 
He will return to Berlin on Friday, and set out for 
Stetin on Saturday. 

* * * « « ~ 

By the last post to Petersburgh, I sent a Note to 
Sir C. H. Williams in Cypher, of which the inclosed 
is a Copy.** 

I have the honour, &c. 


• The necommcndation, however, was of small avail. Mr. Syininerg, a private 
friend, and who will hereafter occur as a Correspondent of Mr. Mitchell's, June Kt"". 
1TS6, havinf; congratulated him that his Paequct had not fallen into the hands of the 
French, says, " In the meanwhile poor Collins remains the sufferer. Vestcnlay the 
Lord Chamberlain's Warrant eame into our Offlee to suspend him from being Mes- 
senger, and to stop the payment of his bills and salary." 
1) "To 

" SU C. H. Williams. 

'< Berlin, Sunday 30<<>. May, itm. 
" 1 have reason to believe that the Court of France have sent one Douglass to 
Hetersburgh in order to traverse your negotiations. It Is surmised that Douglass 
has Letters of Credence rea<fy to prwluce, and it is belleveil that he has a very large 
credit to be used for very bad purposes. 

I have the honour to be, with great re»i)ect. 

Your Excellency's, &c. 





Mr. Mitchell to the Earl of Holdernesse. The Stealer 
of Collins' s Portmantle brouglit to Berlin. 

[ibid. fol. 23 b.] 

Berlin, Saturday 5*''. June, 1756. 
My Lord, 
Having wrote to your Lordship so fully by Collins 
of the 3'^. instant, I have only to add that yesterday 
the person that stole Collins's Portmantle was brought 
to Berlin. He was taken about seven German miles 
from hence disguised in the dress of a running Foot- 
man. He has already confessed every thing, and his 
Deposition agrees with what his Father and Sister had 
separately told. His name is David Bernard Cramer, 
aged nineteen years. By the account he gives, it ap- 
pears that he did not know any thing of the Couriers 
going; but that happening to meet a waggon going 
slowly through the streets about midnight, he thought 
there might be something to pilfer. He has given a 
very distinct account of every thing he did, and of the 
company he was in the night the theft was committed; 
all which has been verified by the examination of the 
persons in whose company he was. 


He says expressly, that upon opening the Portmantle 
about eight in the morning, and finding money con- 
cealed in one of Collins"'s stockings, He, his Father, 
and Sister, immediately divided the money, and after 
tearing open the despatches (thinking to find, more 
money) they immediately put them into the poil or 
furnace, and set fire to them, for fear of being dis- 

The Lieutenant of Police has returned me sixteen 
ducats of Collinses money, which was found in the 
pockets of the thief, and he is quite convinced, after 
the most minute inquiry, that the theft was merely 
accidental, and that the letters were never seen by any 
body capable of reading them. The King, by what 
he said to me this morning, seems also to be thoroughly 

His Majesty came to Berlin this morning early. 
To-morrow he will set out for Stetin, and after the 
Reviews are over, return to Berlin the O'*". or lO^''. in- 
stant. He then goes to Potsdam, and about the 20-''. 
wijl set out to review his troops, &c. at Magdebourg. 
I have the honour, &c. 


Mr. Mitchell cert^ly professed to think it highly probable that 
the Papers had been destroyed without having been seen by any body. 
It is iwssible, however, that in his own breast he still retained a sus])icion 
that they hatl previously passed under the inspection of His Prussian 
IMujcsty and his contidential dccyphcrer, and that tliis object rather than 


the hope of pecuniary booty had been the motive by which the son of the 
Joiner was instigated to commit the theft. This suspicion certainly had 
presented itself to other persons not unacquainted with the Court of Ber- 
lin. Mr. Titley, at that time the British Ambassador at Copenhagen, 
writing to Mr. Mitchell, on the IS"". June, says, 

" I could tell you that your case is by no means singular. I have 
heard formerly of its having happened more than once at your place, 
where thieves are sometimes as dexterous and watchful to steal Dc- 
spatches, as they can be at London to take a purse." 

Mr. Mitchell makes no mention of David Bernard Cramer, the stealer 
of the Despatches, having been brought to justice, or punished. "The 
English Newspapers of the time, certainly represented him to have been 
hung within a few hours of his having been taken. 


Robert Symmer, Esq. to Mr. Mitchell. The Tmilon 
Squadron sailed Jbr Port Mahon. 

[mitchelx. PAPEHS, vol. xxxviii. fol. 1. Orig.'\ 

London, 27*^. April, 1756. 
We have no other news of a public nature, and that 
is of any importance, but an Accovint of the Sailing 
of the Toulon Squadron the IS'h. of this month, for 
the Siege of Port Mahon, as is supposed. This, how- 
ever, does not seem to alarm us much. The military 
people who know any thing of the matter, are of opi- 
nion the French will not carry the place at a brush ; 
but that the Garrison wiU be able, if not to repel them, 


at least to hold them in play till Admiral Byng comes 
up, when the fate of the place may come to depend 

upon the success on another element. 

• « « « * 


Mr. Sij'iiimcr to Mr. Mitchell. The nnaccountable 
behaviour of the English Fleet. 

[ibid. fol. 3. Orig.^ 

London, 18*'. June, 1756. 
# # ♦ « * 

I PRESUME my Letters of the 28 ''. May and the l^f. 
of June have come to your hands. Since that time, 
our Prospect of Affairs abroad has greatly changed 
from what it then was. We were then in the highest 
expectation of good news from the Mediterranean. 
How the good people here (who are always too ready 
to be elevated or dejected) must have been struck with 
the account (transmitted from Paris to the Spanish 
Minister here, by an Extract of Gallissonier's Letter) 
of the strange and unaccountable behaviour of our 
Fleet, will be easier for you to imagine than me to 
tell. Many did not believe it ; and some do not believe 
it to this day ; and it must be confessed, that it is at 


least very strange that for so long a time as from the 
SO'^'J. of last month, we should have no other Account 
of that Action than the Letter abovementioned, or 
what seems to transpire involuntarily from France. 
Nay, it must be owned, that some circumstances come 
almost daily to light, to make us hope to hear of some- 
thing better than what we had at first imagined in 
consequence of the Battle. Letters from Barcelona of 
the 26 h. of last month mention four or five Men of War 
of the French met with at Sea greatly hurt, and almost 
unable to make any Port. At the same time a Letter 
from Lord Drumlea at Gibraltar of the 28 ''. says that 
Byng's Fleet had not returned thither, and that they 
had had no accounts of them. It is likewise confidently 
affirmed (by what channel the news comes I know not) 
that Blakeney held out still, the 29*. Now, if it be 
possible for him to hold out a little longer, there may 
yet be hopes entertained of the Relief of Port Mahon 
and of the brave and gallant officer who defends it: 
for it cannot be long e're Broderick (who sailed with 
four Ships of the Line from Plymouth the 30 ''. of 
May) comes up with Byng, which must enable, and in 
a manner compel the Fleet to make another, and it is 
to be hoped a more successful Attempt (if it be not 
already done by a second engagement) to drive the 
French from before the Port. At all events, we are 
to trust to it, that when Hawke and Saunders arrive 
at the Fleet, and take upon them the command of it, 



we shall again recover the dominion of the Mediterra- 
nean ; as the arrival of Lord Tyrawley and Panmure 
will put the Garrison of Gibraltar upon a better foot- 
ing, and free us from the apprehension of losing that 
important Place likewise. 


Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The arrival of 
Admiral Byng's Despatches. His neglect to relieve 
Port Mahon after beating the French. Reitiforce- 
•ments sent out. The Public despond. 

[MITCHELL PAPEBS, VoL XXXV. fol. 1. Orig.'\ 

• • William Wildman Viscount Barrington of Ireland, was bom in 
January 1717, and became Member for Berwick in 1740. AIa.stcr of 
the Great Wardrobe in 1754, and in the following year Secretary at 
War. Chancellor of the Exchequer in \^^t\^ and Treasurer of the Navy 
in 1762. In July 1765 he was re-appointed Secretary at M'^ar, He 
quitted the House of Commons in May 1778, and the War Office in 
December. In 1781 he was appointed Joint Postmaster General, but 
was removed in 1782. He died February the 3'. 1793. 

Cavendish Square, 9,¥'\ June, 1756. 
I SHOULD have sent you an earlier account, my dear 
Mitchell, of Sir Alexander Gilmour's being appointed 
an Ensign in the first Regiment of Guards, if I had 


not been desirous to stay till I could furnish you with 
some Intelligence concerning our Affairs in the Medi- 
terranean which might be trusted and believed. The 
French Accounts never deserve any confidence, and 
never deserved less than at present, when they have 
formally communicated to the Ministers residing at 
Paris a Naval Victory in the Mediterranean which has 
really turned out a Defeat. Admiral Byng's despatches 
arrived yesterday, and acquaint us with the particulars 
of the Action Avhich happened on the 19*. May. It 
consisted only in a cannonading of four hours, the 
French avoiding a close engagement. Their ships 
were cleaner and went better than ours, and they were 
under sail the whole time. At night the French se- 
parated entirely from our Squadron, and were not to 
be seen the next day, though we lay to in the place 
where the Action happened ; so the field of Battle was 
ours. The French Squadron most certainly behaved 
ill, and ours did not make use of several advantages 
with which they were furnished by fortune or the 
misconduct of the enemy. Mr. Byng remained off 
Mahon (though at some leagues distant from it) till 
the 25*. and then (you will be filled with astonish- 
ment and indignation when you hear it) returned to 
Gibraltar without renewing the fight, though he once 
perceived the enemy from his topmast head ; without 
landing or attempting to land any succours ; without 
even trying to send a Letter to General Blakeney, or 


knowing more of the Island he was sent to defend, 
than that the King's colours still appeared in St. 
Phillips. By this retreat, the inferior and beaten 
Fleet of France remained master of those Seas, and 
was enabled to throw whatever their army wanted into 
the Island. The English Squadron was less damaged 
than the French, superior in number of ships of the 
line, still more superior in number of guns, weight of 
metal, and strength of ships; but most of all in seamen; 
for Byng's Squadron was more than complete as to 
men at the time of engagement, and no ships ever 
went from hence better manned. By this time you 
have concluded that our Admiral was mad, and you 
have blamed his officers for not confining him. Alas ! 
they were as infatuated as their chief; for the retreat 
was made in consequence of a Council of War at 
which Major General Stuart and three Colonels wiio 
were sent to their posts in Minorca improperly assisted. 
This Council unanimously advised the return to Gib- 
raltar for reasons which I am ashamed even to repeat. 
You have undoubtedly heard of another extraordi- 
nary Council of War at Gibraltar, and of General 
Fowke's disobedience of his orders to send a Battalion 
to Minorca on board Admiral Byng's Fleet ; in conse- 
quence of which liOrd Tyrawley has been sent to su- 
persede General F(twke ; and on a suspicion too well 
verified since, Sir Edward Hawke, and Captain Saun- 
ders lately made an Admiral, went to replace Admirals 


Byng and West. This cargo of courage, the richest 
which has ever been embarked on board any ship since 
the expedition of the Argonauts, sailed last week in 
the Antelope, and I hope will arrive at Gibraltar before 
Admiral Byng returns to Minorca, with five large shjps 
of the line which had been sent from hence to reinforce 
his squadron. 

The Duke of Cumberland, who has hitherto judged 
exactly right with relation to every event of the Siege 
of St. Phillips, not only hopes but thinks our Garrison 
may hold out till the new Commanders arrive at Mi- 
norca. It is certain the French have made many mis- 
takes, and very little progress. The Duke de Rich- 
lieu's conduct is much blamed in France, perhaps 
unjustly, for he has great difficulties to encounter, 
such as I think he could never have surmounted if 
the Duke of Cumberland's Plan of defence had taken 
place. Perhaps you have not heard distinctly what 
that Plan was, and therefore I will shortly explain it 
to you. Once in a fortnight or three weeks a fresh 
Battalion was to be thrown into St. Phillips, with every 
thing which the Garrison wanted : the sick, the wounded, 
and every nuisance was to have been removed by the 
same ships which brought the relief, and carried to 
Gibraltar : I mean such wounded soldiers as could be 
removed. Every supply was to have been cut off 
from the French, and their small army left to struggle 
with sickness, climate, and want. It is plainly evident 


this Plan was as practicable as any thing of that nature 
can be. Regiments and ships went continually from 
hence, Batallions were ordered from Gibraltar; our 
Fleet (though it lagged by the way) was superior, and 
beat the enemy, I may say, in spite of our teeth. The 
fort is open towards the sea, and can only be invested 
towards the land. Our passage to Minorca (though 
longer than could reasonably have been expected) 
brought the Fleet in time. The Governor of Gibraltar 
and our Admiral have defeated every thing ; and 
having destroyed a moral certainty of success, leave us 
nothing but faint hopes. 

It is determined to make some severe examples. I 
am sorry the last war as well as the present show the 
want of more noble motives. 

You may perhaps have heard that our Fleet went 
too late to the Mediterranean. Do not believe it could 
have gone sooner, or at the time it went stronger, with- 
out destroying the effect of our Western Squadron 
which must always be superior to the enemy's; and 
which has hitherto by that superiority protected all 
our trade, taken almost all the trade of France, and 
prevented the succours intended to be sent from thence 
to America, where we have a very great Army, which 
took the field in May. 

Our countrymen, according to custom, despond. I 
never will till I see good reason ; nay, till no hope or 
means are left. I regard war as an accompt debtor 

VOL. IV. SER.2. c c 


and creditor of loss and mischief between two nations. 
There must be Articles on both sides, and the utmost 
you can expect is, that the balance of Distress shall be 
at last in your favour : hitherto it is so. 

T am obliged to write in great haste, and have not 
time to correct, or have copied over fair what I have 
written; but you can excuse every thing in, dear 

Your most faithful and 

obedient humble servant, 

. . . ■ . BARRINGTON. 


Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The continuance of 
Pttblic disappointment. 

[iBro. vol. xxxviii. fol. 5. Orig.] 

Whitehall, 9^'^ July, 1756. 

We have now been destitute of public news for 
upwards of a fortnight : but we wait for Intelligence 
from the Mediterranean, and look for it every day with 
a degree of impatience that cannot easily be expressed. 
After the terrible disappointment we had in Byng's 
unaccountable behaviour, not only in the pitiful Action. 


he had with the French, but in his return to Gibraltar 
and abandoning the gallant Blakeney and his brave 
garrison to the fate of a cruel Siege ; we remain in a 
manner inconsolable, and have nothing to raise our hopes 
but the expectation of Hawke and Saunders arriving 
in time to take the command of the Fleet from Byng, 
and fly to the relief of Port Mahon, if happily it should 
be able to hold out so long. What increases our 
anxiety is, lest Byng (to whom some of his friends, it 
is said, have sent expresses both by Land and Sea, to 
let him know what is thought of his conduct in Eng- 
land) should seize the opportunity of Broderick's 
arrival, and by making a desperate, but yet perhaps 
another cowardly attempt upon the French, irre- 
trievably ruin our affairs there. Whatever the event 
may be we must now soon know. 


Mr. Symmcr to Mr. Mitchell. Port Mafion lout. The 
Indignation against Admiral Byng''s conduct, 

[ibid. foL 7- Orig.'\ 

London, 6'^. Aug. 1756. 
I TAKE it for granted you have a full and distinct 



account of the late unhappy event of the loss of Port 
Mahon. « 

# * # # * 

You cannot imagine what a general Indignation 
appears on the score of Byng's dastardly and unac- 
countable behaviour. A Notion prevailed some days 
since that he had come up to Town. Upon this a 
gentleman, who it seems had the misfortune to resem- 
ble Byng in person, was pointed out in one of the 
streets of the City for the Admiral, and if happily 
some people had not come up and rescued him by 
declaring who he was, he would have been torn to 
pieces by the mob. You will find by the public papers 
that a Captain and a party of sixty dragoons had gone 
down to Portsmouth to bring him up, and to-day it 
was expected he would have been safely lodged in the 
Tower. Perhaps he may be by this time arrived : 
but a few hours ago there was a surmise that he was 
still at Portsmouth, or rather on board of the Man of 
War, the party having found it impossible to conduct 
him so much as through the streets of Portsmouth 
without exposing him and themselves to insult. 



The Earl of Holdernesse to Andrew Mitchell^ Esq. 
A Change taking place in the Administration. 

[MITCHELL PAPERS. VoL XVuL fol. 77- Orig.^ 


London, Nov. 3-', 1756. 
Dear Mitchell, 
The circumstances alluded to in my office Letter 
are the confusion that reigns in the interior. We 
have literally no Administration, and God only knows 
when we shall have one. Touch lightly upon the 
subject to the King, " tell him something of our Parties, 
talk of Pitt, Fox, 8ec. Tell him what you have seen 
and what you know of men and manners in this Coun- 
try, but don't let him take any alarm at our wild, in- 
considerate, precipitate way of acting. We are not 
squabbling about measures, but about men. Our 
Alliance with him must and will be supported by all 
sides. How long I shall be your correspondent I can- 
not guess. Whether I go out or stay in, you shall not 
blush for me. I 'act upon honest principles. My 
fortune may, but my character shall not suffer. 

• The King of Prtis!>iii. , 


Adieu dear Mitchel, in the present scene of hurry 
and bustle I have scarce time to assure you that I am 

ever yours, 


Mr. Mitchel. 


The Earl of' Holdernesse to Mr. Mitchell. His Lord- 
ship at the head oj'the Admhiistration. 
[MITCHELL PAPERS, vol. xviii, fol. {51. Ortg.] 


London, Nov. 26*'-. 1756. 

Deau Sik, 

The short hints I have thrown out to you from 
time to time, as well as the unusual cessation of my 
public Letters, must have let you parti?/ understand 
the confusion that reigned here for some time past ; 
things begin to take a shape ; how long it may last 1 
cannot judge, but happen what may, I think your 
affairs at Berlin will certainly go right. 

Mr. Pitt has been laid up with a severe fit of the 
gout ever since his nomination to the Office, which has 
greatly retarded business. I think his opinions upon 
Foreign Affairs now he is in place are exactly the same 
with mine, however different they were some time ago. 
Tempora mntaniur et noSy &c. I hope you will never 


find that maxim applicable to your old friend in Ar- 
lington Street. 

I know long ago of some private Letters wrote to 
you by the D. of N. ^ You were in the right not 
to discover a secret intrusted to you, but though (for 
reasons you know) I bore this from Mm, such mat- 
ters must cease for the future with otiiers. I there- 
fore insist that I may know directly if any other 
person in the Administration offers to correspond with 
you. While I remain in business I will do the duty 
of my office myself, and without submitting to those 
disagreeable interruptions I have met with from others; 
nor will I henceforward be led by persons of my own 
age and less experience. In short, dear Mitchel, if I 
stay in I must now have my share of the Cake, and if 
you hear I continue, depend upon it I have succeeded 
in what I think just and reasonable pretensions. A 
volume would not explain to you the transactions of 
these last six weeks. I have five Administrations in 
one day, and none existing at night. 

The Duke of Newcastle is great in his retreat, and 
does himself great honour by the manner in which he 
bears what his enemies only call a disgrace. 

The Parliament will produce a motley scene next 
week. You are happy to be out of the scrape. 
« « * # « 

Ever most truly yours, 


• Dukv of Newcastle. 



Mr. Syvimer to Mr. Mitchell Admiral Byng capi- 
tally convicted. 

[ibid. vol. xxxviii. fol. 31. Orig.^ 

London, 28''. Jan. 1757. 
My dear Mitchell, 
I WRITE a few lines to acquaint you that this 
morning about seven o'clock an express arrived at the 
Admiralty, with an account that Admiral Byng was 
capitally convicted, and was to be shot within a few days. 
After what I wrote to you in my last of the 21 *f. of this 
month you will perhaps be surprised at this News ; but 
1 can assure you your case is not singular ; the most of 
people here are as much surprised as you can be : not 
that they either thought he ought, or that they wished 
he would be acquitted ; but the accounts that had come 
from Portsmouth for about a week or two past had 
been so favourable for Byng, that it was generally con- 
cluded he would have been acquitted, and some went so 
far as to say that it would be to his honour. Nay at this 
very time we are assured he had his Post-Chaises stand- 
ing daily, nay hourly, ready, to carry him to London 
as it were in triumph : and yesterday I saw a gentle- 
man who is intimate with some of his relations, and 



who told me they were in hourly expectation of his 
arrival at London, taking it for granted he would be 
as expeditious in his journey as any messenger that 
could bring the accounts of his acquittal. I was to-day 
further informed from very good hands, that a gentle- 
man who dined with him on Tuesday last says, that 
after dinner Mr. Byng told him that as soon as he 
should come to Town, he would resume his Seat in the 
House of Commons, and return the charge upon his 
enemies by an accusation, the heads of which he read 
to this gentleman. All this can only be accounted for 
by observing, that there were a number of people em- 
ployed by him to write by every post from Portsmouth, 
giving the most favourable accounts imaginable of the 
progress of his Trial, and filling all the newspapers with 
paragraphs to the same purpose, at the same time that 
he himself, and all about him, affected a shew of the 
most sanguine hopes, or rather of a state of absolute 
security. Certain it is, however, that his Court Mar- 
tial, upon the closing of the evidence, were not without 
their difficulties. They took no less than a week to 
come to their final resolution. This is imputed to the 
tenderness, or perhaps to the partiality of some, who 
endeavoured, though in vain, to save him. 

A very odd circumstance was thrown in after the 
close of the Evidence which has afforded matter of 
speculation. A Letter came from M. Voltaire ad- 
dressed to Mr. Byng, which was stopped at the Post- 


office, brought to Lord Holdernesse, and opened. This 
contained an original Letter from the D. do Richlieu 
to M. Voltaire, in which he declared that Mr. Byng 
had acted like a brave and a prudent Admiral in the 
Engagement ; and that as the French were greatly 
superior in men, and in the condition of their ships to 
the English oft that occasion, had Mr. Byng obstinately 
persisted in a closer engagement, he must by that have 
given up the English Fleet to sure destruction. 

You may judge whether that attestation could have 
been of great service to Mr. Byng. Many are of 
opinion that this Certificate of good behaviour had 
been begged by him or his friends. A report goes 
that the Court Martial have recommended the criminal 
to the mercy of the K. Whatever foundation there 
may be for this, it is not imagined that the K. will 
pay the least attention to it. We have no other News 
here at present. Shall I not hear from you soon ? 
I ever am. 

Dear Mitchell, 

Yours, &c. 



Mr. Syvimer to Mr, Mitchell. The rigor of Admiral 
Byng's Sentence. 

[ibid. fol. 36. Or\s.\ 

London, Febr. the 1*^ 1757. 

My dear Mitchell, 
I SEND you the slip of the Newspaper herewith 
enclosed, as a supplement to my Letter of Friday last. 
If you have not had any other copy of the Sentence 
against Admiral Byng transmitted to you, this ought 
not to be unwelcome, for you may depend upon its 
being authentic. You will see what a strange Sentence 
it is. Our friend Hillsborough had a very just ob- 
servation upon it, that it was not so much a Sentence 
against Admiral Byng as against the Law ; and that 
instead of condemning the Admiral they condemned 
the Law to be shot. There is so much in this, that 
it is reported, I am afraid with too much foundation, 
that some of high rank in the Navy, as well as some 
Captains, declare they will not serve under the rigor 
of so hard and unequitable a law, as it subjects their 
lives and reputations to the judgment a Court Martial 
may form of what they may please to call a neglect of 


duty, though perhaps the Commander regulated his 
conduct on what appeared to be best at that time. It 
is even said an application will be made to Parliament 
to alter this Clause of the Act ; an Act, so much the 
more remarkable on this occasion as it seems Admiral 
Byng was one of those who contributed much to carry 
it to this degree of rigor. 

In the meanwhile all the world agrees, that it was a 
cruel thing to throw the determination on the King, 
who is in a manner told in the Sentence that he ought 
to pardon Byng, notwithstanding that he has in a 
solemn manner declared in his Answer to the Address 
of the City of London that he will allow Law and Jus- 
tice to have their course. The City begin already to 
sound this very high. It is assigned as a reason why 
the Court Martial threw this hard task upon the King; 
that, it seems, they Avere divided in their opinions ; five 
were for convicting him capitally, four for no more than 
breaking him, and the remaining four for acquitting 
him. In this variance of judgment they continued dis- 
puting it for six days together, till at last they agreed 
to compromise it in the manner they have done. 
# * * * # 

I ever am, dear Mitchell, 

Yours, &c.« 



Mr. Symmer to Mr, Mitchell. The Opinion of tht 
Judges taken upon Admiral Byng's Sentence. 

[ibid. fol. 3a Orig.\ 

London, 8"'. Febr. 1757. 
» » « « * 

The fate of Byng is what occupies almost every 
head, and opens almost every mouth in London. The 
popular torrent is against him. The King, it is said, 
has declared he will not interpose in the matter; he 
will not, he says, interrupt the course of Justice ; and 
as it is the business of the Admiralty Board to sign 
the dead warrant of those condemned by a Naval Court 
Martial, he leaves them to proceed as the Law in such 
a case directs. The question recurs, what does the 
Law direct in the case of so extraordinary a Sentence ? 
It is reported, and, as I am informed, upon good 
foundation, that the twelve Judges are this evening or 
to-morrow to meet his Majesty's Cabinet Council, to 
give their Opinion with regard to this matter, 

I ever am sincerely yours, &c. 



Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. A Motion made in the 
House of Commons for the mitigation of the rigor 
of Admiral Byng's Sentence. The Examination 
of the Members of his Court Ma^'tial by the Lords. 

[ibid. fol. 40. Orig.'\ 

London, March the 4*. 1757. 
My dear Mitchell, 
Since my last Letter to you of the 8'''\ of last month 
the attention of the public has been almost entirely 
taken up with what has passed with regard to Ad- 
miral Byng's extraordinary Sentence. The Admiralty 
Board, to whom it belonged to order the Sentence 
to be carried into execution, demurred to the legality 
of it, and humbly requested his Majesty that the opi- 
nion of the twelve Judges might be taken upon it. In 
consequence of this, it was laid before the Judges, who 
returned an unanimous opinion that it was legal. The 
Lords of the Admiralty thereupon, with his Majesty's 
consent, signed the Dead Warrant appointing him to 
be shot as upon Monday last. In the mean while a 
motion was made in the House of Commons by Sir 
Fr. D— — d, and supported strongly by Mr. P. and 
the new M ry, to take into consideration the 12''\ 


Article (that upon which Admiral Byng had been tried 
and condemned) and to give leave to bring in a Bill to 
mitigate the rigor of it. As this was, in other words, 
to move for an Address to reprieve or rather pardon^ 
Mr. Byng, which must of course have followed, the 
House considering it in that light evidently shewed 
their disapprobation of the motion ; and upon Lord 
Barr — n's proposing to put the previous question, Mr. 
P. who saw that it would be lost for Mr. Byng by a 
most extraordinary majority, desired that Sir Fr. might 
withdraw his motion. This attempt, beside the ap- 
plication of some in the Ministry humbly made to his^ 

M ty for mercy, having failed of success, another 

expedient was set on foot in behalf of Mr. Byng. Sir 
Fr. acquainted the House that several of the late 
Members of the Court Martial, as he was informed, 
were under great uneasiness of mind on account of the 
Sentence passed on Admiral Byng, and that they were 
of opinion that if they were by Act of Parliament dis- 
charged from their Oath of Secrecy they had taken, 
they could disclose matters that might shew the said 
Sentence to be improper. This was confirmed by Mr. 
Keppel, one of the late Members of the Court Martial 
and Member of Parliament, who rose up in his place 
and declared that to be his opinion, as also the opinion 
of four others of the said Court Martial. Upon this 
a Cabinet Council was held, and the Message, a copy 
of which I here send you enclosed, was brought to the 


House. In that message you will observe tliat an in- 
accuracy with regard to one of the great privileges of 
the House had inadvertently been suffered to slip, 
which you may be sure did not fail to be animadverted 
upon in very strong terms. Nevertheless, after much 
opposition, it was unanimously agreed upon that such 
a Bill might be brought in, which was thereupon im- 
mediately presented, read twice, committed, and or- 
dered to be engrossed, and Tuesday last it was brought 
up to the Lords. Their Lordships received this ex- 
traordinary Bill in quite a different manner than the 
Commons had. Lord Mansfield and Lord Hardwicke 
took the lead, and shewed, with great strength of rea- 
soning, that such a Bill could not be suffered to pass 
with any sort of propriety, unless it appeared to their 
Lordships, by sufficient evidence at their bar, that 
there was suitable and most undoubted groimd to 
found an Act of such an extraordinary nature upon. 
Whereupon it was resolved that all the late Members 
of the Court Martial should be ordered to attend their 
House as Wednesday last. On Wednesday they ap- 
peared ; and such was the expectation of the public, 
that I think I never saw so crowded a House. Lord 
Mansfield, supported by Lord Hardwicke, seemed to 
take the management of the Affair upon him ; and both 
acquitted themselves to the satisfaction of all. There 
were two plain questions put to every one of the Mem- 
bers of the Court Martial, called separately to the bar : 


The first, " Do you know of any matter that pass'd pre- 
vious to the Sentence of the Court Martial, that shows 
the Sentence to be unjust?"" The second, " Do you 
know of any thing that pass'd that shows the Sentence 
to have been given from any undue practice or motive ?*" 
To each of these questions every one of the Members 
answered " No."" It was further asked of every one 
of them, if they desired the Bill might pass into an Act 
to discharge them from their Oath of Secrecy ? and all 
of them, excepting Mr. Keppel, Admiral Norris, and 
Captain Moor, answered, they did not desire it, but 
severals added they had no objection to it, if it could 
give any satisfaction to others. A fourth question was 
put, viz. " If they could disclose any thing that might 
be necessary for his Majesty's information, or likely to 
incline his Majesty to mercy .'"'* and all of them (ex- 
cepting the three before mentioned) declared they could 
not, the most of them referring themselves upon the 
head of Mercy to what they had added to their sen- 
tence, and their Letter to the Lords of the Admiralty. 
Such was the purport, if not the very words of the 
questions put to them, the two last of which were from 
Lord Halifax ; and such were their Answers, given in 
the clearest manner imaginable. Upon tlie whole, the 
conviction of the House was so strong, that there was no 
necessity of passing the Bill, that it was given up by the 
few Lords who favoured it : and the Proceedings there- 
upon, for the satisfaction of the Nation, were ordered 

VOT,. IV. SFtt. 2. I) 1) 


to be printed. As the ferment of the Public, especially 
of the City, has been very high upon this occasion, 
you will not be surprised to hear that some particular 
Gentlemen, one in particular, have greatly suffered in 
point of popularity from their conduct in this affair. 

V — It — rs C 11 took the liberty to say in the House, 

in one of the debates, that Admiral Byng had been the 

ruin of the last A n, and that he did not doubt 

but that he would be the ruin likewise of this. Many 
are of his opinion. You may hear more of this. Be 
surprised at nothing. 

Mr. Byng's respite terminates Monday se'nnight, 
the 14^1'. instant, when if nothing, I may say, preter- 
natural happens, he must be shot. 

I am, my dear Mitchell, 

Yours most sincerely. 


Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. Admiral Byng has but 
three days to live. 

[ibid. fol. 43.] 

London, March 11, 1757. 
* * * * # 

As I find that the Proceedings in the House of 


Lords in the Case of Admiral Byng do not make a 
Pamphlet of too large a size to go by the Post, I here- 
with forward it to you. The Trial is made up into a 
proper pacquet and waits at Lord Holderness's Office 
to go by the first Messenger that shall be despatched 
to you. 

The unhappy subject of all this, Poor Byng, has 
but three days to live ; Monday being fixed for the 
day of his execution, without the least apparent pro- 
bability, I may say possibility, of a Reprieve, much 
less a pardon. 

There is indeed a report current to-day, that the 
Common Council of the City have some sort of a de- 
sire of petitioning in his favour. If they should, it can 
be of no effect. They are so far from being the mouth 
of the City, that their voice runs counter, almost upon 
every great occasion, to the genuine voice of that re- 
spectable Body. If the King had thought fit to have 
spared Byng, and that such had been the prevailing 
wish of the people, the Common Council would cer- 
tainly have petitioned against him. 

With regard to the state of the present Administrar- 
tion I have little or nothing to add to my last Letter. 
Affairs are in a manner all afloat. The Dike of Popu- 
larity being broke down, they lie open to inundation. 
Nothing can save them, but that the different Streams 
may perhaps not be brought to unite in one main 

D D 2 



The Right Hon. William Pitt, afterwards Earl of 
Chatham, to Mr. Mitchell. Expresses his attach- 
ment to, and admiration of the King of Prussia. 

[ibid. vol. xxii. fol. 3. Orig.'\ 

(Private.) Whitehall, March Sl^t. 1757- 


The favour of your Letter from Dresden of the 
12*. inst. is every way too interesting to remain one 
moment unacknowledged. The infinite condescension 
and gracious goodness of his Prussian Majesty towards 
me, I feel as I ought, and consequently can express 
but very inadequately the most grateful sentiments of 
veneration and zeal for a Prince, who stands the un- 
shaken bulwark of Europe, against the most powerful 
and malignant confederacy that ever yet has threatened 
the independence of mankind. 

I need not add, that I should be most unworthy of 
the honour of serving the best of Sovereigns, if my 
zeal for the prosperity and glory of so firm and mag- 
nanimous an Ally, did not endeavour to keep some 
pace with the sentiments of his Majesty''s own royal 
breast. I will trust to your friendship to employ the 


properest and most expressive terms to lay at the King 
of Prussia's, feet my real sentiments of attachment and 

I may now come to a very pleasing and valuable part 
of your Letter, where, in most obliging expressions, 
you mention old acquaintance and friendship. I shall 
have a particular pleasure in cultivating the honour of 
your kind remembrance, and desire you will remain 
assured that no one is with more truth and regard than 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

and most humble servant, 



Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The King and the 
Duke of Cumberland have the Gout for the first 

[ibid. voL xxxviii. fol. 113.] 

London, \TK Nov. 1758. 
# * # # * 

The King was taken ill of a cold upon his coming 
to Town Wednesday last week. That did not hinder 


him to appear and to undergo the fatiguing honours 
of his Birth-day, Friday last, though every body took 
notice of the indisposition he labour'd under. He 
likewise made a shift to appear, for a few moments, 
the Sunday following. From that time he submitted 
to a confinement in his private apartments ; every body 
was alarmed ; on Wednesday and Yesterday a report 
was current in the City he was dead, and numbers of 
people hurried to the shops to buy their mourning 
clothes. No doubt but that something of this report 
will get into Foreign Gazettes. I think it therefore 
proper for me to tell you, and it is with the greatest 
satisfaction I give you the information, that this is 
nothing but a false alarm. His Majesty's indisposition 
has taken a very favourable turn. In short, it has ended 
in the Gout, and he is now confined to his chair, a good 
deal out of humour to be so confined, and pretty much 
in pain, but in other respects in very good health. 
This is a distemper that seems to be somewhat epide- 
mical at present in the Royal Family. The Duke is 
confined to his apartment on the same account, and 
likewise for the first time ; for neither His Majesty nor 
He had ever an avowed attack of the Gout before. 



Mr. Pitt to Mr. Mitchell. The King of Prussia in- 
tercedes for the Pardon of the Lord Marischal. 
Mr. Pitfs veneration for the King- of Prussia. 

[ibid. vol. xxiL fol. 21. Orig.] 

*,* George tenth Earl Marischal was bom about 1693, and succeeded 
his father in 1712. On February the 3*. 1714, Queen Anne gave him 
the command of the Scottish troop of horse grenadier guards. He signed 
the Proclamation of King George the First August 1*'. 1714 ; but being 
unacceptable to the Duke of Argyll he was deprived of his command. 
The Earl set out for Scotland in disgust, and in the following year entered 
rashly into the Rebellion. 

An act of Attainder now passed against Earl Marischal, his titles, and 
hereditary office of Marischal of Scotland, which last had been in his 
family from the time of M^colm the Second. 

Escaping abroad, he returned to Scotland in 1719 with the Spanish 
troops sent by Cardinal Alberoni. 

The Spaniards were defeated, and the Earl a second time escaped to 
the Continent 

He resided for some time in Spain in straitened circumstances, but at 
last went to Prussia, where he gained the friendship of Frederick III. 
who, in 1750, sent him his ambassador extraordinary to the Court of 
France ; invested him with the Order of the Black Eagle ; and gave him 
the government of Neufchatel. In 1 759 he was ambassador from Prussia 
to the Court of Madrid, where discovering the secret of the Family Com- 
pact, by which the different branches of the House of Bourbon had bound 
themselves to assist each other, he communicated that important intelli- 
gence to Mr. Pitt, who representing his lordship's case to King George 
the Second, a pardon was granted to him May 29"'. 1759. 

From the Letter immediately before the Reader, and from the Letter 
which follows it, it will be seen that the King of Prussia had also inter- 
posed in his favour.* Having quitted Madrid, he came to England, 

» Nor was Earl Marischal less indebted to the kindness of Sir Andrew Mitchell. In 
a Letter dated " Madrid cc 24 Aout mo," he says, " I am most gratefully ac- 


and was introduced to King George the Second, June IS'*". 17C0. His 
former disabilities were further removed by an Act of Parliament 
33 Geo. II. 

Having recovered a portion of his family estates under another act, 
Stat. 1 Geo. III. c. 14." he intended to have settled in Scotland, and 
came there for a time ; but at the King of Prussia's earnest solicitation 
he returned to Prussia, where he died at Potsdam May 28"". 1778.'' 

Private. - 

You will be informed by the Earl of Holdernesse, 
now returned from Bath, of the pleasure His Majesty 
took in complying with the wishes of the King of 
Prussia in favour of Lord Marshal ; and I have only 
to add on the subject, that nothing was left for the 
King's servants to do on the occasion but to admire 
the generosity and clemency of two great Monarchs 
displaying themselves so amiably, and to be happy in 
the growing harmony and confidential friendship which 
daily manifest themselves between their Majesties. 

knowlcdgiiig of the gooiliiess of both the Kinj^s towards me, and also of your good 
offices, for I know by Baron Knyphausen that before he dehvered the King of 
Prussia's Letter, the King of England was already disposed to grant my pardon. 
Voii had, it seems, previously prepared well the way, as I have writ to my friends 
in Scotland, that they may know the obligation I think I have to you. 
» * » * * 

" I know from Baron Knyphausen not only the King's goodness and clemency, 
but also the favour of his Ministers towards me ; whatever more they shall add shall 
be with gratitude received ; and to them I leave it." 

» Earl Marischal writes to Sir Andrew Mitchell, in the following terms, from 
London, February 22''. 1761. " You will see perhaps by the public papers that my 
Bill has passed both Houses ; the King made notify by his Ministers his consent. 
It would have passed in a way much more advantageous to me, had it not been for 

one Webb, a Member of Parliament, an attorney, and esteemed by all a K 1 do 

not mean a King. Had it not been for Mr. Nugent of the Treasury he had furtive- 
ment thrust into my Bill unperceived a clause which would have given to me and to 
my heirs, by Act of Parliament, a law-suit of fifty years. 


V Compare Wood's edit, of Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, vol. ii. pp. 1D6, 197. 


The approbation the King of Prussia is pleased to 
express to you of the measures pursued, and of the 
fair and honest proceedings of the King's servants, 
fills me with the deepest satisfaction and sincerest joy 
for the public ; at the same time that the distinguished 
protection and infinite condescension of that heroic 
monarch towards the least amongst them have indeed 
left me under impressions beyond the power of words, 
and in addition to all the warmest sentiments which 
my heart has long devoted to the greatest of Kings and 
pride of human nature, gratitude, that can only cease 
with my life, has completed the ties of inviolable 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you that, this day, 
the pecuniary succour to Prussia, and the subsidy to 
the Landgrave, together with nineteen thousand Hes- 
sians for this year, passed the Committee, with one 
voice only against it. I return you many thanks for 
your obliging presents, and desire you will be per- 
suaded that I shall be happy in the occasions of testi- 
fying the great truth and consideration with which I 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, humble servant, 





Lord Holdernesse to Mr. Mitchell^ upon the Pardon of 
the Lord Mareschal. 

[ibid. vol. xiv. fol. 4. Orig-.] 


Whitehall, Jan. 27"'. 1759. 
Dear Sir, 
As I hope soon to have occasion to despatch a mes- 
senger to you I shall give you little trouble by this 
post, but I could not forbear acquainting you, without 
loss of time, that in consideration of the King of 
Prussia's application His Majesty is pleased to consent 
to pardon the late Lord Marshall. You know the 
precautions that by the Constitution we are obliged to 
take, in Cases of Attainder for Treason by Act of 
Parliament, so that I cannot yet tell in what shape 
this affair will be earned into execution, but it will 
suffice for the present, that you should know it will be 

* # * # # 

Dear Sir, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 


Mr. Mitchell. 



Mr. Pitt to Mr. Mitchell. His respect and reverence 
for the King of Prussia. 

[ibid. vol. xxiL fol. 23. Orig>'\ 

Whitehall, June the 12''. 1759- 
Dear Sir, 

I WILL not trouble you here with regard to my De- 
spatch to Mr. Porter, a copy whereof, in your cypher, 
is transmitted to you by the Earl of Holdernesse in 
order to be communicated to the King of Prussia, and 
relative whereto Baron Knyphalisen has writ so fully 
and so fairly to his Court. I will only say on this 
subject, that we do more than I dared to hope ; indeed 
all that we possibly can ; and far beyond that to which 
any imaginable consideration but the just weight of 
His Prussian Majesty, could ever have carried us. 

What I sat down only to do, is to acknowledge the 
favour of your very obliging private Letter of the 20^h. 
past, and to give some expressions in a short word, to 
the deep and lively sentiments of most respectful gra- 
titude and veneration which such a testimony from 
such a Monarch must engrave for ever in a heart 
already filled with admiration and devotion. 

Truly dear ab His Prussian Majesty's interests are 


to me, it is my happiness to be able to say, that if any 
servant of the King could forget (a thing, I trust, is 
impossible) what is due by every tie to such an Ally, I 
am persuaded His Majesty would soon bring any of us 
to our memory again. In this confidence I rest secure 
that whenever Peace shall be judged proper to come 
under consideration, no PEACE ofUTRECHT will 
again stain the annals of England. 

Accept yourself my best thanks for the obliging 
language you was so good to hold of an old acquaint- 
ance : and believe me with great truth and considera- 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 



Mr. Symmer to Mr. Mitchell. The Expenses of the 
War. Lord George SacJcville disgraced. 

[ibid. vol. xxxviii, fol. 145. Ori^^.] 

London, 14th. Sept. 1759. 
How much do I wish that all this bustle in Europe 
were over, and that I had you here, in the quiet Cabi- 


net of Mount-street, to philosophise about Electricity 
and the hidden Powers of Nature. 

To give you some little sketch of the political State 
of Affairs at home, I must acquaint you, that the late 
Successes his Majesty''s Arms have been crowned with 
by Sea and Land, together with a certainty now of 
having nothing to fear with regard to an Invasion from 
France, have consolidated the power of the Minister 
who has been active in those measures, and raised him 
above all opposition. The only apparent difficulty the 
present Administration has to struggle with, is to sup- 
ply the expenses of the war, if it should continue. It 
is computed that a sum not less than eighteen miUions 
has been requisite to defray the charges of Government, 
civil and military, during the course of this year. 
This is a sum so immense, that, setting aside the debt 
that must accumulate upon it, there is not a nation in 
Europe could bear the burthen of it long. The weight 
of it begins to be felt by us in a very sensible manner ; 
and indeed it is amazing, however forward people are 
to subscribe, that so much specie can be found as is 
necessary to effectuate that expense. Our comfort is 
that it must go as hard with our enemies, in conse- 
quence of which we may soon hope for Peace. 

I take it for granted you are no stranger to what 
has been reported concerning the behaviour of Lord G. 

S le at the Battle of Minden. He has been come 

home now some days ; yet that does not silence the 


hawkers, who every day have some new piece of scur- 
rility against him, to bawl about the streets. The 
Pamphlets already wrote on the subject (none of which 
I have or shall read) are enough to compose Volumes. 
What is most material is, that he is stripped of all his 
military employments : and that when he demanded a 
Court Martial, he was told he might go to Germany 
to have it, and might be assured that whatever sentence 
should be passed upon him there, would be confirmed 

here. In such a Country as E^ d, and with a man 

of intrigue and abilities as Lord G. I should not be sur- 
prised if in six months hence the current runs another 


Mr. Symmer to Mr, Mitchell. The death of General 

[ibid. foL 143.] 

London, Oct. 26, 1759- 

* « * * * 

I TAKE it for granted you have had authentic ac- 
counts of our great success in America, as soon as it 
was possible for you to receive them. I should have 
been glad however to have thrown in my little in- 


formation of those matters at the same time ; if it had 
been no more than to have congratulated with you 
upon the joyful part of the news, and at the same time 
condoled with you on the loss of a man who, as a Ge- 
neral, or as a private person, is hardly to be replaced. 
I need not tell you I mean Mr. Wolf. I knew him 
but a little : but what I knew of him made me esteem, 
admire, and love him. If you were acquainted with 
him I am sure you will not differ in opinion with me. 


Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The Union between 
the Duke of Newcastle and Mr, Pitt. 

[ibid. vol. XXXV. fol. 21.] 

Cavendish Square, 14 Jan. 1760. 

# * * # # 

If I were to give you an account of the past and 
present state of things here since I wrote last, I should 
compose a Volume. You have no time to read or I to 
write any thing so voluminous. These transactions 
will amuse us in conversation when we meet, but for 
the present it may suffice that I assure you of the union, 
cordiality, and good-will which reigns at present among 
the King's servants : it, fortunately for them, our mas- 
ter, and the public, is such, that there never was more 



at any period of our time. I could not have said this 
three months ago, but I can safely assert it now, and I 
think there is every appearance that the same happy 
temper will continue. I verily believe that the Duke 
of N. and his brother did not more cordially wish 
each other to continue in their respective stations, 
than the Duke of N. and Mr. Pitt do now : and 
there are less disputes and coldness than there used to 
be between the two Brothers. This union, great and 
extraordinary as it may seem, is nothing in comparison 
with that of the Parliament and the Nation, which seems 
to have one mind and one object. What is most asto- 
nishing, the object in which this whole people is united 
is wise and good. Do not however imagine, my dear 
Mitchell, that this proceeds from any improvement 
made by our countrymen either in wisdom or in virtue, 
for it arises solely from this ; no man who can raise any 
sort of disturbance finds it either convenient or agreeable 
to be out of humour at this time. As every Speech, 
Pamphlet, and Paper, are full of panegyrick on the 
present measures, the Nation believe it is all deserved, 
and think they were never so well served nor governed. 
Perhaps they never were, but this opinion does not 
arise from thence. They are ready to carry on the 
War, or to make a Peace according as the one or the 
Other shall be recommended to them ; and if the War 
continues they are for the first time persuaded it will 
be made in the best manner and in the best places. 


These are happy conjunctures, my dear friend, and I 
hope and beheve the proper use will be made of them. 
* * * * * 

I asked the Duke of Newcastle to-day, if I might 
^ve you the comfort of knowing that you were weU 
with him, which you know is an expression of his 
Grace's. The Duke's answer was, " no man in Eng- 
land better, and so I desire you will tell him, with 
many excuses for not answering his Letters.'" 
I am, my dear friend, 
most faithfully and affectionately yours, 



Mr. Mitchell to the Earl qfHddemesse. The Court 
(^France uses the pen of Voltaire to draw Secrets 
Jrom the King of Prussia. The King of Prussia's 
character of Voltaire. 

[ibis. vol. V. foL 118 b. mr. Mitchell's owk copy.] 


Meissbn, Thursday, 31**. July, 1760. 

My Lord, 

A FEW days ago I received a Letter from Mr. 

Mackenzie, his Majesty''s Envoy at Turin, enclosing 

one from Baron Edelsheim to the King of Prussia ; 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. E E - 


the Originals of both which Letters I here transmit to 
your Lordship. 

So soon as the Baron's Letter could be decyphered 
I gave a copy to his Prussian Majesty, which he read 
over in my presence, and seemed a good deal provoked 
and piqued with the behaviour of the Duke de Choiseul, 
and not much pleased with the conduct of the Bailly 
de Froulay. The next day the King of Prussia sent 
me an answer to that Letter to be put into our French 
cypher, which accordingly has been done, and sent to 
Mr. Mackenzie under a merchant's cover. Your Lord- 
ship has a copy of it here enclosed. 

Two days ago happening to dine with his Prussian 
Majesty alone, I threw out by way of conversation 
some reflections on the indignity with which Monsieur 
de Choiseul had treated Baron Edelsheim, charged 
with a Letter of Credence. The King of Prussia, 
after mentioning, with some warmth, the weakness and 
absurdity of the French Ministers, replied, that Baron 
Edelsheim had, properly speaking, no Letter of cre- 
dence, but only a Letter from Minister to Minister in 
which even a blank was left for the inserting of his 
name in case there should be occasion, and he added 
that as to the seizure of the Baron's papers, which was 
the only reasonable motive for arresting of him, the 
French would be disappointed if they expected to 
make discoveries by them, for he had given the Baron 


no written Instructions, and they would only find a 
particular cypher which was of no consequence. 

I then took the liberty to observe that some late 
Letter his Prussian Majesty had written which had 
fallen into the French Minister's hands, seemed to have 
given great offence. His Prussian Majesty replied " I 
have \trote no Letter, but one to Voltaire.'' I ventured 
to say, " Perhaps your Majesty may have in that Letter 
made use of some strong expressions with regard to the 
Duke de Choiseul." He answered, " No. I think I 
made use of this proverbial phrase, that the Duke de 
Choiseul was possessed by ten millions of Austrian 
devils ;" that, as to the rest, he had told Voltaire, he 
would keep to his alliance with England, and that if 
the French had a mind for Peace they must speak out 
plainly ; and he said that this Letter to Voltaire was 
an Answer to oiie he had received from him, in which 
Voltaire had assured him that the French Ministers 
were perfectly well disposed towards a Peace. 

I think proper to acquaint your Lordship minutely 
with every circumstance concerning this affair, which 
I wish may agree with the accounts received from 
other parts ; but I cannot help adding that the King of 
Prussia's Correspondence with Voltaire has, on this, 
and former occasions, given me some uneasiness and 
suspicions ; for I believe the Court of France make use 
of the artful pen of Voltaire to draw secrets from the 
King of Prussia, and when that Prince writes as a wii 

E E 2 


and to a wit, he is capable of great indiscretions. But 
what surprises me still more is, that whenever Voltaire*'s 
name is mentioned, his Prussian Majesty never fails to 
give him the epithets he may deserve, which are the 
worst heart and greatest rascal now living ; yet with all 
this he continues to correspond with him. Such, in this 
Prince, is the lust of praise from a great and elegant 
Writer, in which, however, he will at last be the dupe, 
for by what I hear from good authority of Voltaire's 
character, he may dissemble, but never can nor never 
will forgive the King of Prussia for what has passed 
between them. 

I am, &c. 



The Right Hon. William Pitt to Mr. Mitchell. Ex- 
presses his Joy at the King of Prussians Successes. 

[ibid. vol. xxii. fol. 25. Orig.'\ 


Sept. 9*. 1760. 
Dear Sir, 

I CAN not let a Messenger go away without con- 
veying some expressions at least of all my heart feels 
on the glorious and stupendous successes with which 


Providence has at last crowned the heroic constancy 
of spirit and unexampled activity of mind of that truly 
great King you are so fortunate to contemplate nearly. 
Never was joy more sincere and universal than that 
which Mr. Coccei's arrival confirmed to us ; and amidst 
a whole Nation''s joy, none can surpass, if any can equal 

May Heaven continue to prosper the arduous 
work, for much, very much yet remains to be done, 
and other wonders to be performed. May all prove 
propitious, and may success inspire sentiments of 
peace, to fix at last this long-fluctuating scene of blood 
and desolation, and to give stability and happiness to 
the fortunes of this unconquerable Monarch. 

Mr. Coccei's appearance and manner fully answer 
to the advantageous portrait you make of him ; and I 
esteem myself happy in the acquisition of that gentle- 
man's acquaintance. 

Accept my best thanks for the volume of admirable 
poetry which you was so good to send me. I find 
there the happiest imitations of the Ancients : the de- 
licacy of Horace, and the force of Juvenal. 

I am, with great truth and consideration^ 
Dear Sir, 
Your faithful friend 

and most humble servant, 




J. WrigJdi Under Secretary of State , to Sir Andrew 
Mitchell. The Reports upon King George the 
Second's Will. 


Whitehall, Nov. 7"'. 1760. 
# * * .# # 

The King's Will is so variously reported that I do 
not presume to vouch any one of them. That of the 
most authority I have, is, that he left only ^£'35,000 
to be equally divided between the Duke, Princess 
Amelia, and the Landgravine of Hesse. A small 
parcel of Bank notes, about .f'GOOO, were found in his 
drawer, with a desire of them being sent to the Coun- 
tess, which with two thousand guineas the King found 
loose were sent immediately, and I hear was all he 
left; that the great distresses in Germany since this 
War began had run away with all that he might other- 
wise have left. 




In any Retrospect which future times may make, the Reign of 
GEORGE the THIRD will be found as instructive to the Philosopher 
as the Historian. 

In duration it extended to the full limit of an ordinary life ; in great- 
ness of events it had no parallel in the Ages which went immediately 
before it. It was marked by the loss of a vast empire upon the Western 
continent, and by the acquisition of sixty millions of subjects upon the 
Eastern side of the Globe ; by the dawn of restoration to the Arts ; 
by the most important discoveries in every science ; by the greatest naval, 
and the greatest military glory." Nor must it be forgotten that George 
the Third released the Judges of the land from dependence upon himself. 

The Reader, however, is not for a moment to suppose that the Letters 
here presented to him, form any thing like a perfect, or even a continued 
Picture of the Reign of George the Third. They regard a few Occurrences 
only in a long Period ; and relate mostly to the earlier Administrations of 
the King's Government. Some will nevertheless be found amongst them 
of no ordinary import. None are probably of higher interest than those 
which depict the conduct of the Sovereign himself amid trials. The 
integrity of his mind, his powers of persuasion, the kindness of his heart, 
his decision, and his magnanimity are every where apparent. 

• The Regency began Feb. 3<'. isil. King George the Third died Jan. 20*. 1820. 



Gen&fdl Yorke to Sir Andrexo Mitchell. TIte opening 
of the Reign of George the Third. 

[MITCHELL FAFEB8, Vol. XXXVii. foL 161. Oriff.] 

Hague, January 8^^. 1761. 
Deae Sir, 

I HAVE not wrote to you of late, because I really 
have not very well known what to say after the loss we 
sustained in October; and I was desirous to see a little 
first what was likely to happen, as well as to learn 
whether your arrival with H. P. M. at Leipsic might 
produce any thing to enlighten my understanding. 

As we seem likely to continue sometime longer in the 
dark, I must break through my silence to wish you a 
happy New Year and many more agreeable ones than 
you have spent of late ; Mr. Coccei the second furnishes 
me with the opportunity, and I won't let it escape. 

I do not know whether you have correspondents 
who inform you exactly of our interior ; if you have, 
all I have to say may be useless ; if you have not, a few 
lines may not be unwelcome. 

The young Monarch has ascended the Throne in the 
happiest aera of the British Nation, the first of his. family 


born in England, in the prime of life, with a good 
constitution, and with the good opinion of his subjects. 
He has many amiable and virtuous qualities, is rather 
timid, but since his accession I am told he represents 
well, and spoke his speech with great grace and dig- 
nity. He received all his Grandfather"'s servants with 
great goodness, and pressed them to continue in his 
service, which they consented to, though some of 
them, particularly the Duke of Newcastle, was in- 
clined to retire ; but all the Whigs in the Kingdom 
united to desire his continuance in employment, and 
he was promised the direction in the new Elections, 
with all the other influence he formerly enjoyed. Mr. 
Pitt has, however, the lead, and Lord Bute has a dif- 
ficult game to play as a personal friend and favourite, 
with weight, of course, but no employment of business. 
This, you see, must occasion new scenes, which will be 
represented as people's passions and interests lead them. 
Hitherto things have gone on smoothly in appearance, 
and in Parliament unanimously, and the only thing 
which occasioned a fluster was the invitation and ad- 
mission of some Tory Lords and Commoners into the 
Bedchamber ; a measure which I should have no ob- 
jection to, if concerted, but which without that may 
rather tend to divide than to unite. In what manner 
the New Parliament will be chosen we shall soon see. 
1 hear the fashion at Court is to say, it shall be a Par- 
liament of the people''s oAvn choosing, which, in these 


times, may open the door to new cabals and difficulties, 
though the principle of it may be wise and honest. 

Lord Hardwicke has been much caressed by the King 
and his Ministers, and continues to give his helping 
hand without place or pension. The Duke of Argyle 
and Lord Bute were reconciled in an hour, and have 
settled their matters to mutual satisfaction, which I 
and many others expected would be the case whenever 
a late event happened. 

The Marriage was hotly talked of for some time, but 
that is now subsided. The Saxe Gotha match does not 
seem to have the Voa: Populi, but His Majesty has 
not many ladies to choose out of, if he designs to 

As to the War, they would be glad to get out of it if 
they could, and His Majesty wishes personally for it. 
One difficulty is out of the way, which is Hanover, for 
at present the influence from that quarter is quite at an 
end, and though great goodness is expressed towards 
them, no partiality or any appearance of it. 

We were in hopes because France was ruined that she 
would make some advance, but France seems to take 
pleasure in her ruin, and holds her tongue, and pretends 
she will make another campaign, and that she has found 
the money for it, though all the bankers here deny it 
Had the expedition against Gottingen succeeded, I am 
inclined to think some overture would have been made; 
but I don't know what they will do at present, imlesfe 


to make another declaration as last year; perhaps with 
the same success. His Prussian Majesty must be sup- 
ported if possible, and no one in the British Council 
has any idea of leaving him ; but we are always afraid 
for him, and are not wise enough always to see how he 
can be assisted. In the meanwhile the Season is again 
approaching for the armies to take the field, and a re- 
solution must be taken before that time. If the French 
^stay in Hesse they will embarrass us greatly, and the 
wisest thing His Prussian Majesty can do for his own 
interest is to help to drive them away ; he would not 
only encourage the British nation, but enable us tO 
negotiate for him with great advantage. At Vienna 
they are not too flush of money, and the accounts I 
see from their army represent it as very much shattered 
and tattered, and that they shall have great difficulties 
in putting it in order again. The single article of new 
clothing them again is a very considerable object. 
Who is to command it is uncertain; some imagine 
Daun will not, and talk of the Archduke with Laudohn 
for director. I know nothing about the Russians, 
which is the most essential to be informed about ; and 
as to the Swedes, I hope there is a good chance for their 
fceing out of the question for the next campaign, if 
^;hings go on as they are represented to us. 

This is the short Sketch of what I know ; if any 
•thing material happens which may assist or comfoi't 
jouj I will let you know it. His Prussian Majesty 


has a faithful ally in the King, and one who will not 
leave him in the lurch. Whether he sees any light 
himself to extricate himself, besides sheer fighting, is 
more than I am informed of; but to judge from what 
I do see, I should not imagine he has, which I am 
sorry for, for I am always for negotiating even in the 
midst of fighting. We are told that he has great suc- 
cess in completing his army, which is astonishing ; but 
his Country must suffer, as all parts of it have been 
ravaged by turns, and his enemies are such as have no 
bowels at all. 

Monsieur Coccei will teU you all the anecdotes of 
London better than I can. He seems, as well as his 
brother, much pleased with his reception, and much 
delighted with all that was said to him. 

Lord Pembroke left the enclosed Letter with me to 
be forwarded under cover to you by the first oppor- 
tunity. This with my best wishes for your health and 
happiness is all the trouble you shall have to-day from, 
Dear Sir, 
Your most affectionate and faithful 
humble servant, 

J. Y. 

My best compliments wait on 
Mr. Burnet, and I beg to be kindly 
remembered to my worthy friend 



Lord Barringtan to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 

[MITCHELL PAPEBS. VOl. XXXV. fol. 27- Orig.'\ 

Cavendish Square, 5*''. Jan. 1761. 
Nothing can be more amiable, more virtuous, 
better disposed, than our present Master. He applies 
himself thoroughly to his affairs, he understands them 
to an astonishing degree. His faculties seem to me 
equal to his good intentions, and nothing can be more 
agreeable or satisfactory than doing business with him. 
A most uncommon attention, a quick and just concep- 
tion, great mildness, great civility, which takes nothing 
from his dignity, caution and firmness, are conspicuous 
in the highest degree ; and I really think none of them 
over or underdone. After so much panegyric on the 
Master, you will not expect any on his Ministers. You 
know them as well as I do, so I shall say nothing con- 
cerning them, but that if three of the number can agree, 
they may do every thing for themselves, their friends, 
and their Country. Whoever unnecessarily breaks 
this important triumvirate will deserve public execra- 
tion, and perhaps may have it ; for I tliink the Nation 


for once desires quiet both at home and abroad. After 
telling you my wish, I will tell you my opinion : I 
think they will agree so as to carry on business to- 
gether ; and that is as much as can be expected. The 
distinction shown to our patron and friend the Duke 
of Newcastle has done him the highest honour. Never 
was a call to Government so universal : it was not to 
be resisted, even in the opinion of those who thought 
he should retire. He certainly was himself of that 
opinion, and intended retirement, how much soever he 
might have repented it afterwards. 

Adieu, my dear Mitchell ; preserve your good hu- 
mour, recover your health, and be never a moment 
without the most confident belief that I am most sin- 
cerely and affectionately yours. 


p. S. I ask no questions about myself, but I am 
rather of opinion I shall continue Secretary at War. 



Lord Barringtan to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. The 

Administration settled. 

[ibid. foL 29. Orig.'\ 

Cavendish Square, 23^. March, 1761. 
My dear Mitchell, 

Some time since I acquainted you by desire of the 
Duke of Newcastle that you would soon be a Knight 
of the Bath : I wish he had not given me this Com- 
mission, as the Ribbons were disposed of yesterday, 
and you had not one of them. 

I have expostulated with the Duke on this occasion. 
He protests it is not his fault, and that he has the most 
real value and regard for you ; which indeed I believe 
is true. I hope this will be the last and the most 
mortifying disappointment of your life. 

Our Administration is at last settled ; I think well 
settled in the main, and my opinion is that it will last. 
Our friend Holdernesse is finely in harbour: he has 
66*4000 a year for life, with the reversion of the War- 
denship of the Cinque Ports after the Duke of Dorset, 
which he likes better than having the name of Pensioner. 
I never could myself understand the difference between 
a Pension and a Sinecure Place. 


The same strange fortune which made me Secretary 
at War five years and a half ago, has made me Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer. It may perhaps at last make 
me Pope. I think I am equally fit to be at the head 
of the Church, as of the Exchequer. My reason tells 
me it would have been more proper to have given me 
an employment of less consequence, when I was re- 
moved from the War Office ; but no man knows what 
is good for him. My invariable rule therefore is, to 
ask nothing, to refuse nothing, to let others place me, 
and to do my best wherever I am placed. 

I have the satisfaction to be perfectly well with my 
Royal Master, who really deserves all love and admira- 
tion, and with the three persons whose union can alone 
keep this Country great and happy. Perhaps I may 
contribute to the continuance of it, and it shall be my 
utmost endeavour to do so. 

In all situations, my dear Mitchell, I am equally 
your friend and servant. Use me always as such, and 
believe me ever 

most faithfully and affectionately yours, 

Andrew Mitchell, Esq. 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. F F 



Colonel GrcBme to Mr. Mitchell, upon Lord Har- 
courfs Journey to demand the hand of the Princess 
of Mechlenburg Strelitz. 

[ibid. vol. li. fol. 1. Orig.'l 

Strelitz, 17 !'. July, 1761. 
The \5^^. instant I received a Letter from Lord 
Bute of the 7'^'i. enclosing a Copy of the Declaration 
which His Majesty was to make to his Council next 
day the 8 '\, a Double of which I herewith send you 
for your information, in case you may not have had 
any account of it from England. His Lordship also 
informs me that Lord Harcourt was next day to be 
declared Master of Horse to the Queen, and named 
Ambassador from His Majesty to make the formal 
demand of the Princess, and conduct her to England. 
That his Lordship was to set out immediately, and 
supposed he would be at Strelitz by the end of this 
month at latest. This information his Lordship gave 
me with a view that I might have every thing in readi- 
ness for the Princess's journey, so as my Lord Har- 
court should not be detained here above two or three 



The route which the Princess takes from hence is 
through the Prignitz. 

The Stages, Mirow, 




at which last place the Princess crosses the Elbe, and 
enters on the Hanover territory. The Duke of Meck- 
lenburgh conducts the Princess to the Elbe, and is to 
apply to the Regency of the Country to have horses 
in readiness ; but as the circumstances of the times, the 
situation of the Country, with the approaching harvest, 
may occasion some difficulties in the supply of horses 
for so large a Retinue as the Princess will have along 
with her, I thought proper to inform you of the above 
particulars, hoping to obtain through your interposition 
with the Ministers such directions to the Regency in 
that part of his Prussian Majesty's dominions, as may 
obviate all difficulties which might occur to retard the 
Princess"'s journey. I cannot exactly inform you at 
what place in the Prignitz the Princess will take a 
night's quarters, but I believe at Perleberg. The 
place is but middling, and cannot affiDrd very commo- 
dious lodgings. I hope that the Magistrates will do 
their part, and see the Princess accommodated in the 
best manner that circumstances may admit of. 

I regretted that I was not fortunate enough to have 

F T 2 


the pleasure of paying my respects to you at Berlin, 
to which place I lately made a short trip to satisfy 
curiosity, but shall on all occasions be glad of any op- 
portunity to testify that regard with which I have the 
honour to be. 

Your most humble and most obedient servant, 

DAV. GR^ME, Coll. 

(Copy of His Majesty's Declaration.) 
Having nothing so much at heart as to procure the 
welfare and happiness of my people, and to render the 
same stable and permanent to Posterity, I have, ever 
since my Accession to the Throne, turned my thoughts 
towards the choice of a Princess for my Consort, and 
I now with great satisfaction acquaint you that, after 
the fullest information and mature deliberation, I am 
come to a resolution to demand in marriage the Princess 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg Strelitz, a Princess distin- 
guished by every eminent virtue and amiable endow- 
ment ; whose illustrious line has constantly shown the 
firmest zeal for the Protestant Religion, and a particu- 
lar attachment to my Family. I have judged proper 
to communicate to you these My Intentions, in order 
that you may be fully apprized of a matter so highly 
important to me and to my Kingdoms, and which I 
persuade myself will be most acceptable to my loving 



Colonel Grceme to Mr. Mitchell. Preparations Jbr the 
Princess's Journey. 


Strelitz, llt»'. Aug. 1761. 

If I could with any certainty have given you intel- 
ligence of the arrival of Lord Harcourt at this place, 
and of the departure of the future Queen for England, 
I should not have failed taking an opportunity of no- 
ticing one and t'other to you, as well as to acknow- 
ledge the receipt of your obliging Letter of the 20'''. 

I yesterday had a Despatch from Lord Harcourt at 
Stade, where he landed on the 7'''. He is to be here 
the 14*''., and on Monday the 17'''. the Princess sets 
out on her Journey to England. Lord Bute writes me 
that the Duchess of Ancaster, Mistress of the Robes, 
and the Duchess of Hamilton, Lady of the Bed-cham- 
ber, with Mr. Herbert, and Dashwood, come to attend 
the Princess to England. 

These are the only particulars relative to this 
Journey M'orthy your notice. 


In thePrussian County of Prignitz where the Princess 
is to pass, all Orders are given, and I have reason to 
think all dispositions made that may make the journey 
expeditious and agreeable to Her Serene Highness. 

On Thursday I send a messenger to meet Lord 
Harcourt, when I shall send him the Letter you sent 
me for his Lordship by the last Estafette. 
I have the honour to be. 
Your most humble and most obedient servant 



The Eml of Harcourt from the Court of Strelitz, 
to Mr. Mitchell at Magdeburg. Preparations Jbr 
bringing the Princess, afterwards Queen Charlotte, 
to England. 

[MITCHELL PAPERS. voL Iviii. fol. 33. Orig.] 

Strelitz, Aug. 17'h. 1761. 

Dear Mitchell, 

How unfortunate am I to lose the opportunity of 

meeting you at Perleberg ! but still more concerned for 

the accident that has deprived me of that pleasure of 

introducing you to the most amiable young Princess I 


ever saw. You may imagine what Reception I have 
met with at this Court coming upon such an errand as 
brought me here, where the great honour the King has 
done this Family is seen in its proper light. 

I reached this place on the 14tl\ On the 15^''. the 
Treaty was concluded, and dispatched away to Eng- 
land. U Affaire en verite rCetoit pas bien epineuse. 

This little Court has exerted its utmost abilities to 
make a figure suitable to the occasion, and I can assure 
you they have acquitted themselves not only with 
magnificence and splendour, but with a great deal of 
good taste and propriety. 

Our Queen that is to be, has seen very little of the 
World, but her very good sense, vivacity, and cheer- 
fulness, I dare say will recommend her to the King, 
and make her the darling of the British nation. She 
is no regular beauty, but she is of a very pretty size, 
has a charming complexion, very pretty eyes, and finely 
made. In short she is a very fine girl. 

I can't finish my Letter, dear Mitchell, without 
giving you the strongest assurances of my affection 
and good wishes for the recovery of your health, and 
that you may live to return to your Country, and re^ 
ceive rewards adequate to the important and dangerousi 
services you have been employed in. » 

1 must detain you a little longer to give you a short 

> Mr. Mitchell often rode by the side of the King of Pru«tia iu his Battles. He 
was created K. h. in 1765. edit. 


account of the very unexpected honour His Majesty 
has done me. I was in the country a planter des 
choux^ when I received an order to attend the Privy 
Council in which His Majesty declared his intention 
to marry. Lord Bute, whom I honour, and to whom 
I am personally obliged, desired me to call upon him, 
and he declared to me His Majesty's gracious intention 
to send me upon this honourable commission, and to 
appoint me Her Majesty's Master of the Horse, which 
honours I expected as much as I did the Bishoprick of 
London just vacant. 

There was no room to hesitate one moment whether 
I was to accept such a mark of distinction. I waited 
upon the King immediately, whose goodness to me was 
such as ought for ever to attach me to his service, if I 
had not already looked upon myself as one of the most 
zealous of his subjects. I happened to be one of the 
few, perhaps the only man of quality that did not solicit 
some favour of him upon his Accession to the Crown. 
He took notice of it, and was pleased with it. After 
what happened to me some years ago, it was beneath 
me to become a solicitor for favours and employment. 
If the King thought me worthy to be employed I 
knew I should receive some mark of favour ; if not, I 
was sure no solicitation would signify. 

I have troubled you with this Account because I am 
sure you will be pleased to see an old friend receive 
such marks of His Majesty's regard. 


If I can be of any service to you at my return to 
England, you may for ever command 

your most sincere, and affectionate friend, 


I will take care that not only the Princess shall be 
convinced of your attention to her, but His Majesty 
also and Lord Bute shall be apprized of it. 

Col. Graham ' desires his compliments. We set out 
this afternoon, but we shall not be at Stade till the 22^. 
Excuse this hurry. 


Lord Barrinston to Andrew Mitchelly Esq. Mr. Pittas 
Resignation of the Seals. 

[MITCHELL PAPERS, VoL XXXT. fol. 31. Ortg.'\ 

Cavendish Square, 5''. Oct. 176L 
Dear Sib, 
A VERY important and I think an unfortunate event 
has happened this day. Mr. Pitt has resigned the 
Seals. For some time past there has been a difference 
of opinion in the Cabinet as to the conduct proper to 
be held with Spain. Mr. Pitt and Lord Temple were 

* Gneine* 


of one opinion, which they gave in writing to the King. 
The other Lords, ten in number, among whom were 
the Dukes of Newcastle and Devonshire, the Earls of 
Granville and Bute, Lords Mansfield, Ligonier, and 
Anson (I had forgot Lord Hardwicke) were of a con- 
trary opinion, which they severally but unanimously 
delivered by word of mouth in the closet. Both parties 
adhering firmly to their way of thinking, Mr. Pitt has 
taken the part I have mentioned, which I fear will 
occasion great inconveniences both at home and abroad. 
However I do not see any disposition any where to 
change the system of the War ; or to make peace on 
improper conditions. I do not indeed at present see 
any probability of the thing in this world I most ar- 
dently wish, an honourable conclusion of those dis- 
tresses which have desolated some parts of the Globe 
and impoverished others. It was an expectation of 
this happy event that kept me so long silent. I desired 
to obtain my pardon for the seeming neglect of which 
I have been guilty, by sending you some very good 
news ; but, alas ! I see no hopes of a pacification, and 
my favourite scheme of union between the three great 
men of this Country is at an end. I must in justice 
say, it has not failed by the two Lords; and I have 
the satisfaction to acquaint you that they are thoroughly 
and cordially united. 

I continue, my dear Mitchell, advancing without 


application to advance, or indeed desire ; being con- 
vinced that I have long been placed too high. When 
the time comes for my retiring to the situation best 
adapted to my nature, I hope to fall easily : I promise 
you that your old friend will not fall in the dirt. 

If the public good and the duty you owe to the best 
and most amiable master that ever lived since the days 
of Titus would permit you to leave the station you are 
now in, it would' give me infinite satisfaction. Old 
friends fall off, and I find new ones are not so easily 
made as I thought they were when I was younger. 
This makes me anxious to get near to those who remain. 
Of these, one is gone to Ireland as Lord Lieutenant,'* 
and another (Lord Hillsborough) is going thither in 
order to settle a very good estate which Sir William 
Cooper has left him in that Country. Adieu, my dear 
friend, believe me to be ever 

most affectionately yours, 


• Lord Halifax. 



Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. Lady 
Hester Pitt created a Peeress. Mr. Pitt receives a 
Pension. Ministerial changes. 


Cavendish Square, 9*. Oct. 1761. 
Dear Sir, 
I HAVE just time to acquaint you that Lady Hester 
Pitt is a Peeress, Mr. Pitt has a Grant of .£'3000 a 
year for his own life and two others ; and that Lord 
Temple resigned the Privy Seal the very day that his 
brother-in-law got a pension and his sister a coronet. 
George GrenviUe has refused to be Secretary of State, 
and will have the conduct of the House of Commons, 
remaining Treasurer of the Navy. He is already a 
Cabinet Councillor, and will be at all the private meet- 
ings of the Ministers. However the Seals go in the fa- 
mily,, for Lord Egremont has got them. I hope you 
received my Letter dated last Tuesday, and that you 
believe me to be, dear Mitchell, 

Ever most faithfully yours, 




Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. New 
Administration under Lord Bute. The Duke of 
Newcchstle's Audience from the King upon his Re- 

[ibid. foL 37. Orig.^ 

Cavendish Square, l^*. June, 1762. 
Dear Mitchell, 

The new arrangement of Administration took place 
last Friday and was not settled till that morning. I 
was not able to write by the post which went from hence 
Friday evening ; but I intended to write fully by that 
which sets out to-night. However I can only at pre- 
sent send you a very short Letter, referring myself to 
a longer which I propose writing soon. 

I need not tell you who compose the new Treasury 
under Lord Bute; or that my friend Sir Francis 
Dashwood is my successor. You were immediately 
apprized that Mr. Grenville is Secretary of State for 
the Northern Department ; but perhaps you have not 
been told what passed at the last audience the Duke 
of Newcastle had of the King, when he resigned last 
Wednesday. His Majesty said he was sorry to lose 
him, and should always remember his services: that 


he feared the Duke's private fortune had suffered by 
his zeal for the House of Hanover : that his Majesty 
was desirous to make any amends in his power in any 
way that should be most agreeable : and added that it 
was a debt due to his Grace. The Duke answered 
that in office he had never considered the profit of 
employment : that out of office he could not bear the 
thought of being a burthen and charge on the Crown : 
that if his private fortune had suffered by his loyalty, 
it was his pleasure, his glory, and his pride : and that 
he desired no reward but his Majesty's approbation. 

None of the Duke of Newcastle's friends are out of 
employment, and he wished they might continue to 
serve the Crown, though he did not in any respect ask 
their continuance. 

When I carried the Exchequer Seal to the King, 
he was pleased to say he should be sorry to take it out 
of my hands if he had not something immediately to 
offer which he hoped would be agreeable to me; and 
which he gave as a mark of approbation of my services. 
I kissed his hand that day as Treasurer of the Navy. 

You will most undoubtedly lament with me that the 
Duke of Newcastle should retire from business at such 
a juncture ; but if you knew the whole, you would not 
condemn the step he has taken, and taken with modera^ 
tion, temper, and dignity. I can add no more than 
that I am, dear Sir, 

Most faithfully and affectionately yours, 




Mr. Symmers to Andrew Mitchell^ Esq. The Birth 
of the Prince of Wales. 

[ibid. voL xxxviii. fol. 280. Orig.'l 

London, 20 August, 1762. 
As I presumed the notification of so great and joy- 
ful an event for Great Britain as that of the birth of a 
Prince of Wales would of course immediately be made 
to all our foreign Ministers, I have not till now taken 
occasion to wish you joy on the happy occasion. He 
is a charming little creature. Mrs. Symmer and I, 
along with some other company, had the honour and 
pleasure of seeing him to-day. Sure, if ever the birth 
of a Prince was ushered in with favourable omens, his 
is. He is born at a time when the Glory of the British 
Arms is at a higher pitch than ever it was known to 
be before. He had not been come into the world above 
an hour, when near 9, million of treasure taken from 
the enemy, passed in a procession of twenty loaded 
waggons before his windows. And before he was six 
days old, an account comes of one of the most im- 
portant victories that has been obtained during the 
war, that of the Havannah. 


The 8'h. of next month (the marriage day of the 
King and Queen) I hear is fixed for the christening 
of the young Prince ; and that the King of Prussia, 
the States of Holland, and the Princess of Wales are 
to be Sponsors. 


The King of Prussia to Sir Andrew Mitchell, upon 
the taking of the Havannah. 

[MITCHELL PAPERS, vol. xlii. art. 125. Orig.^ 

Je partage sincerement la joye que vous devez res- 
sentir k la nouvelle importante touchant la Conquete 
de la Havane, que les Armes de sa Majeste Britannique 
viennent de faire. Vous savez toute la part que je 
prens a ce qui peut regarder sa gloire et les interets 
de la Nation. Je vous sais gre d''ailleurs du compli- 
ment de felicitation que vous me faitez sur la prise de 
Schweidriitz, ne doutant, que vu les sentimens que je 
vous connois envers moi, elle a deu vous interesser. 
Et sur ce Je prie Dieu, qu'il vous ait. Monsieur, en sa 
sainte et digne garde. 


A Peterswaldaw, 
ce 24' Octobre, 1762. 

A Mr. Mitchell. 



Mr. Symmer to Sir Andiew Mitchell. TJie Prelimi^ 
naries of the Peace qfll^'H arrive ratified. 

[MITCHELL PAPERS, voL xxxvui. fol. 303. Orig.\ 

London, 26 Nov. 1762. 
Dear Sir, 
I WRITE to inform you of an important piece of 
News, though I doubt not but you will receive it by a 
more authentic channel. This morning the Prelimi- 
nary Articles of Peace arrived here, with the full Rati- 
fications. What renders this of greater consequence, 
is, that at this critical juncture, when even a shadow 
has the weight of substance, there was a diffidence that 
hung over the minds of many, as if the Ratification of 
the Preliminaries might still have met with difficulties, 
especially at the Court of Madrid ; and by that means 
the work of Peace have been left incomplete. But 
this is not all ; by what I have heard, it seems, this 
is not the Ratification of Preliminaries simply as such, 
but indeed of the Treaty of Peace. If I be rightly 
informed, the Articles already signed and ratified are 
the very Treaty itself, and that accordingly there is to 
be no Congress, no further negotiations, and that the 
execution is of course to follow. To-day the guns of 

VOL. IV, SER, 2. (i G 


the Tower and the Park have been fired, and to-mor- 
row the Proclamation is to follow. How this will be 
relished at the Prussian Court, I wish I could say, I 
know not. Nevertheless, I am of opinion, that when 
England and France are cordially pacific, (and what 
both nations have suffered in their different ways ought 
to render them so) other nations in Europe will not 
keep the sword long unsheathed. 

Yesterday I was carried to the House of Lords by 
Lord Hillsborough, who with some difficulty got me 
introduced, and planted me near the Throne. There 
I had the pleasure of hearing a very proper speech, 
delivered in a noble and pathetic manner by one of the 
most graceful Princes of this age. The dignity of the 
person, the solemnity of the scene formed about him, 
and the full House, could not but affect the mind of 
one, who you know is naturally addicted to what vulgar 
souls think borders on romance, with a peculiar plea- 
sure. I was particularly entertained with the beha- 
viour of the French Ambassador, who stood at the foot 
of the Throne, and who understands English. I had 
him in my eye during the whole speech ; and could 
perceive he felt what was spoke. The Speech was fol- 
lowed by the Motion for the Address by Lord Egmont 
(who spoke like — the Master of the Post-office), and 
was seconded by Lord Weymouth, who spoke with 
grace and dignity, though with the timidity of a young 
man. It passed unanimously. After that an Address 


was moved for by Lord Aylesford and seconded by 
Lord Hillsborough, to congratulate the Queen on the 
Birth of the Prince. What passed in the House of 
Commons was similar to this. Lord Carysford moved 
and Lord Ch. Spencer seconded. The House was 
unanimous : but Mr. Beckford, now Lord Mayor, had 
his vagaries as usual, and gave the House a little pre- 
lude of what they were to expect more at large when 
the masters mount the stage. Lord Temple was 
not in the House of Lords, and neither Mr. Pitt nor 
Mr. Fox in the House of Commons. The Opposition 
will open upon the Preliminaries Idid before Parlia- 
ment ; and is like to be more formidable than was at 
first imagined. Several great personages have of late 
declared themselves in it. The D. of C. and the whole 
House of York (I mean the Hardwicke Family) but 
it is thought that all who will, are now declared, so that 
the first division in each of the Houses will show the 
powers of the parties. If the whole Opposition lay 
within doors, it would still be more tolerable, as it is 
not unconstitutional ; but, alas ! there is reason to ap- 
prehend it extends without doors. Such a mob was 
perhaps never seen in our time between Charing Cross 
and Westminster Hall. The King''s magnificent new 
Coach might be supposed to have brought them to- 
gether ; but what kept them there after the Coach had 
gone back, is perhaps not so satisfactory to think of; 
in short. Lord B. was insulted both in going and 

G G 2 

I . 


coming from the House; and towards evening some 
soldiers were sent to support the constables in the dis- 
charge of their duty in clearing of the streets, so as that 
the Members might get away. 

Most sincerely yours. Adieu. 


Mr. Symmer to Sir Andrezo Mitchell. The state of 
Parties. The Duke of Newcastle'' s sacrifice of Emo- 
lument. A Victory gained hy Admiral Keppel. 

[ibid. fol. 305. Orig.] 

London, 31 Dec. 1762. 
In a series of Letters down to the 26*. past, I gave 
you the best Accounts I could of the state of Parties here. 
It was a disagreeable task, for every thing looked gloomy 
about us. The clamour, and I may say mobbing, with- 
out doors, and an expectation raised very high of a 
strong opposition within doors, filled the minds of many 
with apprehensions of confusion and disorder. The 
day when the Preliminaries were to be taken into con- 
sideration, was the critical day assigned for the explo- 
sion of the bomb that had been so long in charging, and 
that had been represented as so formidable. But how 
astonished the Public was ! when the explosion of this 


bomb proved to be but the bursting of a bubble ; and 
that what had been the object of terror became the 
subject of derision. The Division in the House of 
Commons was 329 to 65, and the speaking in both 
Houses greatly superior on the side of the Administra- 
tion. In the House of I^ords there was no division. 
It is said the Duke of Newcastle sent a Message to 
his Party in the H. of C. not to divide; but Mr. 
Dempster, a young member of N. B». who had taken 
it into his head to be in the minority on this occasion, 
took it likewise into his head to bring the House to a 
Division, which exposed the nakedness of the Part}'. 
There were two other things that weakened the Oppo- 
sition in the Lower House. Mr. Pitt, though he declared 
against the Terms the Administration had obtained of 
Peace, yet he refused to join in Opposition with the 
D. of N., and taking that day an opportunity of apo- 
logizing, in a solemn manner, as well for his past con- 
duct as his present opinion, he made an effort, which 
(from the bad state of health he was in) he sunk under. 
He s|X)ke upwards of three hours; returned often, 
though weakly, upon the same ground ; lost himself 
sometimes; lost the attention of the House, and left 
his friends dispirited by the appearance he had made. 
The other accident was, that Ch. Townshend, who 
a few days before had resigned, and who was ex- 
pected to have broke out into strenuous opjiosition, 
made one of the best speeches he ever had made in his 


life, in favour of the Peace. On the whole, so sur- 
prising an eclaircissement seems to have had a decisive 
influence on the present state of Affairs. The Public 
talk very differently of the Peace from what they did 
a month ago. No more mobbing now ; no infamous 
prints are now hawked about ; and if the halfpenny on 
the pot of beer be taken off (which is talked of) a cer- 
tain person will even become popular, and may have 
mobs of his own. In short nothing could be more fa- 
vourable for the establishment of this young admini- 
stration than the unsuccessful attempt that has been 
made against them. This event not only puts an end 
to Opposition (at least any formidable one) for a long 
time, but even, in a manner, to News itself; for public 
business will of course fall into a regular train of affairs, 
which, barring unforeseen accidents, will produce 
, nothing new. 

At present we have nothing to talk of but changes, 
which fall heavy on .the Newcastle party. All those 
of his Grace's friends whom he has drawn into op- 
position with him, some of whom are little able to make 
such a sacrifice, are or will be turned out. It moves 
one to compassion to think of the poor old Duke him- 
self. A man once possessed of .-£'25,000 per annum of 
landed estate, with .£'10,000 in emoluments of govern- 
ment, now reduced to an estate of scarcely .£'6,000 per 
annum, and going into retirement (not to say sinking 
into contempt) with not so nuich as a feather in his 


cap, and but such a circle of friends as he has deprived 
of their Places. The three Lieutenancies he had, the 
last things he continued to hold, have this week been 
taken from him. That of Middlesex has been given 
to Lord North, which will greatly increase his Lord- 
ship''s power and interest in this county. 

I am afraid I have tired you. But I must give you 
a piece of good news by way of a bonne bouche. Ac- 
counts came yesterday that Admiral Keppel had made 
a capture of a French Fleet of eighteen St. Domingo 
rich Ships and five Frigates; the Prize is valued at 
between two and three hundred thousand pounds. 
Adieu, my dear Mitchell. 


Lord Barr'mgton to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. Still on 
the State of Parties In the Debate upon tlie Peace* - 

[ibid. vol. XXXV. fol. 41. Ori^r.] 

Cavendish Square, 13«'. Dec. 1762. 
Dear Sib, 
It is a considerable time since I wrote to you, for 
excepting the Peace (which you had an earlier account 


of than I could send you) nothing has happened that 
I could write or you read without concern. 

I was in hopes till Thursday last that some fortunate 
though unexpected accident might have prevented 
those divisions which threatened to destroy the unani- 
mity we have enjoyed so long. The die is now cast. 
The Duke of Newcastle and Lord Hardwicke spoke 
against the Preliminaries in the House of Lords, where 
however there was no division. In the House of Com- 
mons 319 Members voted Thanks to the King for the 
Peace he has concluded ; 65 only voted against those 
Thanks. I look on the Opposition as now declared. 
Whoever dislikes this Peace cannot possibly approve 
any other measure of this Administration. The head 
of this Party is the Duke of Cumberland : the Duke 
of Newcastle is supposed to be thoroughly connected 
with His Royal Highness, and also the Duke of De- 
vonshire. Lord Hardwicke is supposed to join them 
no farther than he has thought himself obliged to do, 
from his long friendship with the Duke of Newcastle. 
Lord Royston, his eldest son, voted in the House of 
Commons for the Address approving the Preliminaries; 
the Attorney General in his speech commended them 
on the whole, though he expressed a wish that some of 
the articles had been otherwise. Neither he nor his 
youngest brother, who is in the Board of Trade, stayed 
the division. Mr, Pitt came to the House on crutches, 
out of his bed, to which he had been confined for some 


weeks : he spoke three hours and twenty-five minutes 
standing and sitting : he never made so long or so bad 
a speech, blaming the Preliminaries in general, though 
he commended that part of them which relates to the 
Cession made by France on the Continent of North 
America. He was very moderate in his expressions, 
not at all abusive, declared he had no connexions with 
others supposed to be opponents, and intimated that 
he should attend Parliament very little this Session. 

Your friendship for me will allow my addmg a word 
about myself. You know my attachment for the Duke 
of Newcastle and for him only ; and you can therefore 
conceive how distressful it has been to me, that I should 
take a different part from him in public affairs. I very 
early and very explicitly told him, that I thought sup- 
port of Governments duty, while an honest man could 
support it : that I approved and even admired the 
Peace which the Administration had concluded : and 
that I had long agreed with his Grace in thinking it 
was of the most dangerous and mischievous consequence 
to continue the War : that I could not, in short, contra- 
dict the dictates of my own reason, and the whole of 
what I had said and done for the last eighteen years 
of my life. He continues to treat me with great fami- 
liarity and friendship, and I have great reason to hope 
he does think I act from principle ; knowing well there 
never was a time when even he could prevail on me to 
do what I thought wrong. In all matters which per- 


sonally concern his Grace or his Administration, I am 
as entirely his as ever, and must always remain so ; of 
which I have made the most explicit declarations in 
every place where it ought to be known. Adieu, my 
dear friend ; I will add no more than that I am 

ever most affectionately yours, 



Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The subject of' the 
Peace continued. 

[ibid. fol. 43. Orig.'\ 

Cavendish Square, 18'f'. Jan. 1763. . 

# * * # * 

The Peace is less disliked in the City than it was; 
I believe it is well relished in the Country, where no- 
thing is made by war, and the inhabitants are sufferers 
by the taxes it occasions. Of this I am certain, that 
the opposition to the Preliminaries from , those who 
when in Administration had invariably asserted a ne- 
cessity for Peace, is approved no where. 

You ask me what is the object and intention of our 
old friend. They were to force out the Administra- 
tion and to force himself in, with full }X)wer. This 


having failed, I think he is at a loss how to act. Wis- 
dom and Virtue prescribe retirement and quiet, though 
too late, and with a bad grace. But, as you well ob- 
serve, " the best and most moderate, when formed into 
Party, may be carried lengths they never intended to 
go." .1 therefore stopped at the threshold, and I have 
that satisfaction upon reflection which you so kindly 
foretell. I should indeed be perfectly happy in my 
present situation, if I did not continually lament that 
of my benefactor and friend, who can never more enjoy 
happiness or quiet ; a circumstance which does not 
give the less concern because it is of his own making. 
All those who followed his Ideas in either House of 
Parliament are removed from their employments ; and 
also others, very near and dear to him ; nor is there 
any appearance that they will ever be re-instated or re- 
compensed. The Parliament meets next Thursday. 
If any thing material happens you shall know it from 

V V ▼ ▼ ▼ 

Most faithfully and affectionately yours, 


It is not known wlio will be President of the Coun- 
cil. Lord Granville has left .£'8000 to his youngest 
unmarried daughter, and the rest of his fortune to his 
son, whom he never would see. He died vastly in 



Frederick the Great qf'Prussia to Sir Andrew Mitchell^ 
upon his receiving' a Copy of the Treaty of Peace 

[MITCHELL PAPERS, vol. xli. fol. 129. Or'ig.'X 

MoxsiEUE Mitchell, 
Je connois tout le prix de la diligence que le Roi 
yotre Maitre vous a ordonne de faire, pour Me reraet- 
tre une Copie en son Nom, du Traite definitif de Paix 
que Sa Majeste vient de conclure. Vous Tassurerez, 
Je vous en prie, de la parfaite reconnoissance que Je lui 
en ai, et de la joye que Je partage avec lui, sur un 
ouvrage si digne de lui et si salutaire a toute FEurope. 
Je vous sais gre d'ailleurs de rempressement que vous 
avez eu a satisfaire ces ordres. Je suis persuade de la 
sineerite des sentiments que vous me temoignez a Toc- 
casion de ma Paix conclue avec les Cours de Vienne 
et de Dresde. Le Compliment que vous m'en faites, 
m'*a ete ainsi tres agreable, et vous pouvez compter de 
votre part, sur Taffectueuse estime que Je vous con- 
serverai toujours. Sur ce Je prieDieu, qu''il vous ait, 
Monsieur Mitchell, en sa sainte et digne garde. 


a Dahlen, ce 96 de Mars, 1763. 
a Mr. Mitchell, a Berlin. 



Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. Lord Bute's retire- 
ment Jrom Office. He details the Changes of the 
Administration which were to take place the next 

[ibid. vol. XXXV. fol. 45. Orig.\ 

Cavendish Square, ll>h April, 1763. 
Dear Sir, 
Lord Bute resigned last Friday. He will have no 
office ; and declares he will not be Minister behind the 
curtain, but give up business entirely. The reasons 
he gives for this step are, that he finds that the dislike 
taken to him has lessened the popularity which the 
King had and ought to have ; that he hopes his retire- 
ment will make things quiet, and His Majesty's Govern- 
ment easy. To this public reason. Lord Bute adds, 
that his health absolutely requires exercise and calm- 
ness of mind. He says that he unwillingly undertook 
the business of a Minister, on the King's absolute pro- 
mise that he might retire when the Peace should be 
made. I am of opinion that he had a clear and fully 
sufficient support in both Houses of Parliament, and 
therefore I deem his resignation voluntary. People 
are infinitely surprized at it ; for my part, it is when 
a man accepts the Ministry, not when he quits it, that 


my wonder is excited. Mr. Grenville is to be first 
Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
He, with the two Ministers of State, are to be the 
ministry. Mr. Fox will continue Paymaster and be a 
Peer. Charles Townshend will be at the head of the 
Admiralty, and Lord Shelburne of the Board of Trade. 
The Duke of Bedford President ; Lord Gower Privy 
Seal; Sir Francis Dashwood called to the House of 
Lords as Baron Dispenser (in abeyance since Lord 
Westmoreland's death) and is also to be Master of the 
Wardrobe ; Oswald will be a Vice-Treasurer of Ire- 
land, in the room of Lord Sandwich, who goes to 
Spain ; Hunter, and a Mr. Harris, whom you do not 
know, will be Lords of the Treasury ; and Lord Digby 
a Lord of the Admiralty. Lord Northumberland goes 
Lieutenant to Ireland ; and Lord Hereford Ambassa- 
dor to France. It is expected that all or most of these 
changes will happen to-morrow ; but in this Country 
nothing is certain. 

I am, dear sir. 

Most affectionately yours, 




Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell ; upon the further 
Changes of Jdministration. 

[ibid. fol. 47. Orig.] 

Cavendish Square, 19'^ April, 1763. 
Dear Sir, 

My Letter of last week was in general prophetic, 
but not in every part. The Duke of Bedford has de- 
clared he will not keep the Privy Seal, or have any 
office. It is said the Duke of Rutland will be Privy 
Seal, and Lord Gower Chamberlain. 

Charles Townshend accepted the Admiralty last 
Thursday, and went to kiss the King's hand the next 
day ; but he brought Peter Burrell with him to Court, 
and insisted he likewise should be one of the Board. 
Being told that Lords Howe and Digby were to fill 
up the vacant Seats at the Admiralty, he declined ac- 
cepting the office destined for him, and the next day 
received a dimission from the King's service. Lord 
Sandwich is actually first Lord of the Admiralty, Lord 
Granby Master of the Ordnance, and General Towns- 
hend Lieutenant-General in his Lordship's room. Lord 


Ligonier has a pension and is created an English 
Baron. I aiii, ray deal* friend, 

Ever most faithfully yours, 



Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The Affair qf^^a 
worthless man named Wilks."" 

[ibid. fol. 49. Orig.] 

Cavendish Square, 13 May, 1763. 

* * # * # 

Nothing is at present talkM of here but the Affair 
of a very impudent worthless man named Wilks, a 
Member of Parliament, who was lately taken up by 
the Secretaries of State for writing a most seditious 
Libel personally attacking the King. This was done 
by the advice of the Attorney and Solicitor General, 
who were of opinion he was not in such a case entitled 
to privilege. However, the Court of Common Pleas 
have otherwise determined, and he is set at liberty. 
The Secretaries of State have filed an information 
against him in the King's Bench. The mob are as 
usual for the Libeller, who is a kind of Sacheverell ; 



but I think I never knew all persons above the degree 
of mob more united than at present in lamenting the 
insolence with which Government is attacked. 
Most affectionately yours, 


p. S. I am sorry and ashamed to say, that Lord 
«#**#« has on this and all similar occasions united 
himself to Mr. Wilks and the mob. 


Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The Death of 
Lord Egremont. 

[ibid. fol. 51. OHg.\ 

Cavendish Square, 22'1 Aug. 1763. 
My dear Friend, 
Yesterday Lord Egremont was seized with a 
stroke of apoplexy and died in the Evening. I suppose 
nobody knows who is to be Secretary of State. I have 
not the least guess. Adieu, my dear Mitchell. I am, 
in great haste but greater truth. 

Ever most affec. yours, 

VOL. IV, SER. 2. H H 



Lord Barrington to Sir Andrew Mitchell. Mr.PiWs 
unreasonable terms. His failure in negociationfor 

[ibid. fol. 53. Orig.'i 

Cavendish Square, 30* Aug. 1763. 
Dear Sir, 
Last Saturday Mr. Pitt attended the King by 
order at Buckingham House, and stayed there above 
three hours. He return'd thither Yesterday, but all 
treaty is at an end, the King deeming Mr. Pitt's de- 
mands unreasonable, though he was ready to have gone 
a great way to make every thing easy. 

A Secretary of State in the room of Lord Egremont 

will soon be named, who together with Lord Halifax 

and Mr. Grenville will form the Ministry. When I 

know more you shall hear again from. My dear friend. 

Yours most affectionately, 




Mr. ErsJcine to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. Details ex- 
planatory of the preceding Letter. 

[MITCHELL PAPER8, vol. Ixi. fol. 237. Orig,'\ 
*^* Indorsed by Sir Andrew Mitchell, " Mr. Erskine, r. at Berlin." 

Sept QTK 1763. 
Dear Sir, 

It is now a considerable time since I have had it in 
my power to send you any Accounts that would afford 
me the least pleasure in writing or you in reading- 
The late important transaction has produced such a 
change on the face of our Domestic Affairs that all 
who sincerely wish well to their King and Country 
flatter themselves with the hopes that a Calm will suc- 
ceed to the Storm which hung over us, and threatened 
every moment to burst on our heads ; and that the con- 
vulsive rage of inflamed parties will subside into a de- 
cent contest for Powpr, and a constitutional opposition. 

Unanimity, iit time of Peace, is not to be expected — 
perhaps, not to be wished. You will doubtless have 
received from your other CoiTespondonts much better 
information of the particular incidents which led to 
and accompanied the grand Event than I can possibly 

H H 2 


give you : but, as I am happily detached from all 
Parties, though I have a great personal regard for 
many Individuals on both sides the Question, you will 
probably not be displeased with comparing such par- 
ticulars as I have been able to pick up, with the more 
authentic Accounts you have received from others. 

The Convention between L. B. and M. P. was long 
carrying on with the utmost secrecy under the media- 
tion of L. S e, a young nobleman who is said to be 

possessed of great abilities, to have studied the system 
of ministeriaJ craft with great assiduity under that able 
master M. F. and to unite to no small share of presump- 
tion the most unbounded ambition. The Ministry, 
suspicious of some such Transaction, jealous of the in- 
fluence L. B, still retained over , and alarmed at 

the spirit of discontent which the Opposition had so art- 
fully and assiduously spread through the whole Nation, 
were in the mean time busily employed in forming a 
private plan for their own support, by which they 
hoped to regain the confidence of the People, and give 
weight and consistency to their Administration. Threats 
of a general Resignation were the arms to be employed 

for carrying their plan into execution. L. E t's 

death disconcerted all their measures, and hastened the 
conclusion of the treaty between L. B. and M. P. At 

M. P.'s first interview with he behaved with great 

modesty and decorum ; but when he insinuated that 
would doubtless be pleased that L. B. and he 


should unite their Councils for his service, stopped 

him short. " How ! M. P. do you mean to laugh at 
me ? You must know, as well as me, that that noble- 
man is determined never more to take any share in the 
Administration." M. P. was, however, on the whole, 

so moderate in his demands, and so condescending 

that there seemed little reason to doubt of an happy 

issue to the Conference. Towards the close of it, 

said " that as a Coalition was now happily to take 
place, he hoped it would be general and diffusive, that 
all past rancour, malice, and ill-will would be buried 
in oblivion, as nothing could give him such real plea- 
sure as to see his People united and happy ; that he 

especially wished to see L. T e reconciled to his 

brother, whose good heart he was thoroughly con- 
vinced of, and whose affection for his Lordship all 
their differences had not been able to stagger." To 
this M. P. made no reply. The next day L. T. and 
M. P. were at Court; they bowed very low; ■■ 
spoke to them without constraint ; but, as I thought, 
with apparent coolness. They, however, thought them- 
selves so sure of success that they summoned their 
friends to Town. . But, at the next Conference (from 
what motive J have not been able to learn) the scene 
was entirely changed, the style of a Dictator was as- 
sumed ; terms were no longer proposed but prescribed ; 
and conditions exacted that nothing but the most ab- 
ject meanness or most absolute despondency could 


assent to ; a total Bouleversement of the Government 
was demanded ; an universal proscription of all who had 
served it boldly threatened, with some few invidious 
exceptions; and sic volo, sicjubeo, denounced a total 
annihilation of Regal Authority. " The whole frame of 
your Government is disordered and will require seven 
Years at least to restore it to the state it was in eighteen 
months ago; your army is in the utmost confusion, 
and must no longer be governed by a Secretary at War 
totally ignorant of all military affairs ; there must be a 
man of experience put at the head of it, a man of cha- 
racter, rank, and dignity, to give weight to his com- 
mand."" " I agree with you, M. P., and by the picture 

you have drawn you doubtless mean L. G — y" (this 
disconcerted him a little and he replied) " Or — or — or 
L. A- — — e." " All those who voted for the Peace must 
be turned out, and all the Tories to a man : the D. M. 
indeed is young and has not yet been tainted, and L. 

H X may be trusted ; but the D. B. must have no 

share in Administration, I will have nothing to do with 

him or with any Tory whatever."" " Tories, M. P. ? 

I protest I do not understand you ; if you mean by 
Tories such, and such, and such, you will please to 
recollect you brought every one of them in yourself." 

Thus, unassisted, did debate the important 

point of his own Sovereignty with that able and (unfor- 
tunately) violent Negotiator ; and having, during the 
whole Conference, preserved the utmost command of 


his temper, concluded it with those remarkable words, 
" Should I consent to these demands of yours, M. P., 
there would be nothing more left for me to do, but to take 
the Crown from my own Head and place it upon yours ; 
and then patiently submit my Neck to the Block." 

The Ministers were not a little alarmed at M. P.'s 
admission into the Cabinet without their concurrence, 
and it was whispered that they intended to avoid the 
disgrace of being turned out by an immediate Resigna- 
tion. L. S. did resign, but assigned a plausible reason 
for it, and declared his adherence to the Ministry. 

called the Ministers together, acquainted them 

with what had passed between him and Mr. P., and, in 
a spirited Speech, let them know that he expected they 
would labour assiduously in discharge of the duties of 
their respective Departments, so that no blame might 
be thrown upon his Government; that he should 
always be willing to take their advice in Council, and 
hoped, with their assistance, he should he able to go- 
vern in a manner wholly unexceptionable and for the 
good of his People ; but that he was determined, for 
the future, never to be guided by the councils of any 
Individual ; and that he would suffer any extremities, 
and even retire to Hanover rather than suffer himself to 
be enslaved by the ambition of any of his Subjects. 

In consequence of all this the Ministers gave out 
that they would apply diligently to their respective 
business, and give themselves no concern about the 


future efforts of the Opposition. The exorbitant de- 
mands of the Great Man were generally condemned, 

the spirit of universally applauded; even the 

City begins to change their style, and the three Lords 
taken in have the approbation of the Public. 

The Meeting of Parliament is as much wished for 
as it was before dreaded, through an anxiety lest any 
disagreement among the Ministers, or any fresh plans 
of Opposition, should disturb the present tranquillity 
of the Nation. 

This is now the exterior appearance of public affairs : 
what still lurks behind the Curtain, or whether the 
sparks of discontented ambition will again burst into a 
flame, Time must discover. 


Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. The King's Mes^ 
sage on the subject of Wilks. Mr. Pitfs Speech 
upon the Address in consequence. The DuJce of 

[ibid. vol. XXXV. fol. 55. Orig.'\ 

Cavendish Square, 17'^. Nov. 1763. 
Dear Sir, _ ■ : . 

Last Tuesday the Parliament met, and the House 
of Commons, before the King's Speech was reported 


from the Chair, took into consideration a Message from 
his Majesty on the subject of Mr. Wilks, stating the 
impediments thrown in the way of his Trial by the 
decision of Westminster Hall on the head of privilege. 
After long debate on various points it was detennined 
that the North Briton, No. 45, was an infamous sedi- 
tious libel, &c. It was also resolved to proceed farther 
on the Message next day, when the point of Privilege 
should be discussed, and inquiry made whether Mr. 
Wilks was the author of that Paper, with intention, 
on proof thereof, to expel him ; but just as the House 
was going to proceed Yesterday on this business, news 
came that he had been shot through the body in a 
duel, by Sam Martin, late Secretary to the Treasury. 
Martin had said in a speech the day before (after men- 
tioning some virulent abuse thrown on him in a former 
North Briton) " that whoever was capable in a printed 
anonymous Paper to asperse him by name, was a 
cowardly scoundrel." Wilks, the next morning, wrote 
a Letter to Martin acknowledging himself the Author 
of that Paper, and they proceeded to Hyde Park where 
the duel was fought. The wound is not thought dan- 
gerous ; but it occasioned the putting off the considera- 
tion of the Message, and we went on the Speech. The 
Address was moved by Lord Carnarvon and seconded 
by Lord Frederick Campbell. Mr. Pitt spoke with 
great ability and the utmost degree of temper. He 
said he had not altered his opinion of the Peace, which 


he still thought inadequate to our situation and suc- 
cesses ; but that being made and approved by Parlia- 
ment, nothing more unfortunate could happen than 
that it should be broken. That it was every man's 
business to contribute all he could to make it lasting, 
and to improve it ; for which purpose he recommended 
Union and Abolition of party Distinctions as absolutely 
necessary. He spoke civilly, and not unfavourably of 
the Ministers ; but of the King he said every thing 
which duty and affection could inspire. The effect of 
this was a Vote for the Address, nemine contra dicente. 
I think if ^50,000 had been given for that Speech, it 
would have been well expended. It secures us a quiet 
Session ; and with the help of a division of 300 to 111 
the day before, will give strength and reputation to 
Government both at home and abroad. I delayed 
writing to you till I could send you somewhat worth 
your reading, which I could not do till Parliament 
met: I now send you this good news with infinite 
satisfaction. . 

1 must return for a' moment to Wilks, that you may 
know more of Mr. Pitt's present temper, for which I 
cannot account. He speaks as ill of him and his 
-writings as any body ; he approved the Resolution 
against his Paper No. 45. except one word ; but he is 
very warm on the affair of Privilege, which he insists 
to have been rightly determined by the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and violated by the Secretaries of State. 


He abused the opinion given by the Crown Lawyers, 
and treated both Attorney and Solicitor General very 
roughly, though the former has resigned, and was 
supposed to be politically connected with him. I know 
not what to make of this in all respects most extra- 
ordinary Man. 

I went to see the Duke of Newcastle the day after 
he came to London, and he received me very kindly. 
At parting I said, I should frequently pay my duty to 
his Grace if I thought it would be agreeable to him : 
in answer to which he desired I would. He looks very 
well and hearty. I know nothing of his Politics, for 
he did not say a word on those subjects, though I 
stayed with him alone above a quarter of an hour. 
He was greatly concerned for Lord Hardwicke, who 

is in a declining and dangerous way. 

# # # « « 

Adieu, my dear Sir, and pardon the length of this 




Lord Barrington to Andrew Mitchell, Esq. General 


[ibid. fol. Sy. Orig.] 

Cavendish Square, IS^'i. Jan. 1764. 
* # # # # 

I DO not expect opposition from Mr. Pitt when the 
Parliament meets ; and all other opposition is brutum 


Jkilmen. Wilks will be demolished, whether he comes 
home or stays abroad ; and I think Government will 
recover vigour and dignity, both which it has greatly 
wanted in respect to its foreign and domestic concerns. 
Lord Hardwicke has surprisingly recovered, and I hope 
will live. Our old friend the D. of Newcastle is very 
well at Claremont. I see him pretty often, but we never 
have talked about Politics since we differed so entirely 
about them. I pity him most sincerely, but know not 
how he can now mend his situation. What a Situation 
he has lost ! He might have been the support of the 
Crown and the arbiter between Government and Fac- 
tion. Adieu, my dear Mitchell, believe me ever 
Most faithfully and affectionately yours, 


The reports of changes in Court and quarrels among 
Ministers are groundless. The present time is pecu- 
harly given to lying. 


Lord Barrlngton to Mr. Mitchell. Wilks and the 

North Briton, No. 45. 

[ibid. foL 63. Orig.^ 

Cavendish Square, 26 Feb. 1764. 
Dear Sir, 
You have probably heard of some near Divisions in 


the House of Commons lately, but perhaps you are 
not informed exactly of the points which occasioned 
those divisions. The following Account will not be 
unacceptable to you if you have not received a better. 

Wilks was taken up by Lord Halifax on a general 
warrant to seize the printer, publisher, or author of 
the North Briton, No, 45 ; together with their papers. 
Of this he complained the first day of the Session, as 
a violation of his privilege ; but the hearing of that 
complaint was postponed to the consideration of the 
King's Message concerning him. After his Expulsion, 
the complaint was taken up, not in his name, but as 
regarding the Privileges of the House, by Sir William 
Meredith and Sir George Saville. 

On inquiry it was found that nothing had been done 
by Lord Halifax, or others concern'd, but what was 
warranted by the constant usage of office from the 
earliest times, particularly when Lord Townshend, the 
Duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Pitt were Secretaries of 
State; and therefore the House unanimously agreed 
there was no ground of censure or blame on the present 
occasion : but the Opposition proposed a motion de- 
claring such General Warrants to be illegal, as in truth 
I believe them to be. The Ministers would not con- 
sent to this declaration of Law by one House of Parlia- 
ment, though they did not assert the legality of the 
Warrants. They said Westminster Hall were the best 
interpreters of Law, or else an Act ofParliameni ; and 


therefore proposed to adjourn the consideration of the 
matter for four months, which was carried at seven in 
the morning by 232 against 218. 

There were in the course of this proceeding several 
long days and near divisions, many persons extremely 
well disposed to Government and in employment voting 
in what they called a constitutional point, with the 
Opposition. I think they will most or all of them 
come back to their friends ; and if this point, greatly 
laboured by active opponents, does not raise more flame 
without doors than there is an appearance of at present, 
I hope it will not do Government any real or lasting 
mischief. As to Change of Administration, I dare say 
it will produce none ; though I am persuaded your 
namesake here has written different accounts to his 

Wilks has been convicted on the Indictments against 
him for writing the North Briton, N'\ 4'5, and the 
Essay on Woman ; so I think it impossible he can 
ever come hither. He and his Cause are already for- 
gotten by the only friends he had, the Mob ; and we 
shall not soon have any similar writings. 

▼ ▼ ^ ^ ^l^ 

Ever most faithfully yours, 


Tlie Prussian Minister Afichel. 



Lord Barrington to Mr. Mitchell. Michel, the Prus- 
sian Minister in England, recalled. 

[ibid. fol. 65. Ong.'\ 

Cavendish Square, 17'*^ May, 1764. 
^ * * * * 

Michel is recalled. This event very unexpected, 
and I believe disagreeable to him, he did not know till 
last Tuesday. I find our Court has desired the Court 
of Berlin to change their Minister here : indeed Michel 
has stayed in England so long, that he is grown as in- 
triguing and as factious as any man in the Country, 
which is saying a good deal. 

Worontzow was recalled by his Mistress without any 
application from hence ; it appearing by his own de- 
spatches, that he was not fit to remain here. He will 
grow older and wiser, and it is a pity he suffered him- 
self to be seduced by Michel. 

* * * * # 

Mr. Grenville has obtainM a great deal of credit, 
and deservedly, in the House of Commons ; and that 
credit helps him much every where. Lord Hahfax's 
Garter is well timed ; and my Lord Chancellor is made 
an Earl purely to shew favour to such as firmly sup- 


port Government. Adieu, my dear Mitchell. Believe 
me ever 

most affectionately yours, 


p. S. Mr. Pitt has parted with his house in town, 
does not in the least talk like an opposer, and seems to 
be retired tout de bon. 


Mr. Stuart Mackenzie to Sir Andrew Mitchell : upon 
Ids removal from the Privy Seal of Scotland. 


•,* The Right Hon. Stuart Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, the brother of 
Lord Bute, had been Envoy Extraordinary at the Court of Turin in the 
latter part of the Reign of King George the Second. He was constituted 
Lord Privy Seal of Scotland in the room of the Duke of Athol, April IC"". 
1763. Dutens has given an elegant character of Mr. Mackenzie in his 
Memoirs. Mr. Mackenzie died, at the age of 82, April 6"*. 1800. 

Hills Street, 4^^ June, 1765. 
The King having many reasons to be displeased 
with some of his Ministers, resolved to make certain 
Changes. He accordingly directed the Duke of Cum- 
berland f' (who was the only person in this Kingdom 
from his rank and peculiar circumstances who could 
talk to the several heads of the subdivisions of the 

W iUiam Augustus'Duke of Cumberland, third son of George II., died Nov. S'l". 1705. 


Opposition) to*sound several persons in order to the 
formation of a different Government from that which 
he had about him. His Royal Highness obeyed his 
Majesty's orders in the best manner possible. He met 
with Pitt and Temple, who after much conversation 
he found would not come into office. He then turned 
to the Duke of Newcastle and his friends, who either 
through timidity of Pitt not coming in, or from other 
motives, declined acceptance. So that after many en- 
deavours, and turning things into every shape possible, 
the Duke advised his Majesty, as his only resource 
left, to send for the present people again, and to take 
them in. This advice was seconded by two men no 
less attached to the King, nor no less bold in Council 
than the Duke himself; I mean the Lord Chancellor 
and Lord Egmont. His Majesty offended in the 
highest degree with the Insolence offered him by his 
present Ministers would have put any mortal in their 
place that could have carried on business, if the three 
Great Persons abovementioned could have suggested 
to him any plan for that purpose. And they un- 
doubtedly would have done it if they could, as there 
is no animal on the face of the earth that the Duke has 
a more thorough contempt for or a greater aversion to 
than Grenville. However, as no other remedy could 
be found, his Majesty sent for those people again. 
They on their part demanded certain terms without 
which they declined coming in ; the principal of which 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. I I 


was, that I should be dismissed from the Administra- 
tion of the Affairs in Scotland, and (on a further ex- 
planation) likewise from the office of Privy Seal. His 
Majesty answered, that as to the first, it would be no 
great punishment, he believed, to me, as I had never 
been very fond of the Employment ; but that as to the 
second, I had his promise to continue in it for life. 
Grenville replied to this pui'pose: " In that case, Sir, 
" we must decline coming in."" " No,'' says the King, 
" I won't on that account put the whole Kingdom in 
*,' confusion, and leave it without any Government at 
f* all; but I'll tell you how that matter stands; that he 
'* has my royal word to continue in the office : and if 
" you force me, from the situation of things, to violate 
^' my royal word, remember you are responsible for it 
" and not I." Upon that very solemn charge, Gren- 
ville answered, " Sir, we must make some arrangement 
" for Mr. M." The King replied, " If I know any 
" thi;ig of him, he will give himself very little trouble 
" about your arrangements for him." His Majesty 
afterwards sent for me to his Closet, where I was a 
very considerable time with him, and if it were possible 
for me to love my excellent Prince now better than I 
ever did before, I should certainly do it; for I have 
every reason that can induce a generous or a grateful 
mind to feel his goodness to me; but such was his 
M^esty's situation at that time, that had he absolutely 
rejected my. Dismission, he would have put me in. the 


most disagreeable situation in the world : and what 
was of much higher consequence, he would have 
greatly distressed his affairs. I can add no more at 
present, but must beg of you to communicate what I 
have said on this subject to Lord Milton, Lord Stone- 
field, and my other friends. 


The Rev. William Cole to Mr. Allan Butler, President 
of the English College at St. Omers. The State of 
Society in France. Raiisseav in England. 

[ms. cole, vol. XXV. fol. 17 b.] 

*^ This-Lctter, and the Answer it received, are here inserted to show 
at how early a day the springing of the Seed was noticed which afterwards 
produced the French Revolution. The effects of the New Philosophy, 
and fear of the ruin it portended, determined Mr. Cole, as far back as 1 766, 
to retract the intention he had formed of settling in France. * 

» In the same Volume with this Letter Mr. Cole has recorded the following Anec- 
dote of the person to whom it was written. 

" There happened an odd affair relating to the author of this Book, the rev. Mr. 
Alban Butler, a secular priest of Douay, and chaplain to his Grace the Duke of Nor- 
folk. I was told it at the time when it happened, by his and my friend the rev. 
Charles Bcdingfeild, RccoUet and Friar of the FranciM»n Convent of Douay, of the 
Suffolk family of that name. 

" This gentleman Mr. Alban Butler, going upon a mission to Norwich, had di- 
rected his Portmanteau by the carrier to be left at the Palace for him in that City : it. 
seems the Duke of Norfolk's house there is called the Palace. As he was utterly un- 
known at Norwich, and as there was a Doctor Butler at that time as a visitor witli 
bishop Hayter, the portmanteau was carried, by mistake, to the Bishop's Palace, and 
was opened by Dr. Butler ; who finding therein a hair-shirt, disciplines, indulgences, 
missals, &c. the mistake was soon found out, and as soon communicated to the 
Bishop, who began to make a stir about it: but by tlic mediation of the Duke of 
Norfolk the Affair was hushed up, and Mr. Butler had his portmanteau restored to 

I I 2 


Blecheley, near Fenny Stratford, 
Bucks, Jan. 26, 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

I AM afraid you begin to think that you entertained 
a very unthankful guest, and that your hospitality was 
thrown away upon a person who makes so ill a return 
for it : but I hope to justify myself fully to your can- 
dour, when you have heard my reasons for not acknow- 
ledging your great civility to me at St. Omers, both in 
lodging me so comfortably, and entertaining me so 
hospitably under your roof. 

# # * * # 

I told you, when at your house, that one chief reason 
of my Journey into France was, to look out, on that side 
of the water, for a quiet, pleasant, and comfortable re- 
treat, where I might, with my own private fortune, be 
enabled to live pretty near as fully and plentifully, 
when I quitted my preferment which is near equal to 
my estate, as with it in England ; where we are so bur- 
thened with taxes of every sort, and every thing at so 
excessive a price, that the greatest economy will hardly 
allow a man of a private fortune to live within compass, 
if he will do as his neighbours. This I conceived might 
have been practicable in France, where taxes are not so 
numerous, and where provisions are much cheaper. 

However, before I left Paris, I began to be sick of 
my design, for two or three reasons: I found every 
thing almost, both there and on the road through 


Amiens to Calais, near as dear as in England ; I found 
it would not be easy to find any society with the na- 
tives, who do not love us, and indeed have no reason 
to do so ; but the thing which disgusted me most, was 
the looseness of their principles in point of Religion. 

I travelled to Paris through Lille and Cambray in 
their public voitures, and was gi'eatly scandalized and 
amazed at the open and unreserved disrespect both of 
the trading and military people for their Clergy and 
religious establishment. 

When I got to Paris it was much worse. I had an 
opportunity by a friend's being at Paris, with whom I 
spent most of my afternoons, and where was a great 
resort of French company of the best sort, as he was a 
man of fashion and literature, to be further convinced 
of the great prevalency of Deism in that Kingdom ; 
when, if they go on at the rate they have done for 
these last few years, it is much to be feared, that any 
mode of Christianity, much more the best, will fare 
but ill with so loose a people. I was shocked at this 
barefaced infidelity, as well as my friend ; who is so 
far from being a bigot to any form of Christianity, that 
we rather looked upon him in England as indifferent 
to all : 3 so that it was with the greatest pleasure I often 

• This friend was the Hon. Horace Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orford, with whom 
Mr. Cole was upon terms of the closest friendship. There was a still earlier period 
in Lord Orford's life, when he was even enthusiastic in the cause of Rkligion. 
Cole, ill his manuscript Preparations for an " Athena: Cantabrigienses" in an Ac- 
count of Henry Coventry, Esq. Fellow of Magdalen College Cambridge, says, Mr. 
Coventry was " a man of gooil estate, part of it in the Isle of Ely. 1 used to be much 
" with him at Dr. Middleton's and Mr. Horace Walpolc's. When he first came to 


heard him engaged very warmly in defence of our com- 
mon Christianity, against these philosophers, as the 
French Deists affect to call themselves ; and, upon this 
principle, that it was time enough to think of pulling 
down the present established Form of Worship, when 
they could agree among themselves to establish a better. 

The French nobility, ladies as well as men, military 
gentry, and even tradesmen, are infected with this new 
Philosophy. God alone knows where it will end : but 
I fear the worst. 

I ever thought we were bad in England; but I 
never heard so much public infidelity any where as 
while I was in France ; where, however, to its honour 
be it spoken, they have spewed out Rousseau ; while 
England, according to custom, has licked up the vomit. 
1 hope you will pardon the indelicacy of the expres- 
sion : but resentment to see the folly, blindness, and 
ill-judgment of my Countrymen, who are now a madding 
in caressing a man whom all good Government, 
Christian or Heathen, ought to detest, forced me to 
make use of it. 

All our News-papers for this last fortnight have had 
regularly two or three articles relating to this great Mr. 
Rousseau and his settling in England. If the Emperor 
had paid us a visit, more noise could not have been 

" the University he was of a religious enthusiastic turn of mind ; as was Mr. H. W. 
" also, even so much as to go with Ashton, his then great friend and now Fellow of 
•• Eton, TO PRAY WITH THE PRISONERS in the CASTLE ; afterwards both Mr. Co- 
" ventry and Mr. Walpole took to the infidel side of the Question. Mr. Coventry 
" was author of ' Philemon to Hydaspes." " 


made about it : and we seem to think we have made a 
great acquisition in a man, who was it not already in 
part done to his hands, has it in his heart to unloose 
all ties both civil and ecclesiastic. 

But I will have done with this argument, and will 
only add, that it gave me the most hearty concern to 
think what was likely to becoine of the flourishing Gal- 
ilean Church, if a "stop, a providential stop, be hot put 

to this present Phrenzy. ' ■ • '» '' ^' ' ' ' 

' . ■ ♦ « .-#■..• #•■" f •#*: .• r ■» 

I must own I still long after a retreat somewhere 
about you, or in Normandy, if a proper place could be 
found. I lament I had so short a time with you, as I 
am fearful I shall have no opportunity of talking this 
and other matters over with you in England : however, 
if you should have a cdl here, I should be infinitely 
happy to see you at this place, which I might the 
sooner hope for, as you told me the neighbouring 
County of Northampton was your native one. I shall 
be glad of every opportunity to approve myself, re- 
verend Sir, 

Your much obliged 

and faithful servant, 


* Here follow some Notes iu correction of> aud addition to Mr. Albnn Butler'* 
Lives of tlie Saints. 



Mr, Alban Butler to the Rev. William Cde^from Si. 
Omers, in answer. 

[ibid. fol. 25 b.] 

Honoured and Reverend Sir, 

Words cannot express how much I think myself 
indebted to you for your most obliging and valuable 
Letter, dated Jan. 26"^^. particularly for your most 
learned Remarks on Bishop Fisher, and just correc- 
tions of Errata in the Biography, most indeed of 
the Press. My Batavia Sacra is dated in 1754 : per- 
haps only the Title Page is new. 


The frightful Portraiture of the monstrous growth 
of Libertinism and Irreligion alarms and disturbs me 
beyond expression : a good deal indeed I knew to be 
true. Such scandals put virtue to the test ; yet they only 
overthrow the weak. Those who are better grounded, 
are awaked into greater watchfulness, fear, and fervor 
at the sight, as we daily see. Nay, these New Philo- 
sophers, as they call themselves, carry publicly the 
antidote against the infection of their own Poison; 
first, by the glaring absurdity and inconsistency of 
their rash errors ; and secondly, by the licentiousness 
of their morals, their shocking pride, and ridiculous 
boasting and assurance. 


Those who cultivate virtue are upright and un- 
biassed; the light of reason in them is pure, their judg- 
ment sound, their principles clear, rational, consistent 
in every part, supported by the strongest evidence. 
One such ought to have more weight than a thousand 
whose hearts are led astray, and whose passions put 
out their eyes by the mist they raise. 

I cannot wonder that Dean Swift should say. The 
opinion of Sir Thomas More alone would have more 
sway with him, in many cases, than that of a whole 
assembly of interested time-servers. Such men God 
always raises up by his Grace ; men hidden in God to 
the world, united to him by perfect purity of heart, 
and eminently endowed with a true spirit of humihty, 
meekness, charity, and all other virtues ; true terres- 
trial Angels. What a comfort is it to meet and con- 
verse with any such servants of God ! The inundations 
of vice make Infidelity rife : but the Christian Revela- 
tion is in itself no less true, no less heroic, no less 
essential. We must strive with the greater earnestness 
to secure our lot with the small number, as the torrent 
of the wicked threatens to bear us down with the 
greater violence. 

The necessaries and conveniences of life are grown 
much dearer in France than formerly ; but not in the 
same proportion as in England ; where, I much fear, 
in a few years, one half of the people will become 
beggars, and be maintained by the other half. 


I have every where found amongst the French a 
sufficient number of friends, both obliging and very 
cordial and agreeable. Should you ever be inclined to 
try these Parts (and the neighbourhood of England I 
ha:ve always found to have many agreeable circum- 
stances) it would make me completely happy, if in my 
power to contribute in any thing to make your situation 
agreeable. The most advantageous way of employing 
money here is now in the Life Rents upon the King, 
which yield Ten per Cent : or on the Clergy for ever, 
Five per Cent. 

I am sorry you should think our poor entertainment 
to have deserved to be remembered. I shall always 
think myself much obliged to your goodness in accept- 
ing our humble lodging ; and shall more so, if you ever 
find it convenient to favour us with your company a 
longer time, and as frequently as it shall suit your con- 
venience. In every thing in my poor power I shall be 
very happy to obey your orders, execute any commis- 
sions, or give any proof of the most sincere respect and 
esteem with which I am, 
Hon^. revd. Sir, 

Your most obliged and devoted 
S^ humble servant, 




Lord Barring-ton to Sir Andrew Mitchell. A fresh 
Change in Administration. Mr. Stuart Mackenzie 
has the Privy Seal again. 


Cavendish Square, July the 31st. 1766. 

I HAVE sent you no account, my dear friend, of 
what has been doing here for above a fortnight, because 
nothing was determined till yesterday, when a number 
of persons kissed the King's hand for various appoint- 
ments. I send you an accurate List of them inclosed, 
and you shall hear from me any further changes which 
may take place. Mr. Steuart Mackenzie is to have 
his Privy Seal again. The Paymaster's Office is to 
be divided into two employments, but I know not for 
whom. I do not hear who is destined to succeed Lord 
Dartmouth. I earnestly wish the Board of Trade 
may be restored to Lord Hillsborough, who will cer- 
tainly execute it better than any other man living, and 
who wants employment to divert melancholy thoughts 
which too often recur. 

# « * * « 

I must now give you a short history of the Change 
which has just happened. Sunday the 6^'' of this 
month the King told Lord Rockingham that the Chan- 


cellor had just been giving his opinion (and reasons 
upon which it was founded) why the Administration 
should no longer be left in its weak state. His Majesty 
repeated what had past in this conversation, adding 
his own arguments on the subject, and concluded with 
saying, that it was his duty to strengthen his Govern- 
ment. He accordingly sent for Mr. Pitt, by whose 
advice, as is supposed, the King also sent for Lord 
Temple, and offered him the Treasury, but his Lord- 
ship after some conversation with Mr. Pitt (said to 
have been very warm) went back to Stow. I believe 
Lord Rockingham has been offered any Court office, 
but he will have none. Lord Winchilsea told the King 
he had taken nothing from him, but what on account 
of health he must soon have given up. It is said Mr, 
Yorke will resign his employment of Attorney General; 
but excepting that, I hear of no intended resignations, 

or indeed material alterations. 



General Conway to Sir Andrew Mitchell. His Ma- 
jesty's Proposition to form a System in the North 
which may counterbalance the Family Compact. 


*^* For an Account of the Alliance between the branches of the 
House of Bourbon, known by the name of the Family Compact, tlie 


reader may consult t'lc Annual Register, voL iv. p. 51. v. p. 3. It was 
considered at its time, as an event of the most extensive, lasting, and 
alarming influence. 

St. JamesX August 8th. 1766. 
I HAVE it in command from his Majesty to inform 
you, that his Majesty being convinced that nothing 
can tend so effectually to secure the continuation of the 
present General Tranquillity, as the forming such a 
firm and solid System in the North, as may prove a 
counterbalance to the great and formidable Alliance 
framed by the House of Bourbon on the basis of her 
Family Compact; and considering a Connexion of 
Great Britain with the two great Crowns of Russia 
and Prussia, as the natural foundation of such a system, 
has been pleased to appoint Mr. Stanley his Ambassa- 
dor Extraordinary to the Court of Petersburgh, who 
will be instructed to act in conjunction with you, and 
in order to that, will have his Majesty^s commands to 
pass through Berlin ; there to confer fully and freely 
with you, on the most effectual means of bringing this 
great and salutary Plan to the desired conclusion : and 
that he may be enabled to do it more effectually, will 
have Credentials to his Prussian Majesty ; so as, in 
concurrence with You, to settle the proper measures 
to be pursued in the progress of this affair : in which 
the intimate knowledge you possess of the State of that 
Court where you reside, and of the dispositions and 


views of his Prussian Majesty, will be of the most es- 
sential service. But as You are thoroughly acquainted 
with the coldness that has lately reigned between the 
Courts of London and Berlin, and have been witness 
to the extreme backwardness his Prussian Majesty has 
shewn towards any ideas of a more intimate connexion 
with this Court, you will not wonder that his Majesty, 
previous to the sending Mr. Stanley over, and to be- 
ginning any actual Negotiation, is desirous to know, 
whether this most friendly step taken by his Majesty 
is viewed with pleasure by the King of Prussia. 

After opening therefore in the most confidential 
manner the Plan proposed by his Majesty, and thereby 
giving his Prussian Majesty the strongest proof of his 
Majesty ""s inclination to act on terms of the most cordial 
union, you will, as soon as may be, for his Majesty's 
information, report to me in what manner these over- 
tures have been received ; and will accompany the 
same with such intelligence or observations, as appear 
to you material for throwing the fullest lights on this 
interesting and important business, and as may be a 
direction for the further prosecuting it with effect. 

To you. Sir, who are so entirely master of all that 
relates to this subject, it will be little necessary to add 
any more. You are, in general at least, informed of 
the Obstructions which the Treaty of Alliance with 
Russia, so long since proposed, has met with ; and if 
by means of this mode of Negotiation, and in this new 


form, that object can be attained, You, Sir, who will 
be a chief instrument in promoting it, will deserve 
and undoubtedly obtain the highest approbation and 

I am. Sir, 

with great truth and esteem, 
V your most humble and obedient servant, 

<>i , i.wv. /.;... X H.S.CONWAY. 


The Earl qfChatJiam to Sir Andreto Mitchell; on the 

proposed Coiifederacy of the North. 

. . ., , — .. 

[ibid. vol. xxii. foL 39. Orig.\ 


London, Aug. 6'^. 1766. 

Dear Sir, — . . .. , 
Mr. Conway's office Letter will have informed you 
of the advice the King''s servants have most humbly 
submitted to his Majesty. These few lines (writ by 
the King's order, and which his Majesty sees) will 
apprize you more effectually than volumes, of his Ma- 
jesty's royal purpose to estabUsh a firm and solid 
System for the maintenance of the publick Tranquillity. 
In this great view the King has been graciously pleased, 
by my most humble advice, to appoint Mr. Stanley, 
yoyr friend and mine (whose abilities for this most 


important work point him out with distinction,) his 
Ambassador to the Court of Russia. 

The object of his mission is so clearly and with such 
precision (as to the outline) marked in the Minute of the 
Cabinet transmitted to you by Mr. Conway, that I do 
not trouble you with the repetition of it. I will only 
observe, my dear Sir, to a discernment like yours, that 
the intended journey of the King's Ambassador to 
Russia hy way of Berlin with a Credential to the 
King of Prussia, in order to open, in concert and con- 
junction with You, the whole Plan to his Prussian 
Majesty, before any opening of it he made to the Court 
of Peter shurgh, is a step of such decision and confidence 
on the part of his Majesty, as can not fail to make deep 
impressions on the mind of that clear sighted Monarch 
the King of Prussia, if he be in the least inclined to- 
wards this great work. The King, on his part, as- 
suredly wishes it, but his Majesty wishes it, like a 
Great King of Great Britain, salva Mqjestate. If his 
Prussian Majesty meets, on his part, the King's fa- 
vourable dispositions, I see before us a happy prospect 
of durable tranquillity; and this momentous affair, like 
most great things, would immediately proceed with 
little formality and abundance of substance and real 
mutual confidetice. 

More words upon this important matter are totally 
useless: I will only add that you are to make such 
use of this Letter with his Prussian Majesty, as you 


shall judge most conducive to the great object of it. 
Your own perfect knowledge of that Court, your Zeal, 
Ability, and Address, are the best instructions. My 
heart is in this arduous business, so highly for the 
King's dignity and repose; and yours, I know, will 
go with ardour along with it. The conjunction of 
the King's Ambassador as he passes, I am persuaded, 
will cause no uneasy sensation in a mind composed 
like Yours. 

I am ever, with unalterable esteem and warm affec- 

My dear Sir, 

Your most faithful friend and obedient 
humble servant, 


" Resolved, That his Majesty be advised to take the proper mea- 
sures for forming a Triple defensive Alliance for the maintenance of the 
public Tranquillity, in which the Crown of Great Britain, the Empress 
of Russia, and the King of Prussia, to be the original contracting Parties, 
with provision for inviting to accede thereto, the Crowns of Denmark, 
and Sweden, and the States General, together with such of the German, 
or other Powers, as the Original Contracting Parties shall agree upon, 
and as are not engaged in the Family Compact of the House of Bourbon. 

" Resolved, That it is the opinion of his Majesty's Servants, that Air. 
Secretary Conway do take his Alajesty's pleasure on a Letter to be im- 
mediately writ to Sir Andrew Mitchell, to acquaint hun with the above 
Plan, and to inform him at the same time, it is the King's intention, that 
Mr. Stanley, appointed his Majesty's Ambassador to the Court of Russia, 
shall go by way of Berlin, with a proper Credential to his Prussian Ma- 
jesty ; then, in concert and conjunction with Sir A. Mitchell, more fully 
to open this measure ; and will set out for that purpose, as soon as Sir A. 
Blitchell shall have transmitted hither an Account, that his Prussian 
Majesty will view with pleasure this very confidential step on the part 
of His Majesty." 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. K K 



Sir Andrew Mitchell to the Earl of Chatham. He 
details the substance of a Conference with the King 
of Prussia. 

[ibid. vol. vii. foL GO b. sir a. Mitchell's own copy.] 

(Private.) Berlin, 17'''. September, 1766. 

My Lord, 

My Letter to Mr. Conway of this date will inform 
your Lordship of what passed in the Conference I had 
with the King of Prussia at Potzdam, and of the man- 
ner in which I have executed the important commis- 
sion with which I was charged. 

As I found the King of Prussia averse to enter inta 
new and stricter connexions with England, as well on 
account of the usage he met with towards the end of 
the late war, as of the unsettled and fluctuating state 
our Government has been in since the conclusion of 
the Peace, I made a proper use of your Lordship's 
Secret Letter of the 8*. of August, and urged his 
Prussian Majesty upon this point, that now by your 
Lordship'^s taking a share in Government the cause of 
his distrust was taken away, and therefore his diffidence 
ought to cease. He answered, I fear my friend has 
hurt himself by accepting of a Peerage at this time. 


I replied that though I did not know your motives, 
I was persuaded you could give a good reason for what 
you had done; that I was not at all alarmed by the 
clamour and abuse thrown out against you on that ac- 
count, as it was the effect of the arts and malice of 
your enemies, on purpose to discredit you with the 
People, who were easily misled by first impression and 
misrepresentations, but were as easily brought back 
again to their senses by right actions and a steady 
conduct ; that I was persuaded this would be thecase 
with your Lordship; and to confirm what I said I 
mentioned to him what I had been a witness to, when 
by your Speech in Parliament you saved the American 
Colonies, and was abused most scurrilously as a traitor 
to your Country for so doing; that in a very short 
space of time, the People saw they had been deceived, 
acknowledged their error and expressed their esteem, 
gratitude, and attachment to you in a stronger manner 
than ever they had done before; that this I hoped 
would be the case now, which brought to my mind 
what I had observed in the Field when certain great 
Officers never appeared in their full lustre but by re- 
covering what was deemed desperate. 

His Prussian Majesty smiling, said, I understand 
your allusion, and hope it will be so. 
I have, &c. 

K K 2 



General Conway to Sir Aiidrezv Mitchell; upon the 
coldness with which the King of Prussia received 
the Proposal for a Northern Confederation. 


St. James's, Sept. m^. 176& 

My last contained a mere acknowledgment of youF 
Despatch of the 17'*^ instant by Lauzun; it was not 
then in my power to say more. Since that, your Letter 
has been considered by most of the servants his Ma- 
jesty honours with his confidence, and I have now his 
Majesty's orders to inform you of the satisfaction hi& 
Majesty has expressed in the care and attention with 
which you have conducted yourself in opening to his 
Prussian Majesty this dehcate and important matter. 

His Majesty could not but regret the time lost by 
the King of Prussia's absence, but as you, from so long 
an experience, must be thoroughly acquainted with that 
Monarch's temper, he does not doubt, the part you 
took in not writing, or following him into Silesia, was 
upon proper judgment of the ill eft'ect it might have 
had in the outset of this Negotiation, and the event 
certainly shews, that his Prussian Majesty's temper 


and disposition towards the reception of this Overture, 
were such as could not well bear being soured by any 
adventitious or accidental circumstances of displeasure. 

Notwithstanding many things his Majesty had heard 
of the King of Prussia*'s manner of expressing himself 
of late, in regard to connexions with this Country, his 
Majesty could not but receive with much surprize your 
account of the great coldness with which he received 
the advance made to him ; and, whether his language 
is sincere or affected, it seems fit he should understand 
the value of the Alliance which his Majesty from pre- 
dilection offers, must not be so beat down and treated 
as if England had particular selfish views alone to serve, 
and was asking a boon, instead of proffering a most 
honourable and advantageous System of Union for the 
public good ; for the mutual security and advantage of 
the Powers proposed to be parties in it, and for none 
more evidently than for his Prussian Majesty himself; 
the jealousy and power of whose neighbours, and the 
weak state of whose internal affairs, from the disorder 
of his trade and finances, seem to call loudly for the 
prop of so firm and powerful an Alliance as that now 
voluntarily proposed to him. 

He says the times are not proper. What, while 
the Family Compact of the House of Bourbon exists, 
strengthened by their union with the House of Austria.'* 
The most formidable combination ever yet formed, and 
the most dangerous to the liberties of Europe ! 


He says there are Matters of Discussion between U8 
and France, likely, one time or other, to he the occasion 
of a New War, in which the natural Interests of 
Prussia might not lead her to take part. His Majesty 
ought to be told, that a matter of discussion called 
Silesia, is the object in Europe most likely to kindle 
a New War, if not timely prevented by prudent and 
proper measures. 

These things must be put in their true light : and 
this change, attempted to be given at the outset of this 
negotiation, must be very effectually and very explicitly 
set right. His Majesty's dignity demands it, and the 
success of the negotiation, upon a proper foot, depends 
upon it. 

He asks what Stipulation ? None till we know he 
is disposed to treat upon an equal foot, on the general 
ground of mutual defence, and the support of the ge- 
neral Peace and Tranquillity. Free from subsidies in 
time of peace, and from such engagements as the honour 
and interest of this nation must refuse, particularly the 
Turkish clause, endeavoured to be imposed upon us 
by Russia, and never before attempted to be intro- 
duced in the various Treaties of defensive Alliance 
made by Great Britain, either with Russia or with 
the House of Austria. 

If his Prussian Majesty is cordial, if he is disposed 
to this great Union, we meet him more than half way. 
If he expects to be entreated, he should know it is not 


for his Majesty's honour to go farther than the step 
already taken. 

A continuance of hesitation will be looked on as a 
refusal, and his Prussian Majesty will probably repent, 
ere long, having lost the fairest and noblest oppor- 
tunity that could offer to build his own Honour and 
Security on the same firm basis with the general Peace 
and Liberty of Europe. 

I am, with great truth and regard, 

Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


P. S. You will use the contents of this Letter at 
your discretion, according to the situation of things at 
Berlin when it comes. 

To Sir Andrew Mitchell. 


JSir Andrexi) Mitchell to the Earl of Chatham. Relates 
a private Conversation with the King of Prussia. 

[ibid. vol. vii. fol. 78.] 

(Private.) Berlin, 6"\ Dec. 1766. 

My Lord, 
As in my Letter to Mr. Secretary Conway, by this 
messenger, I have given an ample account of what 


passed in the audience I had of the King of Prussia 
at Potzdam on the I't. instant, I am now to give your 
Lordship, in confidence, a Relation of a Conversation 
I then had with that Monarch as a private man, and 
not in the character of a Minister. 

After the Audience was ended, I took the hberty of 
observing to the King of Prussia that I remarked with 
regret, in the course of the conversation, that he had 
not spoke to me with the same freedom and openness 
he was wont to do on former occasions, and that I 
suspected he had only given the specious not the real 
reasons for his disinclination to the Treaty proposed. 

He answered with good humour, that my conjecture 
was not absolutely without some foundation, and that 
he would own to me as a private man, that it was not 
easy for him to forget the ill-usage and injustice he had 
met with from our Nation at the time of making the 
last Peace, and he then enumerated particulars. I re- 
plied, that it was not candid to impute to the Nation 
the faults of private Men who were then unhappily 
Ministers ; that there was now a fixed and settled Ad- 
ministration, whose way of thinking and acting was 
very different from that of their Predecessors; that 
whilst your Lordship was at the head of it, he could 
reasonably have no sort of diffidence; that the Triple 
Alliance proposed was a favourite measure of your 
Lordship's, which you had much at heart, for pre- 
serving the public tranquilhty, and for uniting the 


interests of the King with those of his Prussian 

The King of Prussia answered, I have .1 very high 
opinion of Lord Chatham, and great confidence in him ; 
but what assurances can you give me that he has power, 
and will continue in Ofifice ? I replied, I had not the 
least doubt of either, as your Lordship was now the 
darling of the King and People. His Prussian Ma- 
jesty said, that does not agree with my accounts from 
England. I assured him of the truth of what I had 
advanced, and that I believed the contrary reports had 
been raised by your Lordship''s enemies. He said he 
wished it might be so, but till he saw more stability in 
our Administration he did not choose farther con- 
nexions ; and he concluded by adding, I have spoke 
to you with freedom as a private Man, and expect upon 
your honour, that you will not make a bad use of it ; 
which I am sure of not doing in communicating this 
to your Lordship only, and desiring at the same time 
the most perfect secrecy. 

I own the King of Prussia's conduct amazes me. I 
had hopes a little reflection would have shewn him his 
real interest, but vanity and caprice are often too strong 
for reason ; and to these motives I ascribe the Answer 
he has given to the King's salutary Proposal, for I do 
not even suspect his having Views to an Alliance in 
another Quarter. If he is cool to our Nation, He has 
the French in abhorrence and contempt, of which he 


makes no secret. His Plan seems to be (if he has any) 
to stand unconnected upon his own Bottom, which ex- 
perience might have taught him is far from being a 
safe one. 

Notwithstanding all that has passed, I think it pro- 
bable that if our Treaty with Kussia be once settled, 
the King of Prussia must for his own safety either de- 
sire to be admitted into it, or throw himself into the 
arms of those who do not seem desirous of receiving 
him ; but, my Lord, this leads me too far, and your 
Lordship can best judge whether the laying this high- 
minded Prince under such a necessity be a proper 
measure at this Juncture. 

I have, &c. 



Mr. Wroughton to Mr. Mitchell J^-wn Poland. A 
Mistake about a Cypher. 

[ibid. vol. xxix. fol. 221. Orig.'\ 

Warsaw, the 24«' Dec. 1766. 
I AM honoured with your Letter of the IS^h ingt. but 
am sorry to tell you that what is contained in the 
Cypher is as great a secret to me as to every other 


person here ; your Secretary having made use of a 
Cypher, of which the Key is not in my possession. I 
have only those marked H. and I. 1757, and beg for 
the future that you will not write me in any other. 

We have as yet no News from Petersburg, though 
waiting for it with the utmost anxiety. 

I heartily wish you the Compliments of the Season, 
and have the honour to be, with the greatest respect, 
Your most obedient 

and most humble servant, 


A son Excellence Mons'. le Chev^ 
tie Mitchel, Envoye Extra, et Min. 
Plen'". tie S. M. B. a la Cour de 


General Conway to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The King 
receives a Letter by the Post from an English Sailor. 
His Majesty's Orders tipon it. 

[ibid. vol. XX. fol. 186. Orig.'\ 

St. JamesX August 7*''. 1767. 

His Majesty has received a Letter by the Post from 

one James Richardson, an English Sailor, who, above 


a twelve month ago, was, partly by force, partly by 
terror, inlisted in the Prussian Service. 

As the King's disposition inclines him to lend an 
ear to the Complaints of the meanest of his Subjects, 
he perused this Letter with attention ; and finding in 
it a remarkable air of truth and sincerity, he directed 
me to transmit it to you, that you may make inquiry 
concerning its grounds and foundation. If the poor 
man's Narrative be found conformable to fact, and if 
he be inlisted otherwise than from his free choice, it is 
His Majesty's pleasure that you make application in 
his behalf to the King of .Prussia, and recover him his 

With regard to the other Correspondence with which 
you have favoured me, I am directed to express to you 
His Majesty**s satisfaction in your Intelligence. Every 
thing is in a profound tranquillity between the two 
Courts, and indeed over all Europe, except in Poland, 
where I hope, as well as you do, that affairs will soon 
come to a composure. This happy situation is the 
cause that my Despatches to you are so rare, and con- 
tain so little matter of importance. 

I am with great truth and regard. 
Your most obedient 

humble servant, 


Sir Andrew Mitchell. 



James Richardson^ an English Sailor, Jorcihly de- 
tained in the King of Prussia's service, to his Ma- 
jesty King George III^. 

[ibid. foL 223. Orig.\ 

The inscerted comes with my dutyfull seruice to 
your honered and moast Soveren Mayjesty, hopeing 
that your Mayjesty will pardon my bouldness and 
exkcapt of those few lines, i am perswaded with gen- 
tlemen of qualyty to make my unfortnet fate known 
and on what condittion acame into this Land, iam a 
seaman bred and born in Whitewell near York Cetty 
in Yorkshire. James Richardson is my name : born 
of powr parrents: served eight years duttyfully to 
John Besswick of Scareborough in the coasting and 
marhent service : but not withstanding, my supperyours 
always gave me agood carrackter. But now my un- 
fortenate fate was to be trapand in this land, and to 
give the truth to your Mayjisty how and in what maner 
icame into the King of Prowsia's dyminions isaild from 
London to Memell in one Squiress Malhng ships of 
Scareborough ; ihath been fife years in his sons and 
his shiping ; and on May the SO'^'i 1766, in the after- 


noon, iwent on shore with fowr men more to tacke 
awalk and vue the fashons of the country, and being 
warm weather we went in to a pubhck house to get 
adraft of brandy and warter, and the landlord askt me 
to tack awalk in to acountry town about fowr Inglissh 
miles from Memell, and not thinking anny ill that the 
man would do tome iwent with him and his wife : my 
commarades seming verry easey about with me thay 
stayd behind : and at nine of clok ihired afarmer and 
his waggon bein the fashon to ride in litle waggons, to 
bring me and the landlord back : came three men and 
asked me to let them ride, they towl me that thay lived 
in Memmell, but when by Memmell gates iwanted to 
get out and discharge the waggon ; but they bounded 
me fast hand and feet with lines, and carryed me to 
Cenesbourg^ to the revow, and sold me for fifty doalloars 
to Captain Rabinnights companny in Generall Lalla- 
bourn reggiment on foot. Ihath written to his May- 
jisty King of Prows in Berlien 4 letters, and to my 
Parrents, but cannot get one out of the Country, for the 
head Gennarralls in this part of the country hath given 
strict orders to the posts not to let anny pass but what 
must com into thare hands, so that aman may write 
untill he is gray headed before he can get one seafe. 
The Generall hath written me down to go under the life 
gard : but the Captain towld him that iwass and inglissh 
man. I dont think he will send me away, for if iget 

« Konlngsburg. 


once to Berlien ishall get my dishcharge, for the King 
he will not allow anny man to serve him without he 
corns with agood will. I was fowr dayes in the camps 
before they could get meto swear. They threatned 
me with imprisonment for term of life, and to live on 
bread and warter, and not understaning the laws of 
this Land idid swear to stand good for no longer then 
ican getaway. Blessed be God i am not yoused ill, 
for when thare own contrymen they flog, brouse, and 
beat with a stick, they give me a good word ; but when 
iam alone ifreat and cry to that condishon that ilay 
seick for ten weeks to geather to think that iam stole 
away from my native land in such amaner, and no hope 
of geting clear at all. A verry honorowble ould gen- 
tleman, a marchant from Ingland hath tould me that it 
would be the only way for to send your Mayjesty those 
few lines, being aman born of powr parrants, and hath 
towld me that when your Highness pleases to send sum 
of your subjects to Berlien on your own account, to 
write tow or three lines to his present Mayjesty on my 
behalf it will be of agreat service ingeting my dis- 
charge ; and for the good your Mayjesty will do for 
me iam willing to obbay and serve your Mayjesty 
ather by land or sea, so long as breth remain ; as i hope 
and pray to my macker for your Hieness to forgive 
and pardon me if i hath written anny thing amiss, for 
ihath partly forgoten my mothers toungue, and to in- 
dight my letters in adeascente maner. This Letter 
imust smugle awayin toan inglishmans hands that none 


of the ofRscears catsh me with this letter, iam 28 years 
of agge and 5 foot aleaven in hight. and so no more at 
prescent, but remain in prays to the Allmighty for your 
Mayjestys long rean, and in peace with all men 


From the revow in camps 
in Cenesbourg May the Sl^h. 1767. 

loallenbourn is the gennarralls name, in Captains 
Rabynights companny on foot, owr winterss quarters is 
in Anglebourg 15 duchmiles from Cenesbourg. 

For his Prescent Mayjesty 

King George y" third 

London. " 

Indorsed, " in Mr. Conway's Letter to Sir Andrew Mitchell of the 
T\ Aug. 1767." 

Upon a separate Sheet is, 

The Sailor's Certificate of his discharge. 

" This is to sertify that I James Richardson hath 
got my discharge from lallenboun ridgiment on foot, 
and hath got one dallar to bear my expences on my 
way, an^. a pass, and macke the best of my way to owld 

Rasllinbourg September 18*^'. 

» The Post-matk of the Letter is " Hull," from which place it appears to have 
been forwarded by the friend into whose hanJs the sailor professed his intention of 
smuggling it. ... 



Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochfbrd. The King 
of Prussia still insensible to the advantages of the 
proposed Coiifederacy. 

[ibid. vol. vii. fol. 200 b.] 


Berlin, Saturday the 11<1> February, 1769. 
My Lord, 

Ix answer to your Lordship's Letter of the 27''. of 
January I have the satisfaction to acquaint You that 
the conduct I have hitherto held at this Court, will be 
found to be exactly agreeable to His Majesty''s senti- 
ments signified to me in your Letter. 

Since the year 1766, when, by his Majesty's com- 
mand, I made an Offer to the King of Prussia, of 
entering into an Alliance with Great Britain and 
Russia, which that Monarch was pleased to receive 
not only with coldness and indifference, but even to 
decline it absolutely, I have never, directly nor indi- 
rectly, dropt the least hint of His Majesty's desiring 
any stricter Connexion with this Court, and have 
avoided, in the Conversations I have had with the 
Prussian Ministers, the showing any curiosity to be 
informed of the King their Master"'s transactions at the 
Court of Petersburg or elsewhere, convinced in my 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. L L 


own mind that His Prussian Majesty would, sooner or 
later, repent of having refused the generous Offer His 
Majesty had made him. 

How far the King of Prussia may wish success to an 
Alliance between Great Britain and Russia, I have no 
opportunity of knowing, but cannot help doubting as 
to his sincerity in that point. . , 

The Language His Prussian Majesty directs his 
Ministers to hold at different Courts, may possibly be 
contradictory, as it depends chiefly upon the repre- 
sentations, whether well or ill-founded, made by those 
Ministers, and on the humour the King of Prussia 
happens to be in at the time he receives them, with- 
out reflecting on the consequences ; for I yet see no 
symptom of His Prussian Majesty's having altered his 
Opinion, nor have I been able to discover that that 
Prince has adopted any other system than that of 
waiting to profit of Events as they may happen. 

In this situation of Affairs I, therefore, cannot help 
admiring your Lordship's Answer to Count Maltzan, 
viz*. That it did not become His Majesty at this time to 
make an Offer of joint Mediation, at the requisition 
of a third Power , unless it was desired hy tlie Court 
of Petersburg itself. 

I have, &c. 




Lord Roclifm-d to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The Expul- 
sion of Mr. Wilksjrom the House of Commons. 

[ibid. vol. xxi. fol. 27. Orig.\ 

Whitehall, 7«'. Feb. 1769. 


Having nothing particular at present in command 
from His Majesty, I write only to have the satisfaction 
of acquainting you that on Friday last the expulsion 
of Mr. Wilks from the House of Commons was de- 
termined by a Majority of 219 to 137, which it is to be 
hoped will undeceive Foreign Courts with regard to 
the embarrassment they might suppose would continue 
to be given to Government by that turbulent spirit. 
I am, with great truth and regard, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 


P. S. Your Letters to No. 6. have been received 
and laid before His Majesty. 

Sir Andrew Mitchell. 




Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Cathcart at St. Peters- 
burgh. Baron DimsdaWs reception at Potsdam. 

[ibid. voL vii. foL 211.] 

Berlin, Saturday, 22 April, 1769. 
My Lord, 
Since my last of the 14"\ of March I am honoured 
with your Excellency's Note of the 1 7^^. February, O. S., 
enclosing the printed Account of the advantages ob- 
tained over the Tartars by the Russians, and on the 
ll^Ji. instant Baron Dimsdale arrived here and de- 
livered to me your Excellency's two Letters, and I have 
since received that of the ^ March by Post. 
( Baron Dimsdale was in so great a hurry to get home, 
that with the utmost difficulty I prevailed with him to 
stay two days here, and for that purpose was obliged 
to read to him the paragraph in your Excellency's 
Letter that concerned himself, with which he was 
highly pleased. On Wednesday the 12*. he delivered 
Count Solm's Packet to Count Finckenstein, and the 
next day in the evening he was desired by an express 
message from the King of Prussia to come to Potzdam, 
as his Prussian Majesty wanted to see him. Accord- 
ingly the Baron set out for that place on the 14*h. in- 
stant, and I have no doubt he will be very well received. 


So far I had written to go by the last Post, but de- 
layed finishing my Letter till I should get an account 
from Baron Dimsdale of his reception at Potzdam, 
which I haVe now received in a Letter from that Gen- 
tleman, dated the 16 '■% from Magdeburg, and shall 
give it your Excellency in his own words : 

" On Saturday the 15*, in the morning, I was con- 
ducted in a coach with a person that spoke English to 
Sans Souci, where we arrived about ten o'clock, and, 
after waiting about an hour, was told that the King 
was gone to take a ride, but would see me on his re- 
turn. At twelve the King returned, and I was ordered 
to go into his apartment. He met us at the door, 
and said in French, * Sir, I think you inoculated the 
Empress and the Prince at Petersburgh ;"" I answered, 
* Yes, an't please your Majesty ."' All the answer he 
made was, * I feUcitate you on the occasion, and wish 
you a good journey.' Then, turning short on his heel, 
he was gone in a moment. 

" I make no reflections on this reception, but leave 
you to judge of it from tliis Relation. Only it seems 
as if an Englishman was not in fashion there, for upon 
the whole his Majesty's manner of speaking was far 
from being gracious." 

. The singularity of this Reception would most cer- 
tainly surprise me if I was less acquainted with the 
King of Prussia : however I cannot agree with the 
Baron that it was owing to his being an Englishman. 


The affront was certainly to the Czarina and to Count 
Solm's recommendation. 

The same want of Communication with regard to 
this Court's transactions, complained of in my former 
Letters to Your Excellency, still continues, and on my 
part I make no Advances, having received n© Orders 
to that purpose, nor observed any symptom of a Change 
of Sentiments in the King of Prussia. 

I have, &c. 



Sir 'Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. Count 
: » Kamckejmid of Agriculture. 

[ibid. vol. vii. fol. 214 b.] 


Berhn, 29*. April, 1769. 

My Loed, 
Count Kamcke, a gentleman of considerable rank 
and fortune in this Country, will deliver to your Lord- 
ship a Letter of mine of the seventh instant, wherein I 
took the liberty of introducing him to your Lordship. 
He is particularly curious in Agriculture, and his chief 
business in England he told me is to learn from the 
Farmers their Arts of Cultivation, &c. and for that 
purpose he proposes to retire into Yorkshire for some 


time, and will lodge in the house of Christopher Brown 
at Nottingly near Ferrybridge in that County. 

This Gentleman is a great projector, though in him- 
self no conjuror ; but as I have reason to suspect that 
part of his errand to Britain may be to engage useful 
and industrious artificers to transport themselves into 
this Country, I think it my duty to give your Lord- 
ship this particular notice, as well for the sake of the 
Publick, as for these unfortunate People, who may be 
deluded by fair promises to come abroad, which are 
seldom or never fulfilled in this Country. 

I have, &c. 



Lo7'd Rochford to Sir Andrew Mitchell, A Contest 
at the Ball at Court for precedence, between ike 
French and Russian Ambassadors. 

[ibid. vol. xxi. fol. 33.] 

(Private and Circular.) 

Whitehall, IS^h June, 1769. 

I THINK it necessary to acquaint your Excellency of 
a disagreeable Affair which passed at the Ball at Court 
on the 5'*>. Instant, and which you will no doubt 
have heard of through other channels. 

The Russian Ambassador, coming in first, placed 



himself on the bench next the Ladies ; the Imperial 
Ambassador coming in soon after, Count Czernicheff 
very politely gave him the upper hand. Some time after- 
wards the French Ambassador coming in, stood before 
the Envoys' bench behind the Ambassadors. Count 
Czernicheff, turning round, entered into conversation 
with him, when, on a sudden, the French Ambassador 
stepped over the bench and pushed himself in with 
some violence between the Imperial and Russian Am- 
bassadors. Some very warm words passed between 
Count Czernicheff and the French Ambassador, the 
former particularly treated him as an Impertinent. 
The Spanish Ambassador then coming in, and settling 
himself quietly amongst the Ladies, Count Chatelet 
beckoned to him to come and place himself next the 
Imperial Ambassador, on which the Russian Ambas- 
sador got up, and seated himself between Madame 
Maltzan and Madame Very. At going away some 
warm words again passed, and the Russian Am- 
bassador following Count Chatelet, more high words 
ensued upon the staircase, and they both went together 
in the Russian Ambassador''s coach. 

The King, out of his great tenderness and humanity, 
^rdered Lord Weymouth and myself to wait on the 
French and Russian Ambassadors to prevent any mis- 
chief happening, which was accordingly done. 

On Tuesday morning Count Chatelet made a visit 
to the Russian Ambassador, and said how sorry he was 
such an affair had happened. The Russian Ambassa- 


dor appears personally satisfied with the excuses made 
for the personal incivility, but considers his Court as 
highly insulted. 

The two Ambassadors were desired by Lord Wey- 
mouth and me to consider the next Levee day as in- 
consequential with regard to Ceremony, till the King's 
pleasure was known on what had passed ; and thus the 
affair remains between the Courts of Petersburgh and 
France : but as the French Ambassador's violent pro- 
ceedings on this occasion could not be agreeable, hap- 
pening immediately in the Palace, a Note will be sent 
from the Lord Chamberlain to all the Foreign Mi- 
nisters, notifying that the King does not expect there 
should be any Ceremony at a Court Ball, and when 
the Note is given. You shall have a copy of it. 

I will make no Observations of my own upon this 
affair, but leave you to judge from the true state of it, 
who has been in the wrong. You must be sensible by 
the bold step of the French Ambassador, he got the 
pas. Whether the Russian will attempt to recover it 
on another occasion, I cannot pretend to determine. 
I am, with great truth and respect, 
Sir, your Excellency"'s 

most obedient humble servant, 


P. S. Since writing the above the enclosed note has 
been sent to all the Foreign Ministers residing here. ^ 


Sir Andrew Mitchell. 



" The Earl of Hertford liord Chamberlain of His Majesty's House 
hold, has received His Majesty's Commands to communicate to all the 
Ministers of Foreign Powers residing at this Court, that the Balls at St. 
James's have ever been considered by the King as Private Balls, where 
no Precedence was to be observed. His Majesty conceives that a want of 
Information on this head may have given rise to unpleasant Altercations 
which this Notice must effectually prevent for the future. 

9«». June, 1769." 


Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rocliford. The King 
of Prussia's approbation of General Paoli's conduct. 

[ibid. vol. vii. fol. 222.] 


Berlin, Saturday, 17*. June, 1769. 

My Lord, 
The first News from Italy of the brave Defence of 
the Corsicans and the Defeat of the French gave uni- 
versal joy in this Country, and raised the expectation 
of all ranks of People, who naturally love liberty even 
though they do not enjoy it; but what is more particu- 
lar, his Prussian Majesty, as I am informed, not only 
expressed great satisfaction at the ill success of the 
French, but high approbation of General Paoli''s con- 
duct, and openly drank that gentleman's health at his 
table. Whether this proceeded from his affection to 
the Corsicans and their cause, or from his hatred to the 
French, I shall not determine. 

I have, &c. 




Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. His detail of 

a Conversation with the King of Prussia. 

[ibid. vol. vii. foL 227.1 


Berlin, Saturday, \6^\ July, 1769. 
My Lord, 
■ The fit of the Gout with which the King of Prussia 
has been affected, appears not to have been so sKght as 
was reported. He has the gout still in one of his hands, 
and his looks are visibly altered by it, but in other 
respects he seems to be very well. 

I must now mention to your Lordship an incident 
which happened on the \^*^. instant at Charlottenbourg. 
In the circle at the Queen's assembly his Prussian 
Majesty was pleased to distinguish me very particu- 
larly. He first led me into a window, and after talk- 
ing some time there, he carried me into another room, 
where he made me sit down by him, and I believe our 
conversation lasted above a quarter of an hour ; towards 
the end of it the King of Prussia'^s two brothers, Princes 
Henry and Ferdinand, entered the Room, when his 
Prussian Majesty made them sit down by us. This 
must have been observed by all present, as the door of 
the room into which we had retired was left open ; and 


some people remarked that his Prussian Majesty had 
taken little or no notice of* the French Minister, whose 
behaviour has, hitherto, as far as I know, been very 
prudent and circumspect. ^ 

However little material the Conversation I had with 
the King of Prussia was, I shall acquaint your Lord- 
ship with the heads of it. That Monarch asked me 
about Wilks ; I answered, his credit was greatly de- 
cayed, and he sunk in reputation ; that the people of 
England were returning to their right senses, though 
there were not wanting some seditious men, who en- 
deavoured to alarm them upon points equally frivolous 
as those of Wilks, but that I believed they could not 
succeed, as the grievances they complained of were 
imaginary, not real, and that in all popular Governments 
it had ever been the conduct of seditious men to capti- 
vate and deceive the people with specious pretences. 
His Prussian Majesty then talked of Corsica, and of 
the fate of Paoli with some tenderness, and of the ad- 
vantages that might accrue to the French from the 
acquisition of that island. To this I replied that Paoli 
had many well-wishers in England, and his fate was 
greatly to be lamented, but that I could not see the 
advantages the French would reap from that Conquest 
whilst England remained superior at sea; that I had 
heard there were few or no sea-ports in Corsica the 
possession of which could not be maintained without 
great expense; that so soon as the French became 


superior at sea, the ports of Marseilles, Toulon, and An- 
tibes were sufficient for their purposes of intercepting 
the Levant trade, &c. - 

The next head the King of Prussia mentioned to me 
was concerning the English East India Company, the 
fall of their stock, and the danger they were supposed 
to be in from the attacks of the Indian Princes. To 
this I said that I really had no information but from the 
Newspapers, but that it appeared to me the Directors 
had acted with great good faith and prudence in 
producing publicly the despatches they had received 
from the Indies, and thereby preventing the further 
fall of the stock ; that the interest of many who wanted 
to purchase in at a low price had occasioned the sudden 
fall, upon the arrival of the first news from India ; that 
I gave very little credit to the reports printed in the 
Newspapers concerning Indian affairs, as there was 
much to be got by sinking the price of stock, and that 
besides the French, Dutch, and other nations, jealous 
of the advantages the English had in the East Indies, 
greedily embraced and propagated every report that 
could hurt the English Company, &c. ; that I had no 
doubt the French were endeavouring to do us all the 
mischief they could in the Indies, but as this was na- 
turally to be expected, I hoped and believed his Ma- 
jesty's Ministers would give the greatest attention to 
every transaction that could in any wise affect so im- 
portant a branch of Commerce. 


The last question the King of Prussia asked me 
was, whether we had any hopes of settHng our Ame- 
rican affairs. I answered we had good hopes, that I 
had heard a Plan was actually preparing for that pur- 
pose, though no part of it had yet been communicated 
to me. 

Thus I have minutely stated to your Lordship every 
thing worth mentioning that passed between his Prus- 
sian Majesty and me, but can draw no conclusion from 
it with regard to a Change of sentiments. Perhaps the 
whole that has happened may have been a scene calcu- 
lated to mortify the French Minister at this Court, 

I have, &c. 



Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord Rochford. The King 
qfPmssia's " Dialogue de Morale."" His Majesty 
takes Medicines of his own prescription. 

[ibid. foi. 274 b.] 

Berlin, Saturday, 31**. March, 1770. 
My Lord, 
Since my Letter of the 27''i. nothing has occurred 


here worth writing, and I take the liberty to transmit 
to your Lordship some Copies of a Httle Piece entitled 
" Dialogue de Morale ^ Tusage de la jeune Noblesse,^ 
which was published here two days ago, and is said to 
be of the King of Prussia's composition. 

I have now the satisfaction to acquaint your Lord- 
ship that his Prussian Majesty is in a fair way of re- 
covery from a very severe fit of the Gout, with which 
he was attacked last week. 

The King of Prussia''s indisposition proved more 
serious than was apprehended. He was seized, I am 
told, with a fit of the gout and the emerods at the 
same time; but that monarch is now thought out of all 
danger, into which he had thrown himself by the taking 
of some medicines of his own prescription, and by what 
I have heard was in more danger from the medicines 
than from the distempers, of which, however, I have 
not yet learnt any accurate account. » 

I have, &c. 


• The King of Prussia's recovery is noticed In several subsequent Letters. 

In one to Lord Rochford, dated Berlin, Saturday 26'''. May, 1T70, Sir Andrew says 
" Two days ago was published here a Pamphlet entitled Examen de I'Bssai tut let 
Prejuges, a book which has made much noise in France, which I have yet hardly 
time to read, but the Rramen is worth Your Lordship's looking into, for I am well 
assured it is of the King of Prussia's own writing, though I cannot guess at the reason 
of publishing it." 



Lord Barrington to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The Entry 
of Lord North into Administration. 

[ibid. vol. XXXV. fol. 79. Orig.'\ 

Cavendish Square, April 24"'. \TiO. 
# # * * * 

Though I can send you no very agreeable Account 
of what is doing here, I can say with truth that in my 
opinion things are in many respects better than they 
were. Lord North bids fairer for making an able and 
good Minister than any man we have had a great while. 
Lord Chatham excepted, whose conduct this winter 
has cancelled many of the obligations this Country owed 
him for his services in Administration. 

I think also that our heats are subsiding, and that 
men are coming to their senses. 

When I can draw a like and at the same time a 
pleasing Picture of our situation, you shall be again 
reminded of, dear Sir, 

Your ever faithful and affectionate 




Sir Andrew Mitchell to Lord RocJiford. The French 
advise the Pretender to go to the English Colonies. 

[ibid. vol. vii. fol. 281 b.] 

(Private.) . Berlin, Saturday, 9.&^. May, 1770. 

My Lord, 

I HAVE received certain Notice that the King of 
Prussia, one day last week, at his own table at Potz- 
dam, told as a piece of news which he had received 
from his agent at Rome, that the Duke of Choiseul 
had advised the Pretender to go to the English Colo- 
nies, which he had rejected with great indignation and 

These are all the particulars I know. 
I have, &c. 



Lord Barringtcni to Sir Andrew Mitchell. The ge- 
neral state of Affairs. Wilks and the Bill of Rights 

[ibis. vol. XXXV. fol. 71'] 

Cavendish Square, Jan. 10*. 1771. 
# * * # ♦ 

I HAVE not taken upon me to inform you of what has 
passed here since you left us ; for little has happened 
that you would read or I could write with pleasure. 

VOL. IV. SER. 2. MM 


Things at home are much mended in the course of 
last year. Wilks and the Bill of Rights are entirely 
forgotten, except now and then when the wild and 
wicked wretches who composed that seditious faction 
abuse each other in print. They have openly quarrelled, 
and spare each other as little as they spared better men. 

The Country and the Metropolis are perfectly quiet. 

The King (though most shamefully attacked in 
newspapers with a licentiousness which his Servants 
are very blamable to suffer) gains ground in the opinion 
and esteem of his People, and the Ministry though 
not highly rated is not disliked. If our Armies, 
Fleets, and Finances, are not exactly what the Nation 
wishes them to be, they are certainly in better condition 
than those of our Neighbours ; and if, contrary to my 
wishes, we must go to War about a most trifling ob- 
ject, » I do not see that we have much to fear. 
* * * * * 

Your old and sincere friend the Writer of this Letter, 
has not had a moment's illness since he saw you ; and 
has felt but little disquiet from the abuse he has long 
undergone in common with his betters. 

Adieu, my dear Sir Andrew, believe me ever with 
the most perfect truth and affection 

Your most faithful and ' 

obedient humble servant, 

• L«rd BarringtoB alludes to the Di«put« with Spain ooncerninf Falkland's IslaniU. 




The Rev. Dr. Lort to Mr. Cole. Lord Chatham Jias 

a Fit in the House of Lords. 

[ms. cole, vol. xxiv. foL 154b.] 

London, April 8, 1778. 
Dear Sir, 
# » * « « 

I WAS in the House of Lords when Lord Chatham 
fell down in a fit : from which he is not yet well reco- 
vered. I have no doubt that the Duke of Richmond''s 
pointed attack upon him was the principal cause : 
though the heat and effluvia of a very crowded house 

must have also cooperated. 

« # # « * 


M. L. 


Mrs. Bristow to General Washington^ respecting a 
Memorial in favour of her Son^ an infant y whose 
liereditary estates in America had been confiscated, 

[from a volume of Ori^-. letters bequeathed to the BRITISH 

•if* Long before this Letter had reached its address, General Wash- 
ington had resigned his commission, and had withdrawn into the shade of 

M M 2 


private life. He forwarded Mrs. Bristow's Memorial, without delay, to 
the Governor of Virginia ; and his final Letter, at the end of two years, 
to a person with whom he had no acquaintance, does credit both to his 
head and to his heart. 

Spring Garden, London, 27**'. Nov. 1783. 

The high character I have heard of your Excellency 
emboldens me to take the liberty of addressing a few 
lines to you (though I have not the honour of being 
personally known to you) in behalf of my Son. 

The Copy of a Memorial and Petition addressed to 
the Governor, the Senate, and House of Delegates of 
the State of Virginia, which I have the honour to en- 
close to your Excellency from myself and the two gen- 
tlemen who are joint Guardians with me, will convince 
you of the justice of our cause and claim. 

You, Sir, I am told, have children of your own, 
therefore can more easily imagine than I describe what 
a parent must feel on seeing her only son, a child of 
now but ten years old, deprived of so large a property, 
which has been in his family for so many years ; and his 
father dying seven years ago, he will have three sisters' 
fortunes to pay, which of course were left in proportion. 

Your Excellency, from your noble character and 
abilities, must have great weight with the Legislature. 
Let me entreat you by all the ties of honour, justice, 
and humanity, to support the Petition. Consider, Sir, 
my child's tender age made it impossible for him to do 


any act inimical to the Country ; and the laws of every 
State (1 have always understood) are formed to protect, 
and not to prejudice Infant Property. 

May I hope you will not think me too presuming 
if I request the honour of a line to let me know this 
has reached your hands. I will not further intrude 
on your time, but beg leave to subscribe myself with 
great respect, 

Your Excellency''s 
most obedient humble servant, 


Hifl Excellency General Washington. 


General Washington to Mrs. Bristow in return. 

[ibid. Orig-I 

Mount Vernon (in Virginia), 15 ''. June, 1784. 
Your Letter and the Duplicate of it, dated the 27*. 
of last November, with the Petition to the Assembly of 
this State, only came to my hands the 10 h. instant. By 
the following Post I transmitted them to the Governor, 
as the Legislature was then sitting at Richmond. 

What effect the Application may have on that Body, 
is not for me, at this time, to announce. It is to be 


feared however, as the lands were involved in the act 
of general confiscation, previous to the Preliminary 
Articles of Peace, that unless there is something in the 
case more discriminating than Minority (which I un- 
derstand is not an exclusion in the law) You will receive 
very little redress. But from any thing I know at pre- 
sent of the issue (if a determination has been had upon 
the subject) I can furnish you with no information on 
which to ground either Hope or Fear. If it were the 
latter, it would afford cause for regret that minors and 
innocent persons who have not aided or abetted the 
Contest should have become sufferers by it. This, 
however, is but too often the case in civil, as well as 
other Commotions. 

I have not delayed a moment. Madam, to acknow- 
ledge, after they came to my hands, the receipt of your 
Letter and Petition, and shall have great pleasure in 
announcing the favourable issue of the latter, if the 
. fact will warrant it. 

With great respect, I have 

the honour to be. Madam, 

your most humble servant, 

Mrs. Bristow. 



General Washington to Mrs. Bristow. The Jinal 
Answer upon the decision made by the Assembly of 

£iBiD. Orig.\ 

Mount Vernon, 2'. June, 1786. 
Though small were the services I rendered you, 
consequent of your first Application to me, yet it be- 
hoves me to add, in answer to your favour of the 15'*^ 
of December last, that it was all I then had, or now 
have in my power to offer. For having no share in the 
Legislative or Executive concerns of this Country, I 
could do no more than to bring your Petition before 
the former. This I did by a letter to the Governor 
enclosing it. What the ultimate determination of the 
Assembly was respecting this matter, I am unable with 
precision to inform you. Generally I was given to un- 
derstand, that however hard the case might appear to 
be, it was to be ascribed to the nature of the contest in 
which we had been oppressively involved ; and though 
to be lamented as a misfortune, was not to be attributed 
as a fault in the Justice of this Country, since it was 
difficult, if not impracticable, to draw a line between 


the promoters and actors, and innocent victims of the 
War in a national point of view. 

How far the reasoning is good I shall not take upon 
me to decide, but with much truth may assure you 
that I can readily enter into your feelings on this occa- 
sion, and sincerely wish that those who were the Con- 
trivers and Abetters, were alone to be the Sufferers by 
the War. 

I have the honour to be, Madam, 
your most obedient and very humble servant, 

Mrs. Bristow. 


The Right Hon. Edmund Burke to John Wilmot, Esq. 
on the Subscriptions raised for the Relief of the 
French Emigrant Clergy, 

[ibid. Orig.'\ 

I WISH my stay in town would have permitted me 
to attend further in the Committee, and to offer the 
little assistance I could give to forward their very 
laudable designs. I could do little more than to offbr 
to the gentlemen of the Committee, and to You, my 
best acknowledgments for the unwearied application 


which all of you, and most particularly yourself, have 
shown to this Charity, which, as long as it is conducted 
according to the ideas of the gentlemen of the commit- 
tee, at once prudent and liberal, must redound infinitely 
to the honour of the National Character. It is for that 
reason I beg leave most earnestly to recommend it 
to them to consider only what they themselves think 
proper to be done. I know the sentiments of many 
of the most considerable subscribers ; and I can speak 
it with perfect certainty, that they repose the most un- 
bounded confidence in the Committee, and do not think 
them at all responsible to any other persons than to 
them, the subscribers, for any thing they may do. 
Above all they do not think themselves responsible to 
the anonymous scribblers of paragraphs in the News- 
papers. They wish that no man should give an account 
of his own free bounty. If the contrary opinion and 
practice should prevail. Charity would be put under 
the direction of Malevolence. We know of no Public 
to which we are accountable, because it is a vague 
name ; and a sort of fictitious tribunal, before which we 
never can be acquitted. Above all we do not submit 
to the idea, that it should be represented by the News- 
papers. Therefore, I for one (and I am authorized to 
speak for more than one), entreat that nothing which 
can be said in them should prevent you from giving 
that substantial and effectual relief to the objects of 
your charity, which respect to their persons and their 


comfortable subsistence absolutely requires. I cannot 
bear the thoughts of their being (as I believe two hun- 
dred of them are) thrown like carcasses upon one an- 
other, two of them in a miserable little bed, and in 
some cases three; that some of them have been ten 
days without having their shirt washed. The incon- 
venience of nursing loathsome, and often dangerous 
disease with health, besides many other obvious in- 
conveniences which result from this mode of lodging, 
makes me most earnest that Relief should be given 
against it. This inconvenient mode, I knew, had 
arisen originally from the number who crowded in at 
once, and could not otherwise be disposed of, but it is 
continued, from the insufficiency of the limited allow- 
ance to answer all the purposes of life in any manner 
whatsoever. I confess I wish too that attention may 
be had to their clothes, which having been originally 
taken up as a disguise whilst they were hunted down 
in France, here exposes them to the scorn and derision 
instead of the compassion of the populace. Besides, 
their dispersion renders it difficult for them to be kept 
under the inspection of their superiors, a case necessary 
to their existence. For if but one person in so many 
Hundreds should be betrayed into any irregularity, a 
thing which nothing but a most vigilant discipline can 
possibly prevent, all the worthy, sober and religious 
part would be exposed to public odium, and the whole 
object of this laudable association would be defeated. 


Mankind is at all times naturally apt to construe these 
things but too liberally, and to extend guilt ; but now, 
that natural disposition to scandal is reduced to System. 
I look on some irregularity not happening before this 
time with the greatest astonishment. But without the 
last degree of care it must happen. 

Therefore, pray, whilst we have a shilling, let us 
trust to that Providence, which has hitherto so liberally 
supplied us, for the rest, and spare no rational and 
prudent expense to forward the wishes of the principals 
of their Clergy, in methodizing and arranging their 
people under what they aim at, the most rigid disci- 
pline. I fear else every inconvenience, and things I 
dread to think of. 

You will excuse the trouble I give you ; but your 
benevolence has induced you to go through a great 
deal of it. I have the honour to be, with a most 
sincere respect, 

Your most obedient 

and humble servant, 


Duke Street, October 2^. 1792. 
John Wilmot, Esq. 



The Right Hon. Edm. Burke to John Wilmot^ Esq. 

[ibid. Orig.'\ 

*»* A few months before this Letter was written, Mr. Burke had lost 
his only son. Richard Burke, Esq. succeeded his father in the repre- 
sentation of the borough of Malton, but did not live to take his seat in 
the House of Commons. He died August the 2''. 1794. 

It is to this same affliction that Mr. Burke alludes in his Letter to the 
Duke of Bedford, published Feb. 24"'. 1796. " The storm has gone 
over me ; and I lie like one of those old Oaks which the late hurricane 
has scattered about me. I am stripped of all my honours ; I am torn up 
by the roots, and lie prostrate on the earth." 

Dear Sir, . 

I AM exceedingly flattered by the compassionate 
sentiments that you are pleased to entertain of a dcr 
solate, afflicted, and useless person, who, for a while, 
and in a little way, acted a part under you, in the 
generous care you have taken of the sufferers in our 
common cause, and who are, I am greatly afraid, only 
our precursors in misfortune. . 

It has pleased the Great Disposer of all things to 
give them, for a short space at least, for an asylum, 
such a Country as this ; and for a Protector a person 
of such zeal and humanity as you possess. Where our 
asylum will be, when our hour is come, and who will 
be the person to succour and console us, are things hid 
in the deep. mystery of future dispensation. I see the 


danger, but I do not see the method or the way of an 

It seems decided, that some great change is to take 
place in the whole of human affairs. The only thing 
which appears to me consolatory, is, the magnanimity 
of the King and the two Houses. We have still, and 
so have some other nations, resources enough, if we 
have the spirit and the skill to use them. If I thought 
that they who find no resource but in submission to a 
most cruel and implacable, and now the most powerful 
Enemies that this Nation ever had, acted only from 
pusillanimity, we might have hopes, that necessity 
might generate courage. But I know that they are 
of another character ; indeed, men bold and confident 
in the extreme. When, therefore, in a conflict, I see 
the bold playing the part of the feeble and pusillani- 
mous, I do not consider them as shrinking from an 
enemy, but as acting in his favour. This is very 
alarming : and the more so as, for the first time in our 
struggle with France, (whatever form it might appear 
in) its dangerous power and extravagant ambition has 
disunited our Councils and weakened our Efforts. 

But I still praise the wisdom and the spirit of those 
who resist the great dangers that environ us both from 
without and from within. 

God may, whilst these dissensions last, raise up some 
great military character to save us. The paper which 
was sent to me under your frank, though purporting 


to be a sort of manifesto from a Royalist Lieutenant- 
General (if he is at all, or a Royalist) has not added to 
my hopes of the appearance of such a Character. I 
forget this man''s name, and I have little desire to recur 
to his paper to find it, though, I believe, it may be on 
my table. 

I trust in God, whilst we have so many excellent and 
sound French Emigrant Officers, we shall not, in any 
way, great or small, employ a person capable of writing 
such miserable, vapouring, and empty stuff. 

Once more a thousand thanks for your indulgent re- 
membrance, and believe me ever. 
Dear Sir, 
Your most faithful 
# and obliged humble servant, 


Feb. 6, 1795. 
J. Wilraot, Esq. 


Mr. BurJce to John Wilmot, Esq. 


Dear Sir, 
So far as I am acquainted with the Debates, which 
is very imperfectly, I agree with you in opinion about 
their spirit and tendency. 


The people, as you say, ought to be made to know 
their danger in its full extent ; not only its nearness 
but its true nature. 

They ought not be lulled into security. 
To debate the question of Peace at all, in our cir- 
cumstances, is not a good symptom ; but to suffer it to 
be debated, as a thing within our choice, looks almost 
desperate. In one sense, to be sure, it is in our choice. 
We may have it on the Terms on which Holland, and 
the Austrian Netherlands, and the Countries on the 
Lower Rhine enjoy it. 

I am but a poor judge of Official arrangements : I 
hear of them late and irregularly, and so mixed with 
true and false reports, that I hardly know what to 
make of them. If the Duke of York be at tl^ head 
of the Army, as you say he is, I am not at all sorry for 
it, provided he has good support and a good military 
Council. I have a very high opinion of him, and his 
rank (still if properly supported) will be of great use 
in keeping that great machine in order. As to expe- 
rience, he has more than enough. The World has been 
undone by looking to experience, in a case to which no 
experience applies. He is as old a man, I believe, 
and has as much experience as Pichegru. We want 
energy, we want enterprise, much more than we want 
experience ; for if that could have saved Europe, it 
was full of old officers. In a case like ours I have no 
opinion at all of old men. If nothing can be done by 


the young, nothing can be done at all. I verily believe 
there is not, in the Government of France, or in the 
Command of its Armies, a man of above five and thirty. 
I have the honour to be, with the most sincere 

Yours ever, 


Feb. l^h. 1795. 
J. Wilmot, Esq. 



Vol. i. p. 268, 1. 22, for " the redemption," r. " general redemption.' 
Vol. ii. p. 12, Anne Boleyn's Letter should be addressed, 
" Mons'. Mods', de BouUan 
mon pere." 
Vol. iii. p. 203, 1. 4 of note, r. " relates to." 

209, 1. a, for " Ser Rode," r. " Ser Rope." 



ELlls^ Sir Henry 





2nd, ser, 
vol -^1 

Ellis, Sir Henry- 
Original letters 


2nd, ser • 
vol, 4 

<J W<ry 

,5 ' V. 

' , •' I; ' VV , 

'. f